Weed Technology (WEED TECHNOL )

Publisher: Weed Science Society of America, Weed Science Society of America


Weed Technology publishes original articles about current weed science research and technology, teaching, extension, industry, consulting, and regulation. Weed Technology includes original research on weed biology and control, weed and crop management systems, reports of new weed problems, new technologies for weed management, and special articles emphasizing technology transfer to improve weed control. Journal of the Weed Science Society of America.

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  • 5-year impact
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  • Website
    Weed Technology website
  • Other titles
    Weed technology (Online), Weed technology
  • ISSN
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  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Weed Science Society of America

  • Pre-print
    • Author cannot archive a pre-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • On open access repositories
    • Authors may deposit immediately upon payment of fee
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • exception may be made if funding agency requires deposit
  • Classification
    ​ white

Publications in this journal

  • Weed Technology 09/2014; 28(3):510-517.
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    ABSTRACT: Kochia is a troublesome weed in the western Great Plains and many accessions have evolved resistance to one or more herbicides. Dicamba-resistant soybean is being developed to provide an additional herbicide mechanism of action for POST weed control in soybean. The objective of this study was to evaluate variation in response to dicamba among kochia accessions collected from across Nebraska. Kochia plants were grown in a greenhouse and treated when they were 8 to 12 cm tall. A discriminating experiment with a single dose of 420 g ae ha1 of dicamba was conducted on 67 accessions collected in Nebraska in 2010. Visual injury estimates were recorded at 21 d after treatment (DAT) and accessions were ranked from least to most susceptible. Four accessions representing two of the most and least susceptible accessions from this screening were subjected to dose-response experiments using dicamba. At 28 DAT, visible injury estimates were made and plants were harvested to determine dry weight. An 18-fold difference in dicamba dose was necessary to achieve 90% injury (I90) between the least (accession 11) and most susceptible accessions. Approximately 3,500 g ha1 of dicamba was required in accession 11 to reach a 50% dry weight reduction (GR50). There was less than twofold variation among the three more susceptible accessions for both the I90 and GR90 parameters, suggesting that most kochia accessions will be similarly susceptible to dicamba. At 110 DAT, accession 11 had plants that survived doses of 35,840 g ha1 , and produced seed at doses of 17,420 g ha1 . The identification of one resistant accession among the 67 accessions screened, and the fact that dicamba doses greater than 560 g ha1 were required to achieve GR80 for all accessions suggest that repeated use of dicamba for weed control in fields where kochia is present may quickly result in the evolution of dicamba-resistant kochia populations. Nom
    Weed Technology 04/2014; 28(1):151-162.
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    ABSTRACT: This research was aimed at understanding how far and how fast glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth will spread in cotton and the consequences associated with allowing a single plant to escape control. Specifically, research was conducted to determine the collective impact of seed dispersal agents on the in-field expansion of GR Palmer amaranth, and any resulting yield reductions in an enhanced GR cotton system where glyphosate was solely used for weed control. Introduction of 20,000 GR Palmer amaranth seed into a 1-m2 circle in February 2008 was used to represent survival through maturity of a single GR female Palmer amaranth escape from the 2007 growing season. The experiment was conducted in four different cotton fields (0.53 to 0.77 ha in size) with no history of Palmer amaranth infestation. In the subsequent year, Palmer amaranth was located as far as 114 m downslope, creating a separate patch. It is believed that rainwater dispersed the seeds from the original area of introduction. In less than 2 yr after introduction, GR Palmer amaranth expanded to the boundaries of all fields, infesting over 20% of the total field area. Spatial regression estimates indicated that no yield penalty was associated with Palmer amaranth density the first year after introduction, which is not surprising since only 0.56% of the field area was infested with GR Palmer amaranth in 2008. Lint yield reductions as high as 17 kg ha−1 were observed 2 yr after the introduction (in 2009). Three years after the introduction (2010), Palmer amaranth infested 95 to 100% of the area in all fields, resulting in complete crop loss since it was impossible to harvest the crop. These results indicate that resistance management options such as a “zero-tolerance threshold” should be used in managing or mitigating the spread of GR Palmer amaranth. This research demonstrates the need for proactive resistance management.
    Weed Technology 04/2014; 62(2):237-249.
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    ABSTRACT: Herbicide-resistant barnyardgrass has become widespread in the rice production systems of the midsouthern United States, leaving few effective herbicide options for controlling this weed. The acetolactate synthase (ALS)- and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicides remain largely effective in Clearfield® rice production, but strategies need to be developed to protect the long-term utility of these options. A two-trait model was developed to understand simultaneous evolution of resistance in barnyardgrass to the ALS- and ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in Clearfield rice. The model was used to predict resistance under a number of common weed management scenarios across 1,000 hypothetical rice fields in the Mississippi Delta region and answer some key management questions. Under an ALS inhibitor–only program consisting of three annual applications of imidazolinone herbicides (imazethapyr or imazamox) in continuous Clearfield rice, resistance was predicted within 4 yr with 80% risk by year 30. Weed management programs that consisted of ALS- and ACCase-inhibiting herbicides such as fenoxaprop and cyhalofop greatly reduced the risk of ALS-inhibiting herbicide resistance (12% risk by year 30), but there was a considerable risk for ACCase resistance (evolving by year 14 with 13% risk by year 30) and multiple resistance (evolving by year 16 with 11% risk by year 30) to both of these mechanisms of action. A unique insight was that failure to stop using a herbicide soon after resistance evolution can accelerate resistance to the subsequent herbicide option. Further, a strong emphasis on minimizing seedbank size is vital for any successful weed management strategy. Results also demonstrated that diversifying management options is not just adequate, but diversity combined with timely herbicide applications aimed at achieving high efficacy levels possible is imperative.
    Weed Technology 01/2014; 28(1):89-103.
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    ABSTRACT: Winter bentgrass is a common, shallow-rooted perennial weed of lowbush blueberry fields. This unique production system is typically managed on a biannual cycle with blueberry shoot growth and floral bud development occurring in the first year (vegetative year) and berries harvested in the second year (crop year). An experiment was conducted in two commercial blueberry fields to determine the impact of 0, 143, or 286 kg ha�1 of 14–18–10 fertilizer applied in the vegetative year, and fluazifop-P applications in the vegetative, crop, or both years of the biannual production cycle, on winter bentgrass and blueberry growth and yield. Fluazifop-P tended to reduce winter bentgrass biomass at both sites and the vegetative year-herbicide applications had a greater impact on winter bentgrass ground cover than crop-year applications. Total weed biomass following fluazifop-P applications was reduced in the vegetative year but not the crop year due to an increase in broadleaf weed biomass. Grass biomass tended to increase with fertility inputs in the vegetative year. In all years and sites, the application of fertilizers without herbicides increased grass biomass compared to the use of fertilizers combined with herbicides. Blueberry floral bud numbers per stem, flowers per stem, and berry yield tended to increase with vegetative year applications of fluazifop-P, although differences were not significant. These data indicate that winter bentgrass management is best achieved with herbicide applications in the vegetative year and this might result in yield increases, especially if broadleaf weeds also are adequately controlled.
    Weed Technology 01/2014; 28:527-534.
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    ABSTRACT: Nutsedge control is challenging in commercial vegetable production in the absence of methyl bromide, and therefore, an effective alternative is needed. This study investigated allyl isothiocyanate (ITC) as a methyl bromide alternative for purple nutsedge control under polyethylene-mulch. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to compare the retention of allyl ITC in treated soil (3,000 nmol g�1) under low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and virtually impermeable film (VIF) mulches. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of allyl ITC (6 rates: 0, 15, 75, 150, 750, 1500 kg ai ha�1) under VIF mulch against purple nutsedge. Additionally, a standard treatment of methyl bromideþchloropicrin (67 : 33%) at 390 kg ai ha�1 under LDPE mulch was included for comparison. In the greenhouse experiment, the predicted half-life of allyl ITC under LDPE and VIF mulch was 0.15 and 0.59 d, respectively. In the field experiment, it was predicted that allyl ITC at 1,240 and 1,097 kg ha�1 under VIF mulch is required to control purple nutsedge shoot and tubers equivalent to methyl bromide þ chloropicrin at 4 wk after treatment (WAT). It is concluded that allyl ITC under VIF mulch would need to be applied at 2.8 to 3.2 times the standard treatment of methyl bromide þ chloropicrin under LDPE mulch for commercially acceptable purple nutsedge control.
    Weed Technology 01/2014; 28.
  • Weed Technology 01/2014; 28(1):104-110.
  • Weed Technology 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Crop Protection Online (CPO) is a decision support system, which integrates decision algorithms quantifying the requirement for weed control and a herbicide dose model. CPO was designed to be used by advisors and farmers to optimize the choice of herbicide and dose. The recommendations from CPO for herbicide application in spring barley in Denmark were validated through field experiments targeting three levels of weed control requirement. Satisfactory weed control levels at harvest were achieved by a medium control level requirement generating substantial herbicide reductions (~ 60% measured as the Treatment Frequency Index (TFI)) compared to a high level of required weed control. The observations indicated that the current level of weed control required is robust for a range of weed scenarios. Weed plant numbers 3 wk after spraying indicated that the growth of the weed species were inhibited by the applied doses, but not necessarily killed, and that an adequate level of control was reached later in the season through crop competition.
    Weed Technology 01/2014; 28(1):19-27.
  • Weed Technology 10/2013;
  • Weed Technology 10/2013; 27(4):712-717.
  • Weed Technology 06/2013; 27(2):378-388.
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    ABSTRACT: Noninversion tillage with tine- or disc-based cultivations prior to crop establishment is the most common way of reducing tillage for arable cropping systems with small grain cereals, oilseed rape, and maize in Europe. However, new regulations on pesticide use might hinder further expansion of reduced-tillage systems. European agriculture is asked to become less dependent on pesticides and promote crop protection programs based on integrated pest management (IPM) principles. Conventional noninversion tillage systems rely entirely on the availability of glyphosate products, and herbicide consumption is mostly higher compared to plow-based cropping systems. Annual grass weeds and catchweed bedstraw often constitute the principal weed problems in noninversion tillage systems, and crop rotations concurrently have very high proportions of winter cereals. There is a need to redesign cropping systems to allow for more diversification of the crop rotations to combat these weed problems with less herbicide input. Cover crops, stubble management strategies, and tactics that strengthen crop growth relative to weed growth are also seen as important components in future IPM systems, but their impact in noninversion tillage systems needs validation. Direct mechanical weed control methods based on rotating weeding devices such as rotary hoes could become useful in reduced-tillage systems where more crop residues and less workable soils are more prevalent, but further development is needed for effective application. Owing to the frequent use of glyphosate in reduced-tillage systems, perennial weeds are not particularly problematic. However, results from organic cropping systems clearly reveal that desisting from glyphosate use inevitably leads to more problems with perennials, which need to be addressed in future research. El cultivar sin inversión del suelo usando discos o picos, antes del establecimiento del cultivo, es la forma más común de reducir la labranza en sistemas de cultivos arables que incluyen cereales, colza y maíz en Europa. Sin embargo, nuevas regulaciones sobre el uso de plaguicidas podrían afectar la expansión de los sistemas de labranza reducida. La agricultura europea ha sido llamada a ser menos dependiente de los plaguicidas y a promover programas de protección de cultivos basados en los principios de manejo integrado de plagas (IPM). Los sistemas de labranza convencional sin inversión del suelo dependen totalmente de la disponibilidad de productos con glyphosate, y el consumo de herbicidas es mayoritariamente superior al compararse con sistemas de cultivo basados en el uso de arado. Malezas como zacates anuales y Galium aparine frecuentemente constituyen el principal problema de malezas en sistemas de labranza sin inversión del suelo y rotaciones de cultivos que además tienen proporciones muy altas de cereales de invierno. Existe la necesidad de rediseñar los sistemas de cultivos para permitir una mayor diversificación de las rotaciones de cultivos para así combatir estos problemas de malezas con un uso menor de herbicidas. Cultivos de cobertura, sistemas de manejo con residuos de cultivos, y tácticas que refuercen el crecimiento del cultivo en relación con el crecimiento de las malezas son también vistos como componentes importantes en los sistema IPM futuros, pero su impacto en los sistemas de labranza sin inversión del suelo necesita validación. Los métodos de control mecánico de malezas directo basados en implementos rotativos de deshierba, tales como azadones rotativos, han sido útiles en sistemas de labranza reducida donde la presencia de más residuos de cultivos y suelos menos trabajables son prevalentes, pero un mayor desarrollo de estos métodos es necesario para su aplicación efectiva. Debido al uso frecuente de glyphosate en sistemas de labranza reducida, las malezas perennes no son particularmente problemáticas. Sin embargo, resultados en sistemas de producción orgánicos han revelado claramente que el desistir del uso de glyphosate lleva inevitablemente a más problemas con malezas perennes, lo que necesita ser incluido en investigaciones futuras.
    Weed Technology 03/2013; 27(1):231-240.