Violence and Victims (Violence Vict )

Publisher: University of New Hampshire. Family Research Laboratory, Springer Verlag


Now in its 18th year, the journal of Violence & Victims serves as an exceptional forum for the latest developments in theory, research, policy, clinical practice, and social services in the area of interpersonal violence and victimization, including legal and media reports as well as book reviews.

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  • 5-year impact
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  • Website
    Violence & Victims website
  • Other titles
    Violence and victims (Online), Violence and victims
  • ISSN
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  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

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    • Author can archive a pre-print version
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    • Author can archive a post-print version
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    • Authors own final version only can be archived
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On author's website or institutional repository
    • On funders designated website/repository after 12 months at the funders request or as a result of legal obligation
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    • Must link to publisher version
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    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This qualitative study investigated talk and interaction as process factors potentially influencing outcomes in abuser group intervention. The findings showed that (a) abusers participate in group programs with considerably different degrees of motivation; (b) the interaction in abusers' various stages of change is characterized by different qualities; and (c) group counselors face a challenge in adapting their ways of working to abusers' various needs and backgrounds. The findings demonstrate the importance of attending to the interactional elements in abuser treatment programs and show the value of matching an abuser's needs and degree of motivation with the timing of interventions. It is argued that attention to all these matters could help in making abuser programs more effective.
    Violence and Victims 04/2014; 29(2):195-216.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To present statistics documenting the scope and the nature of child victimization, polyvictimization, and revictimization and to explore the relationship between victimization in childhood and later revictimization in adulthood. Methods: The sample comprises 975 undergraduates in a cross-sectional, retrospective design. Childhood victimization and lifetime revictimization were assessed using the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire. Results: 26.59% of participants reported childhood interpersonal victimization and 16.80% reported an interpersonal victimization episode in adulthood. Polyvictimization was reported by 8.30%, whereas 7.50% of the sample suffered child victimization and adult revictimization. Multiple regression showed that child polyvictimization significantly predicted adult revictimization. Conclusions: The results support the idea that polyvictimization in childhood exerts a cumulative effect on interpersonal victimization in adulthood. More importantly, polyvictimization is a key concept to understanding the risk of revictimization, even at low rates.
    Violence and Victims 03/2014; 29(2):217-231.
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the vast literature on gender symmetry in the perpetration of domestic assault, few studies have looked specifically at both the female and male victims of violence. Using data from the National Violence Against Women Survey (NVAWS) and building on the work of Johnson and Leone (2005), this study is a comparison of the female and male victims of intimate terrorism (IT) and an examination of the effects of IT on male victims. The findings indicate that IT, as a type of violence, does not have the same characteristics when the victims are men. Men involved in a terroristic marriage are not more likely to be injured, do not miss work more frequently, and are not more likely to report symptoms of depression compared to men involved in situational couple violence (SCV). Other findings appear to point to gender symmetry between women and men regarding IT, although broad conclusions based on these findings cannot be made in the absence of a sufficient means to measure the level of coercion within the relationship. Additional research is needed with more innovative and complete measures of control, the defining characteristic of IT.
    Violence and Victims 01/2014; 29(1):73-88.
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    ABSTRACT: We examined relations of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms with dimensions of trauma, including environment (Domestic vs. Community) and proximity (Indirect vs. Direct trauma) among inner-city youth. Participants (n = 65) reported traumatic events they had experienced on a version of the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index Trauma Exposure Screen, and reported PTSD symptoms with the PTSD Checklist--Civilian version (PCL-C). High rates of trauma and PTSD were found, consistent with other reports of inner-city youth. The 49% of youth surveyed met criteria for PTSD on the PCL-C symptom scale with a score cutoff of 35. Females reported elevated PTSD symptom scores and a higher incidence of Domestic trauma than did males but similar incidence of other trauma types. When males and females were combined, Domestic trauma significantly correlated with each of the PTSD symptom clusters of intrusions, numbing/avoidance, and hyperarousal. When participants with Community trauma were excluded from analyses to reduce confounding environmental influence, Domestic trauma marginally correlated with numbing/avoidance symptoms. Our findings suggest that Domestic trauma may result in more emotional numbing/avoidance symptoms than other types of trauma. Further analyses suggested that Community trauma may result in more intrusions and hyperarousal symptoms rather than emotional numbing. Environmental aspects of trauma, rather than the proximity of trauma, may have greater impact on presentation of PTSD. Future studies with larger samples are needed to confirm these findings.
    Violence and Victims 01/2014; 29(2):262-79.
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    ABSTRACT: Studies have identified a robust association between children's exposure to violence and their mental health. Yet, most of this research has been based on self-reported exposure and self-reported mental health. In this study, we used a new, map-based method via police data for measuring children's exposure to violent crime and compared it to child self-reports and parent reports of exposure. Results suggest that child self-reports of violence exposure may not be valid except for exposure to murder, but police and parent reports of violent crime can reveal interesting relations between violence and mental health. Children showed higher levels of internalizing problems in the absence of police-reported murder and parent-reported robbery. Discussion emphasizes implications for measurement as well as theory building.
    Violence and Victims 01/2014; 29(1):24-33.
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines the applicability of Agnew's strain theory and Gottfredson and Hirschi's self-control theory in explaining husband-to-wife psychological aggression and physical assault in a community survey of 871 couples in Hong Kong. Three strains, each belonging to 1 type of Agnew's types of strain, were selected, namely, dissatisfaction with family financial situation, dissatisfaction with relationship with spouse, and physical abuse by parents in childhood. Self-control was measured with a simplified version of 12 items selected from the 24-item Self-control Scale developed by Grasmick, Tittle, Bursik, and Ameklev (1993). The conditioning effect of self-control on the relationship between strain and husband-to-wife violence was also examined. Results show that 2 of the 3 types of strain and self-control significantly affected both types of spousal violence. In addition, self-control has a conditioning effect on the relationship between strain and husband-to-wife violence, reducing the likelihood of strain leading to violence. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
    Violence and Victims 01/2014; 29(2):280-99.
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    ABSTRACT: Some authors have proposed that the mechanisms underlying adolescent-to-parent abuse seem to be different from other forms of juvenile delinquency. Given that this aggression is exerted within the family setting, our study was aimed to explore if there was a differential family profile for those adolescents who commit a parent abuse offense compared to those who commit other types of offenses. Judicial files of 1,046 young offenders from the Juvenile Justice Service of Jaén (Spain) were examined. The final sample (654 young offenders) was divided into 2 groups: those who had committed offenses against a parent (parent abuse group) and those who had committed other types of offenses (other offenses group). Results showed that families with parent abuse have differential characteristics, especially regarding the family size, type of household, parenting styles, and the patterns of interactions between the family members.
    Violence and Victims 01/2014; 29(3).
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    ABSTRACT: In India, there is limited prioritization of domestic violence, which is seen as a private and family matter, and handled as a social responsibility rather than a complaint or crime. Despite the Domestic Violence Act, implemented in 2006, the widespread phenomenon of domestic violence across Indian states goes unreported. Using control and support models, this article aims to examine women's behavior in seeking help while dealing with partner violence. It is a population-based analytical cross-sectional study covering 14,507 married women from 18 states of India, selected through a systematic multistage sampling strategy. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to generate data. It was observed that legal complexities combined with social realities make the life of an average Indian woman insecure and miserable. Most women surveyed preferred the social-support model and opined that if they face domestic violence, they would seek help from their parents as the first option in the order of preference. The responses of women while dealing with domestic violence are often spontaneous and determined by the pressing need to resolve matters within the home/community, rather than addressing them in the public domain of state institutions where procedures are cumbersome and lengthy. A new integrated development model proposed by several communities aims to prevent domestic violence through the intervention of health care systems.
    Violence and Victims 01/2014; 29(3).
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    ABSTRACT: This article provides a model for speaking of trauma based on the author's ethnographic and clinical experiences mainly in Japan. It is often assumed that a person with more serious trauma has the right and ability to speak out. But those who are at the center of trauma and unable to survive cannot testify. Based on this notion, a toroidal island (TI) model, shaped like a doughnut with a landlocked inner sea, is developed. The voices come from the survivors on the inner slope and from the supporters on the outer slope on the island. The model integrates various aspects of trauma by employing metaphors of "gravity" for symptoms of trauma, "wind" for interpersonal conflicts, and "water level" for intelligibility of the speech and its social recognition. It addresses the social construction of trauma and shows the relativistic nature of when and how some traumatic experiences are recognized. Clinical and social activity to raise awareness of unrecognized trauma can be analogized to a process of creating a TI. By defying gravity and wind and lowering the water level, they keep the voices of the traumatized from being silenced and allow their suffering to be alleviated.
    Violence and Victims 01/2014; 29(1):137-51.
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    ABSTRACT: This study was planned to assess the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the “attitudes and practices of health care providers regarding intimate partner violence” (APHCPs-IPV) survey scale. The sample consisted of 355 primary health care providers. A Likert-type scale composed of eight subfactors, and 43 items were used. Means and standard deviations were calculated for interval-level data. A p value of less than .05 was considered statistically significant. The Turkish version consisted of eight factor groups. The Cronbach's alpha of the general scale was .66, and the Cronbach's alpha of the factor groups ranged from .29 to .81. It was determined that the APHCPs-IPV scale was a valid and reliable scale to be used in Turkish society, on the condition that item number 33 be removed.
    Violence and Victims 01/2014; 29(4).
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    ABSTRACT: One-third of sexual assault cases that are reported to the police involve adolescent victims (Snyder, 2000), yet little is known about adolescent victims' interactions with law enforcement. Through semistructured interviews with 20 adolescent sexual assault victims, this study sought to understand—from the perspectives of the adolescents—how the police interacted with them on an interpersonal level and the impact this had on the adolescents' emotional well-being and engagement in the criminal justice system. Findings revealed that when the police engaged in behaviors that the victims perceived as caring, compassionate, and personable (vs. behaviors that were perceived as uncaring, insensitive, and intimidating), there was a positive impact on victims' emotional well-being and criminal justice system engagement. Implications for improving adolescents' help-seeking experiences are discussed.
    Violence and Victims 01/2014; 29(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Although we hear more about violence committed by the police, violence against police officers is also a major problem in the United States. Using data collected from the Orlando, Florida Police Department files, this study examines situational variables, offender characteristics, and officer demographics that may correlate with violence directed at law enforcement officers. Logistic regression results indicate that battery against one or more police officers is significantly more likely when multiple officers are involved, when offenders are women, when offenders are larger than average as measured by body mass index (BMI), and when offenders are known to have recently consumed alcohol. We close with a discussion of policy implications and directions for future research.
    Violence and Victims 01/2014; 29(1):34-52.
  • Violence and Victims 01/2014;
  • Violence and Victims 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Intimate partner violence has been recognized as a major problem on college campuses and is a source of concern for researchers, clinicians, policymakers, and the general population. Most research has focused on the intergenerational transmission of violence and identifying the intrapersonal mechanisms that enable violence in the family of origin to carry over to adult intimate relationships. This study expands the current literature by examining insecure attachment styles and destructive disagreement beliefs as mediators in the relationship between exposure to hostility or aggression in the family of origin and later experiences of dating aggression. Research questions were addressed with a sample of 1,136 college undergraduates (59% women). In all models, results of structural equation modeling indicated that an insecure attachment style and destructive disagreement beliefs mediated the intergenerational transmission of violence among both men and women. These findings have important implications for future research as well as relationship education programs and preventative interventions.
    Violence and Victims 01/2014; 29(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Intimate partner violence (IPV) makes a substantial contribution to the burden of disease in South Africa. This article explores the current quality of care for IPV in public sector primary care facilities within the Western Cape. Only 10% of women attending primary care, while suffering from IPV, were recognized. Case studies, based on in-depth interviews and medical records, were used to reflect on the quality of care received among the women who were recognized. Care tended to be superficial, fragmented, poorly coordinated, and lacking in continuity. The recognition, management, and appropriate documentation of IPV should be prioritized within the training of primary care providers. It may be necessary to appoint IPV champions within primary care to ensure comprehensive care for survivors of IPV.
    Violence and Victims 01/2014; 29(4).
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    ABSTRACT: A literature analysis shows that nurses are at greater risk of being stalked both by ex-partners and acquaintances (such as colleagues and patients) and by unknown stalkers. The aim of this study was to explore Italian nurses' experience of stalking. A copy of the Italian modified version of the Networking for Surviving Stalking (NSS) Questionnaire on Stalking, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and State Trait Inventory (STAI) Y1-Y2 scales were distributed to 2,000 nurses working in 4 Italian state hospitals. There were 765 nurses who returned the questionnaire (38.4%), 107 of whom had been victims (14.0%). On average, victims had been stalked for more than 12 months by an acquaintance (41.1%), whose behavior included unwanted communications, following, control, and threatening behavior. The coping strategies used most involved offensive and interactional tactics. Stalking has both emotional and physical consequences for victims, although depression levels were not as high as we expected (BDI M = 11.05, SD = 8.84; STAI Y1 M = 42.11, SD = 11.75; STAIY2 M = 44.04, SD = 12.90). The need to adopt legal, organizational, and individual strategies is also discussed.
    Violence and Victims 01/2014; 29(1):109-21.
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    ABSTRACT: Using data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS; 1992-2005), we closely examined the effects of victims' self-protective actions on the risk of injury among female nonsexual assault victims. Building on previous research, we focused on 3 important methodological and conceptual issues: (a) gradational coding of the 16 different NCVS self-protective actions, (b) separate analyses of serious injuries, and (c) the victim-offender relationship. Our analyses demonstrated that the risk of injury was strongly and positively associated with the degree of forcefulness of self-protective actions. Furthermore, the likelihood of victim injury was inversely related to the relational distance between the victim and the offender.
    Violence and Victims 01/2014; 29(1):171-92.

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