Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (J COGNITIVE NEUROSCI )

Publisher: Cognitive Neuroscience Institute (Norwich, Vt.)

Description

Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience provides a scholarly forum for research involving the interaction of brain and behavior. It is the only journal devoted exclusively to the rapidly expanding field of cognitive neuroscience, which focuses on how brain processes generate cognitive processes. The journal promotes understanding and communication among the mind sciences. Contributions reflect the interdisciplinary nature of the field, including developments in neuroscience, neuropsychology, cognitive psychology, neurobiology, linguistics, computer science, and philosophy. All papers are integrative across disciplines, addressing both descriptions of function and underlying brain events.

  • Impact factor
    4.49
    Show impact factor history
     
    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    5.72
  • Cited half-life
    7.20
  • Immediacy index
    0.86
  • Eigenfactor
    0.04
  • Article influence
    2.36
  • Website
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience website
  • Other titles
    Journal of cognitive neuroscience (Online), Journal of cognitive neuroscience
  • ISSN
    0898-929X
  • OCLC
    38911348
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A critical subroutine of self-monitoring during speech production is to detect any deviance between expected and actual auditory feedback. Here we investigated the associated neural dynamics using MEG recording in mental-imagery-of-speech paradigms. Participants covertly articulated the vowel /a/; their own (individually recorded) speech was played back, with parametric manipulation using four levels of pitch shift, crossed with four levels of onset delay. A nonmonotonic function was observed in early auditory responses when the onset delay was shorter than 100 msec: Suppression was observed for normal playback, but enhancement for pitch-shifted playback; however, the magnitude of enhancement decreased at the largest level of pitch shift that was out of pitch range for normal conversion, as suggested in two behavioral experiments. No difference was observed among different types of playback when the onset delay was longer than 100 msec. These results suggest that the prediction suppresses the response to normal feedback, which mediates source monitoring. When auditory feedback does not match the prediction, an "error term" is generated, which underlies deviance detection. We argue that, based on the observed nonmonotonic function, a frequency window (addressing spectral difference) and a time window (constraining temporal difference) jointly regulate the comparison between prediction and feedback in speech.
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we explore the possibility to predict the semantic category of words from brain signals in a free word generation task. Participants produced single words from different semantic categories in a modified semantic fluency task. A Bayesian logistic regression classifier was trained to predict the semantic category of words from single-trial MEG data. Significant classification accuracies were achieved using sensor-level MEG time series at the time interval of conceptual preparation. Semantic category prediction was also possible using source-reconstructed time series, based on minimum norm estimates of cortical activity. Brain regions that contributed most to classification on the source level were identified. These were the left inferior frontal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, and left posterior middle temporal gyrus. Additionally, the temporal dynamics of brain activity underlying the semantic preparation during word generation was explored. These results provide important insights about central aspects of language production.
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A common assertion is that semantic memory emerges from episodic memory, shedding the distinctive contexts associated with episodes over time and/or repeated instances. Some semantic concepts, however, may retain their episodic origins or acquire episodic information during life experiences. The current study examined this hypothesis by investigating the ERP correlates of autobiographically significant (AS) concepts, that is, semantic concepts that are associated with vivid episodic memories. We inferred the contribution of semantic and episodic memory to AS concepts using the amplitudes of the N400 and late positive component components, respectively. We compared famous names that easily brought to mind episodic memories (high AS names) against equally famous names that did not bring such recollections to mind (low AS names) on a semantic task (fame judgment) and an episodic task (recognition memory). Compared with low AS names, high AS names were associated with increased amplitude of the late positive component in both tasks. Moreover, in the recognition task, this effect of AS was highly correlated with recognition confidence. In contrast, the N400 component did not differentiate the high versus low AS names but, instead, was related to the amount of general knowledge participants had regarding each name. These results suggest that semantic concepts high in AS, such as famous names, have an episodic component and are associated with similar brain processes to those that are engaged by episodic memory. Studying AS concepts may provide unique insights into how episodic and semantic memory interact.
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Selective attention involves top-down modulation of sensory cortical areas, such that responses to relevant information are enhanced whereas responses to irrelevant information are suppressed. Suppression of irrelevant information, unlike enhancement of relevant information, has been shown to be deficient in aging. Although these attentional mechanisms have been well characterized within the visual modality, little is known about these mechanisms when attention is selectively allocated across sensory modalities. The present EEG study addressed this issue by testing younger and older participants in three different tasks: Participants attended to the visual modality and ignored the auditory modality, attended to the auditory modality and ignored the visual modality, or passively perceived information presented through either modality. We found overall modulation of visual and auditory processing during cross-modal selective attention in both age groups. Top-down modulation of visual processing was observed as a trend toward enhancement of visual information in the setting of auditory distraction, but no significant suppression of visual distraction when auditory information was relevant. Top-down modulation of auditory processing, on the other hand, was observed as suppression of auditory distraction when visual stimuli were relevant, but no significant enhancement of auditory information in the setting of visual distraction. In addition, greater visual enhancement was associated with better recognition of relevant visual information, and greater auditory distractor suppression was associated with a better ability to ignore auditory distraction. There were no age differences in these effects, suggesting that when relevant and irrelevant information are presented through different sensory modalities, selective attention remains intact in older age.
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Cross-modal reorganization after sensory deprivation is a model for understanding brain plasticity. Although it is a well-documented phenomenon, we still know little of the mechanisms underlying it or the factors that constrain and promote it. Using fMRI, we identified visual motion-related activity in 17 early-deaf and 17 hearing adults. We found that, in the deaf, the posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) was responsive to visual motion. We compared functional connectivity of this reorganized cortex between groups to identify differences in functional networks associated with reorganization. In the deaf more than the hearing, the STG displayed increased functional connectivity with a region in the calcarine fissure. We also explored the role of hearing aid use, a factor that may contribute to variability in cross-modal reorganization. We found that both the cross-modal activity in STG and the functional connectivity between STG and calcarine cortex correlated with duration of hearing aid use, supporting the hypothesis that residual hearing affects cross-modal reorganization. We conclude that early auditory deprivation alters not only the organization of auditory regions but also the interactions between auditory and primary visual cortex and that auditory input, as indexed by hearing aid use, may inhibit cross-modal reorganization in early-deaf people.
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The function of the left inferior frontal gyrus (L-IFG) is highly disputed. A number of language processing studies have linked the region to the processing of syntactical structure. Still, there is little agreement when it comes to defining why linguistic structures differ in their effects on the L-IFG. In a number of languages, the processing of object-initial sentences affects the L-IFG more than the processing of subject-initial ones, but frequency and distribution differences may act as confounding variables. Syntactically complex structures (like the object-initial construction in Danish) are often less frequent and only viable in certain contexts. With this confound in mind, the L-IFG activation may be sensitive to other variables than a syntax manipulation on its own. The present fMRI study investigates the effect of a pragmatically appropriate context on the processing of subject-initial and object-initial clauses with the IFG as our ROI. We find that Danish object-initial clauses yield a higher BOLD response in L-IFG, but we also find an interaction between appropriateness of context and word order. This interaction overlaps with traditional syntax areas in the IFG. For object-initial clauses, the effect of an appropriate context is bigger than for subject-initial clauses. This result is supported by an acceptability study that shows that, given appropriate contexts, object-initial clauses are considered more appropriate than subject-initial clauses. The increased L-IFG activation for processing object-initial clauses without a supportive context may be interpreted as reflecting either reinterpretation or the recipients' failure to correctly predict word order from contextual cues.
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A growing body of research suggests that the predictive power of working memory (WM) capacity for measures of intellectual aptitude is due to the ability to control attention and select relevant information. Crucially, attentional mechanisms implicated in controlling access to WM are assumed to be domain-general, yet reports of enhanced attentional abilities in individuals with larger WM capacities are primarily within the visual domain. Here, we directly test the link between WM capacity and early attentional gating across sensory domains, hypothesizing that measures of visual WM capacity should predict an individual's capacity to allocate auditory selective attention. To address this question, auditory ERPs were recorded in a linguistic dichotic listening task, and individual differences in ERP modulations by attention were correlated with estimates of WM capacity obtained in a separate visual change detection task. Auditory selective attention enhanced ERP amplitudes at an early latency (ca. 70-90 msec), with larger P1 components elicited by linguistic probes embedded in an attended narrative. Moreover, this effect was associated with greater individual estimates of visual WM capacity. These findings support the view that domain-general attentional control mechanisms underlie the wide variation of WM capacity across individuals.
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The ventral attentional network (VAN) is thought to drive "stimulus driven attention" [e.g., Asplund, C. L., Todd, J. J., Snyder, A. P., & Marois, R. A central role for the lateral prefrontal cortex in goal-directed and stimulus-driven attention. Nature Neuroscience, 13, 507-512, 2010; Shulman, G. L., McAvoy, M. P., Cowan, M. C., Astafiev, S. V., Tansy, A. P., D' Avossa, G., et al. Quantitative analysis of attention and detection signals during visual search. Journal of Neurophysiology, 90, 3384-3397, 2003]; in other words, it instantiates within the current stimulus environment the top-down attentional biases maintained by the dorsal attention network [e.g., Kincade, J. M., Abrams, R. A., Astafiev, S. V., Shulman, G. L., & Corbetta, M. An event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study of voluntary and stimulus-driven orienting of attention. The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 25, 4593-4604, 2005]. Previous work has shown that the dorsal attentional network is sensitive to trial history, such that it is challenged by changes in task goals and facilitated by repetition thereof [e.g., Kristjánsson, A., Vuilleumier, P., Schwartz, S., Macaluso, E., & Driver, J. Neural basis for priming of pop-out during visual search revealed with fMRI. Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y.: 1991), 17, 1612-1624, 2007]. Here, we investigate whether the VAN also preserves information across trials such that it is challenged when previously rejected stimuli become task relevant. We used fMRI to investigate the sensitivity of the ventral attentional system to prior history effects as measured by the distractor preview effect. This behavioral phenomenon reflects a bias against stimuli that have historically not supported task performance. We found regions traditionally considered to be part of the VAN (right middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus and right supramarginal gyrus) [Shulman, G. L., McAvoy, M. P., Cowan, M. C., Astafiev, S. V., Tansy, A. P., D' Avossa, G., et al. Quantitative analysis of attention and detection signals during visual search. Journal of Neurophysiology, 90, 3384-3397, 2003] to be more active when task-relevant stimuli had not supported task performance in a previous trial than when they had. Investigations of the ventral visual system suggest that this effect is more reliably driven by trial history preserved within the VAN than that preserved within the visual system per se. We conclude that VAN maintains its interactions with top-down stimulus biases and bottom-up stimulation across time, allowing previous experience with the stimulus environment to influence attentional biases under current circumstances.
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reading an action verb elicits the retrieval of its associated body movements as well as its typical goal-the outcome to which it is directed. Two fMRI experiments are reported in which retrieval of goal attributes was isolated from retrieval of motoric ones by contrasting actions that are either done intentionally (e.g., drink) and thus have associated goal information or by accident (e.g., hiccup). Orthogonally, the actions also varied in their motoricity (e.g., drink vs. imagine). Across both levels of motoricity, goal-directedness influenced the activity of a portion of left posterior inferior parietal lobe (pIPL). These effects were not explicable by the grammatical properties, imageability, or amount of body movement associated with these different types of verbs. In contrast, motoricity (across levels of goal-directedness) activated primarily the left middle temporal gyrus. Furthermore, pIPL was found to be distinct from the portion of left parietal lobe implicated in theory of mind, as localized in the same participants. This is consistent with the observation that pIPL contains many functionally distinct subregions and that some of these support conceptual knowledge. The present findings illustrate that, in particular, the pIPL is involved in representing attributes of intentional actions, likely their typical goals, but not their associated body movements. This result serves to describe an attribute-selective semantic subsystem for at least one type of nonmotor aspect of action knowledge.
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Although growing evidence has shown that remembering the past and imagining the future recruit a common core network of frontal-parietal-temporal regions, the extent to which these regions contribute to the temporal dimension of autobiographical thought remains unclear. In this fMRI study, we focused on the event-sequencing aspect of time and examined whether ordering past and future events involve common neural substrates. Participants had to determine which of two past (or future) events occurred (or would occur) before the other, and these order judgments were compared with a task requiring to think about the content of the same past or future events. For both past and future events, we found that the left posterior hippocampus was more activated when establishing the order of events, whereas the anterior hippocampus was more activated when representing their content. Aside from the hippocampus, most of the brain regions that were activated when thinking about temporal order (notably the intraparietal sulcus, dorsolateral pFC, dorsal anterior cingulate, and visual cortex) lied outside the core network and may reflect the involvement of controlled processes and visuospatial imagery to locate events in time. Collectively, these findings suggest (a) that the same processing operations are engaged for ordering past events and planned future events in time, (b) that anterior and posterior portions of the hippocampus are involved in processing different aspects of autobiographical thought, and (c) that temporal order is not necessarily an intrinsic property of memory or future thought but instead requires additional, controlled processes.
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: An almost universally accepted tacit expectation is that learning and memory consolidation processes must be reflected in the average brain activity in brain areas relevant to task performance. Motor cortex (M1) plasticity has been implicated in motor skill acquisition and its consolidation. Nevertheless, no consistent pattern of changes in the average signal, related to motor learning or motor memory consolidation following a single session of training, has emerged from imaging studies. Here we show that the pattern and magnitude of short-term brain activity modulations in response to task repetition, in M1, may provide a robust signature for effective motor memory consolidation processes. We studied participants during the paced performance of a finger-to-thumb opposition sequence (FOS), intensively trained a day earlier, and a similarly constructed untrained FOS. In addition to within-session "online" gains, most participants expressed delayed, consolidation-phase gains in the performance of the trained FOS. The execution of the trained FOS induced repetition enhancements in the contralateral M1 and bilaterally in the medial-temporal lobes, offsetting novelty-related repetition suppression effects. Moreover, the M1 modulations were positively correlated with the magnitude of each participant's overnight delayed gains but not with absolute performance levels. Our results suggest that short-term enhancements of brain signals upon task repetition reflect the effectiveness of overnight motor memory consolidation. We propose that procedural memory consolidation processes may affect the excitation-inhibition balance within cortical representations of the trained movements; this new balance is better reflected in repetition effects than in the average level of evoked neural activity.
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: RTs in conversation, with average gaps of 200 msec and often less, beat standard RTs, despite the complexity of response and the lag in speech production (600 msec or more). This can only be achieved by anticipation of timing and content of turns in conversation, about which little is known. Using EEG and an experimental task with conversational stimuli, we show that estimation of turn durations are based on anticipating the way the turn would be completed. We found a neuronal correlate of turn-end anticipation localized in ACC and inferior parietal lobule, namely a beta-frequency desynchronization as early as 1250 msec, before the end of the turn. We suggest that anticipation of the other's utterance leads to accurately timed transitions in everyday conversations.
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Changes in language functions during normal aging are greater for phonological compared with semantic processes. To investigate the behavioral and neural basis for these age-related differences, we used fMRI to examine younger and older adults who made semantic and phonological decisions about pictures. The behavioral performance of older adults was less accurate and less efficient than younger adults' in the phonological task but did not differ in the semantic task. In the fMRI analyses, the semantic task activated left-hemisphere language regions, whereas the phonological task activated bilateral cingulate and ventral precuneus. Age-related effects were widespread throughout the brain and most often expressed as greater activation for older adults. Activation was greater for younger compared with older adults in ventral brain regions involved in visual and object processing. Although there was not a significant Age × Condition interaction in the whole-brain fMRI results, correlations examining the relationship between behavior and fMRI activation were stronger for younger compared with older adults. Our results suggest that the relationship between behavior and neural activation declines with age, and this may underlie some of the observed declines in performance.
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Growing evidence suggests that semantic knowledge is represented in distributed neural networks that include modality-specific structures. Here, we examined the processes underlying the acquisition of words from different semantic categories to determine whether the emergence of visual- and action-based categories could be tracked back to their acquisition. For this, we applied correspondence analysis (CA) to ERPs recorded at various moments during acquisition. CA is a multivariate statistical technique typically used to reveal distance relationships between words of a corpus. Applied to ERPs, it allows isolating factors that best explain variations in the data across time and electrodes. Participants were asked to learn new action and visual words by associating novel pseudowords with the execution of hand movements or the observation of visual images. Words were probed before and after training on two consecutive days. To capture processes that unfold during lexical access, CA was applied on the 100-400 msec post-word onset interval. CA isolated two factors that organized the data as a function of test sessions and word categories. Conventional ERP analyses further revealed a category-specific increase in the negativity of the ERPs to action and visual words at the frontal and occipital electrodes, respectively. The distinct neural processes underlying action and visual words can thus be tracked back to the acquisition of word-referent relationships and may have its origin in association learning. Given current evidence for the flexibility of language-induced sensory-motor activity, we argue that these associative links may serve functions beyond word understanding, that is, the elaboration of situation models.
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Retinotopic organization is a ubiquitous property of lower-tier visual cortical areas in human and nonhuman primates. In macaque visual cortex, the retinotopic maps extend to higher-order areas in the ventral visual pathway, including area TEO in the inferior temporal (IT) cortex. Distinct regions within IT cortex are also selective to specific object categories such as faces. Here we tested the topographic relationship between retinotopic maps and face-selective patches in macaque visual cortex using high-resolution fMRI and retinotopic face stimuli. Distinct subregions within face-selective patches showed either (1) a coarse retinotopic map of eccentricity and polar angle, (2) a retinotopic bias to a specific location of visual field, or (3) nonretinotopic selectivity. In general, regions along the lateral convexity of IT cortex showed more overlap between retinotopic maps and face selectivity, compared with regions within the STS. Thus, face patches in macaques can be subdivided into smaller patches with distinguishable retinotopic properties.
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Patients suffering from simultanagnosia cannot perceive more than one object at a time. The underlying mechanism is incompletely understood. One hypothesis is that simultanagnosia reflects "tunnel vision," a constricted attention window around gaze, which precludes the grouping of individual objects. Although this idea has a long history in neuropsychology, the question whether the patients indeed have an abnormal attention gradient around the gaze has so far not been addressed. Here we tested this hypothesis in two simultanagnosia patients with bilateral parieto-occipital lesions and two control groups, with or without brain damage. We assessed the participants' ability to discriminate letters presented briefly at fixation with and without a peripheral distractor or in the visual periphery, with or without a foveal distractor. A constricted span of attention around gaze would predict an increased susceptibility to foveated versus peripheral distractors. Contrary to this prediction and unlike both control groups, the patients' ability to discriminate the target decreased more in the presence of peripheral compared with foveated distractors. Thus, the attentional spotlight in simultanagnosia does not fall on foveated objects as previously assumed, but rather abnormally highlights the periphery. Furthermore, we found the same center-periphery gradient in the patients' ability to recognize multiple objects. They detected multiple, but not single objects more accurately in the periphery than at fixation. These results suggest that an abnormal allocation of attention around the gaze can disrupt the grouping of individual objects into an integrated visual scene.
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In skilled reading, fixations are brief periods of time in which the eyes settle on words. E-Z Reader, a computational model of dynamic reading, posits that fixation durations are under real-time control of lexical processing. Lexical processing, in turn, requires efficient visual encoding. Here we tested the hypothesis that individual differences in fixation durations are related to individual differences in the efficiency of early visual encoding. To test this hypothesis, we recorded participants' eye movements during reading. We then examined individual differences in fixation duration distributions as a function of individual differences in the morphology of primary visual cortex measured from MRI scans. The results showed that greater gray matter surface area and volume in visual cortex predicted shorter and less variable fixation durations in reading. These results suggest that individual differences in eye movements during skilled reading are related to initial visual encoding, consistent with models such as E-Z Reader that emphasize lexical control over fixation time.
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 06/2014;

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