Flavour and Fragrance Journal (FLAVOUR FRAG J )

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons


Flavour and Fragrance Journal publishes original research articles reviews and special reports on all aspects of flavour and fragrance. Its high scientific standard and international character will be ensured by regional editorial support and a strict refereeing system. Emphasis will be placed on analytical aspects and the important role that analysis in its widest sense plays in the support of research and applications. As well as essential oils and other natural and naturally derived products complementary synthetic products will be included where appropriate. The comprehensive coverage of the journal will be reflected in the wide range of product types embraced such as fragrances and their compositions and the flavour colours and odours of foodstuffs. There are many associated topics of interest often requiring the use of interdisciplinary techniques. In addition to discussion of their end uses coverage will include such important integral areas as biomedical sciences and legislation. The overall aim is to produce a journal of the highest quality which provides a forum for the exchange of a wide variety of information on all aspects of flavours fragrances and related materials and which is valued by readers and contributors alike.

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  • Other titles
    Current awareness in flavour and fragrance., Current awareness., Flavour and fragrance journal (Online), Flavour and fragrance journal
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    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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John Wiley & Sons

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Publications in this journal

  • Flavour and Fragrance Journal 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Nanocapsules loaded with bioactive compounds derived from medicinal plants have numerous possibilities in the development of biochemical delivery systems. Elaeagnus angustifolia L., commonly known as Russian olive, is used in traditional medicinal in the Middle East as an analgesic for arthritis and joint pain. Because E. angustifolia contains vitamin A, vitamin B, abundant calcium, and vitamin K, an effective coagulant, it has been considered as potentially beneficial in wound healing and scar formation, as well as in the treatment or prevention of osteoporosis. Nanocapsules containing an E. angustifolia-filled core can be fabricated employing polymerization. In this process, nanocapsules are prepared using poly ethylene glycol–poly butylene adipate–poly ethylene glycol (PEG-PBA-PEG) as a shell surrounding a core of E. angustifolia and olive oil. In this study, the relative proportions of polymer and oil, concentrations of polymer and bioactive compound, and presence or absence of various surfactants in different concentrations were investigated in relation to the particle size of the final product. A comparison of samples obtained using the surfactants Tween 80, Tween 60, poly vinyl alcohol (PVA), mixed Tween 80 and PVA, and mixed Tween 80 and Tween 60 showed Tween 80 to result in the smallest particle size. An oil-to-polymer ratio of 1:0.25 resulted in the smallest nanoparticle size. Smaller nanoparticles sizes were obtained using lower concentrations of polymer and higher concentrations of the bioactive compound. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, particle size analysis, and scanning electron microscopy were used to identify and characterize the nanocapsules.
    Flavour and Fragrance Journal 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Fat perception is assumed to result, at least in part, from in-mouth non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) detection. The aim of this study was to better understand how human oral physiology may govern the sensory sensitivity to NEFAs. For this purpose, the detection thresholds for oleic acid were determined for 17 human subjects with highly varying salivary and oral characteristics, and the thresholds were related to their oral and salivary characteristics with conventional and multidimensional data analysis. These thresholds were tested on a dairy oil-in-water emulsion that was specifically designed to avoid biases caused by differences in the initial structure of the emulsion as a function of oleic acid concentration. The emulsion was judged to be rather acceptable compared with model emulsions and commercial emulsified dairy foods. Twelve oleic acid concentrations, ranging from 0.00028% to 0.16% (w/w) in the emulsion, were tested with the ascending series three-alternate forced-choice method with nose-clips (WNC) or without nose-clips (WoNC). The oleic acid WNC and WoNC thresholds were 0.09% w/w and 0.063% w/w, respectively, and hypersensitive and hyposensitive subjects were identified. Partial least squares and analysis of variance indicated that the WNC threshold is positively correlated to both the lipolytic activity of saliva and the oral volume, whereas the WoNC threshold is positively correlated to the saliva antioxidant status and negatively correlated to its protein amount and lysozyme activity. This study supports the hypothesis that NEFAs are detected in the oral cavity in humans and provides new insights on the oral physiological characteristics that may play important roles in fat detection.
    Flavour and Fragrance Journal 07/2013;
  • Flavour and Fragrance Journal 04/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Phytochemicals have been isolated from extracts of various Xylopia species (Annonaceae) growing wild in the African rainforest. In contrast, no phytochemical investigations have been reported to date on Xylopia rubescens Oliv. The aim of the present work was to describe the composition of X. rubescens leaf oil. Analysis of the leaf oil has been undertaken by a combination of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. Three new compounds have been isolated and their structures elucidated as furanoguaia‐1,4‐diene, furanoguaia‐1,3‐diene and (8Z,11Z,14Z)‐8,11,14‐heptadecatrien‐2‐ol. One other compound is reported for the first time as a natural compound. The oil composition was dominated by both furanoguaiadienes (34.2% and 11.4%, respectively) and by (8Z,11Z,14Z)‐8,11,14‐heptadecatrien‐2‐one (12.8%). The composition of X. rubescens leaf oil varied dramatically from those of the essential oils isolated from other Xylopia species. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Flavour and Fragrance Journal 01/2013; 28(6).
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    ABSTRACT: The antioxidant activity of 18 phenols, including standard antioxidants (e.g. butylated hydroxytoluene, α‐tocopherol) and fragrance molecules (e.g. eugenol, thymol) has been evaluated by measuring the rate constants for their reaction with the DPPH• (2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl) radical in m‐xylene. Correlation with the bond dissociation energies supports the involvement of the hydrogen atom transfer mechanism. The radical trapping ability of α‐tocopherol, eugenol and isoeugenol has been investigated in five solvents of different polarity and in a series of homologous alcohols. In comparison to α‐tocopherol, the increase of the observed scavenging kinetics for eugenol and isoeugenol in alcohols suggests that the sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) takes place. The addition of acetic acid eliminates the SPLET mechanism and confirms its predominance in polar solvent. The major effects of the pK a of fragrant phenols and of the solvent dielectric constant on the SPLET mechanism are discussed. Some fragrance phenols, such as mesitol and eugenol, show a significant reactivity towards the DPPH• radical in m‐xylene, which is more pronounced for eugenol derivatives in alcohols. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Flavour and Fragrance Journal 01/2013; 28(1).
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    ABSTRACT: We report the enantioselective synthesis of the ambergris odorants (+)‐(S)‐γ‐ionone, (+)‐(S)‐γ‐dihydroionone, (−)‐α‐ambrinol, (+)‐(S)‐γ‐coronal, (−)‐(S)‐γ‐homocyclogeranyl chloride and (+)‐(S)‐γ‐homocyclogeraniol. At first, the enantio‐enriched (4R,6S)‐4‐acetoxy‐γ‐ionone was prepared starting from commercial racemic ionone alpha by means of a chemo‐enzymatic process. This chiral building block was then converted into (S)‐γ‐dihydroionone which was used as the starting material for the synthesis of the aforementioned odorants. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Flavour and Fragrance Journal 01/2013; 28(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Glandular trichomes and essential oils of Plectranthus grandidentatus grown in Portugal were studied for the first time. Trichome types and their distribution pattern were investigated by light and scanning electron microscopy. Three distinct types of glandular trichomes were described on the vegetative organs. Peltate trichomes, confined to the leaf abaxial surface, showed an orange–brownish characteristic colour and never developed a large subcuticular space. Digitiform and capitate trichomes were distributed on both leaf surfaces, the last being divided in two subtypes according to the dimension of the head, length of stalk and secretion process. In addition to these trichome types, flowers also exhibit uncommon conoidal glandular trichomes. Histochemical characterization of secretion revealed the presence of terpenoids and flavonoids as main constituents. Essential oils, isolated by hydrodistillation of aerial organs, harvested at the four calendar-based seasons, were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The oils with a dark–orange colour and agreeable odour were obtained in yields that ranged from 0.2 to 0.5% (v/d.w.). Sesquiterpenes constituted the dominant fraction (69–79%), β-caryophyllene (9–13%) and δ-cadinene (5–7%) being the most abundant hydrocarbons in all oils and β-caryophyllene oxide (4–8%) and 14-hydroxy-9-epi-(E)-caryophyllene (4–6%) the major oxygen-containing compounds. The monoterpene fraction did not exceed 13%, oxygen-containing diterpenes attained lower percentages (1–9%), and phenylpropanoids were only present in trace amounts. The essential oils isolated from plants collected during the vegetative phase (winter and spring) showed a similar chemical profile, while that isolated from plants harvested in summer, resembled the one obtained from plants in the flowering phase collected in autumn.
    Flavour and Fragrance Journal 01/2013; 28(6):393-401.
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    ABSTRACT: Ylang‐ylang essential oil is an important raw material for the fragrance industry. Despite its economic importance, to the best of our knowledge, no study has yet been undertaken to assess the chemical polymorphism of the different production areas. This underestimated variability is an interesting source of raw material for perfumers. That is why the variation in the chemical composition of four fractions of the essential oils extracted from Cananga odorata, grown in four locations Grande Comore, Mayotte, Nossi Bé and Ambanja, was studied. A total of 119 compounds, representing 85.7–96.4% of the total essential oil composition, were identified using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and quantified by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. Thirty‐two compounds previously unreported in ylang‐ylang essential oil were identified. The distinction between the Comoros and Madagascar groups was made on the basis of the chemical classes. It was possible to significantly distinguish the Grande Comore and Mayotte essential oil samples, as well as the Ambanja and Nossi Bé essential oil samples, on the basis of their main compounds. The aromatic compounds profile for the origin of each essential oil fraction was established. Regression trees were built, allowing the provenance of the essential oils prepared at the laboratory level to be easily differentiated on the basis of a limited number of major compounds. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Flavour and Fragrance Journal 01/2012; 27(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Sideritis spp. is a member of the Labiateae family, used in traditional folk medicine and as a calming tea preparation. Dichloromethane extracts of the aerial parts of four Sideritis species were prepared, and the volatile fractions were separated via solvent-assisted flavour evaporation distillation. In vitro electrophysiological techniques were used to investigate the physiological effects of these aroma extracts on ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAA) in comparison to extracts of Lavandula spp. (lavender) obtained by the same approach. The plant extracts of Sideritis spp. and Lavandula spp. increased the maximal current responses gated by the agonist GABA, both in whole cell patch clamp recordings as well as in two electrode voltage clamp assays. Thereby, the volatile fractions caused a dose-dependent enhancement of GABAergic currents. Differences in activity between the various species were probably due to variations in odorant composition, either on a qualitative or quantitative basis. Thus, the plant material contains volatile organic compounds, which are able to modulate a GABA-mediated response and thereby possibly contribute to a sedative effect in vivo.
    Flavour and Fragrance Journal 01/2012; 27:297-303.
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    ABSTRACT: The manufacture of high‐quality whole‐grain products is challenged by poor flavour attributes, such as excessive bitterness. In a recent study our group characterized eight compounds that contributed to the bitterness of a whole‐wheat bread sample. The goal of this study was to investigate the chemical profile of these bitter compounds in relation to the perceived bitterness of four commercial whole wheat breads and one refined wheat bread. Highly significant correlations (α = 0.01) were observed between the perceived bitterness in the crust and the quantity of 5‐(hydroxymethyl)furfural (r 2 = 0.93) and 2,3‐dihydro‐3,5‐dihydroxy‐6‐methyl‐4(H)‐pyran‐4‐one (r 2 = 0.95). In the crumb, the bitterness was correlated with the amount of l‐tryptophan (r 2 = 0.91). In summary, both Maillard‐ and fermentation‐derived compounds were identified as potential chemical markers to predict bitterness of whole‐wheat bread. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Flavour and Fragrance Journal 01/2012; 27(6).
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    ABSTRACT: The volatile components of both the peel and juice of three major Japanese sour citrus cultivars with pleasant flavour, Yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka), Sudachi (Citrus sudachi Hort. ex Shirai) and Kabosu (Citrus sphaerocarpa Hort. ex Tanaka) were investigated using the solvent assisted flavour evaporation technique after solvent extraction. Limonene was the most abundant monoterpene hydrocarbon in all the extracts, followed by γ‐terpinene and β‐phellandrene in Yuzu and Sudachi and by myrcene in Kabosu. Mintsulfide was newly identified in juice extracts from Yuzu and Kabosu. Among the oxygenated components of these extracts, linalool was the most abundant in both the peel and juice of Yuzu and the peel of Sudachi, while both the peel and juice of Kabosu revealed the presence of high quantity of saturated aliphatic aldehydes. Wine lactone and rose oxide were identified in all the extracts, which have not been previously reported to occur in these citrus cultivars. The odour‐active components of each oxygenated fraction were revealed by aroma extract dilution analysis. Linalool, trans‐4,5‐epoxy‐(2E)‐decenal and wine lactone showed relatively high flavour dilution factors in the peel and juice of these citrus cultivars. The enantiomeric distribution of linalool, cis‐rose oxide, β‐citronellol and wine lactone was determined using a multi‐dimensional chiral gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. With regard to linalool, the (R)‐enantiomer was predominant in Yuzu and the (S)‐enantiomer in Sudachi and Kabosu. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Flavour and Fragrance Journal 01/2012; 27(5).
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    ABSTRACT: The preparation of optically active 3‐hydroxy‐2‐octanone was examined by Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation of a silyl enol ether derived from 2‐octanone. (R)‐3‐Hydroxy‐2‐octanone was obtained in 68% yield and 87.8% ee when AD‐mix‐β was used as an oxidant, while the (S)‐enantiomer was produced in 69% yield and 77.3% ee from AD‐mix‐α. The characteristic odour of the optically active products was evaluated by chiral gas chromatography–olfactometry. (R)‐3‐Hydroxy‐2‐octanone has a mushroom‐like, fresh grass odour, while the (S)‐enantiomer presents a mushroom‐like, earthy note. Aroma extract dilution analysis was applied to determine the flavour dilution factors of the two enantiomers. The flavour dilution factor of the (R)‐enantiomer was 1024, which is much higher than that of (S)‐enantiomer (256). They obviously differ in odour intensity. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Flavour and Fragrance Journal 01/2012; 27(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Release of fragrant molecules from poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) grafted chitosan particles could be controlled in a switchable manner through the thermo‐responsive hydration/dehydration of the PEO corona of the spheres that resulted in the de‐aggregation/aggregation among particles and corresponded to an on/off fragrant release switch. In water, mPEO–chitosan self‐assembled into spherical particles with the mPEO corona covering the surface and vanillin and citral could be loaded into the particles. The mPEO–water interaction took place at temperatures lower than the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) value and resulted in de‐aggregation among spheres which enabled release of the loaded fragrance molecules, whilst mPEO–mPEO interactions occurred at temperatures higher than the LCST value and resulted in aggregation among spheres which also halted the fragrance release. This thermal switch could be tuned to a desired temperature by adjusting the salt concentration. After the release of all fragrances, the thermo‐responsive carriers could be refilled again. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Flavour and Fragrance Journal 01/2012; 27(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Nineteen volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), including ten thioesters and eight alkyl sulfides, were quantified using solid phase microextraction–gas chromatography–pulsed flame photometric detection in 12 Florida strawberry cultivars. The major headspace VSCs in all 12 cultivars were methanethiol and methyl thioacetate, together comprising 77–95% of the total VSCs. Concentrations for the 13 major strawberry VSCs were determined at five maturity stages. Puréed fruit produced 10–20 times more headspace volatiles than did intact berries. The relative distribution between total alkyl sulfides and total thioesters was similar from both sample preparation methods but the relative distribution of individual sulfides, especially alkyl sulfides, was appreciably different. VSCs found in the highest concentrations from intact fruit included methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide. In puréed fruit, highest VSCs included hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and methional. The comparison of concentrations with odour threshold in water suggests that methanethiol was the predominant aroma active VSC at all maturity stages. Total volatile sulfurs (y) increased dramatically during the final two maturity stages (x = 3,4) as described by y = 92.929x 2 − 111.41x + 28.457 (R 2 = 0.996). ‘Strawberry Festival’ and ‘Florida Radiance’ were distinguished from 10 other cultivars in principal component analysis (PCA) score plots, primarily due to high thioester concentrations. ‘Dover’, ‘Rosa Linda’ and ‘Florida Belle’ were the oldest cultivars and formed a distinct group in the PCA score plot characterized by relatively high sulfide and low thioester concentrations. Relative VSC composition appears to be a genetically controlled trait. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Flavour and Fragrance Journal 01/2012; 27(6).
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACTA low‐density polyethylene membrane pouch method was developed to extract volatile flavour compounds from butter oil prior to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. The butter oil represented oil‐based sample with complex flavour compounds. It was placed in the pouch and heat‐sealed for extraction in diethyl ether at 40°C for 1 h. The extraction mechanism can be explained by the molecular sieve effect. The extracted volatile flavour compounds are essential for butter oil aroma, e.g. fatty acids and lactones. The percent recoveries of fatty acids and lactones by this method were 1.00–1.74% and 10.1–11.2%, respectively. Sensory evaluation of the aroma recombinate and butter oil indicated the promise of this extraction technique. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Flavour and Fragrance Journal 01/2012; 27(5).
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to clarify the influence of the properties (firmness and fat content) of a solid processed model cheese on in vivo aroma release while considering the role of the in‐mouth process during both mastication and post‐swallowing steps, and the hydrophobicity of aroma compounds, on a large number of well characterized subjects. In vivo aroma release was studied on 44 subjects who freely consumed six processed model cheeses flavoured with the same concentration of nonan‐2‐one and ethyl propanoate. Globally, an increase in firmness induced an increase in chewing duration, amount of saliva incorporated into the food bolus, total amount of aroma released and rate of release. The kinetics of release clearly differed between the two aroma compounds. Ethyl propanoate presented a higher release rate for firmer cheese and was more released during the mastication step, whereas nonan‐2‐one was more released during the post‐swallowing step and more persistent in the mouth, due to its higher hydrophobicity. Consuming cheeses with a higher fat content led to a higher amount of product remaining in the mouth after swallowing, a lower amount of nonan‐2‐one released and a longer persistence of nonan‐2‐one in the breath. The results could be helpful to better understand the relative influence of the parameters related to products and subjects in order to reformulate foods with good sensory acceptability. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Flavour and Fragrance Journal 01/2012; 27(6).