Seminars in Ophthalmology (Semin Ophthalmol )

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

Description

Seminars in Ophthalmology offers current, clinically oriented reviews on the diagnosis and treatment of ophthalmic disorders. Each issue focuses on a single topic, with a primary emphasis on appropriate surgical techniques.

  • Impact factor
    1.09
  • 5-year impact
    0.00
  • Cited half-life
    6.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.00
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.00
  • Website
    Seminars in Ophthalmology website
  • Other titles
    Seminars in ophthalmology
  • ISSN
    0882-0538
  • OCLC
    11729970
  • Material type
    Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Taylor & Francis

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 month embargo for STM, Behavioural Science and Public Health Journals
    • 18 month embargo for SSH journals
  • Conditions
    • Some individual journals may have policies prohibiting pre-print archiving
    • Pre-print on authors own website, Institutional or Subject Repository
    • Post-print on authors own website, Institutional or Subject Repository
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On a non-profit server
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set statements to accompany deposits (see policy)
    • Publisher will deposit to PMC on behalf of NIH authors.
    • STM: Science, Technology and Medicine
    • SSH: Social Science and Humanities
    • 'Taylor & Francis (Psychology Press)' is an imprint of 'Taylor & Francis'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aim: To investigate the role of some variables including allergy and autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). The VKC is a chronic and often severe form of bilateral keratoconjunctivitis. Usually it begins during the first decade and disappears during the end of the second decade of life. Materials and methods: 26 patients with VKC were selected. The diagnosis was performed by the ophthalmologist through a score based on ocular signs and subjective symptoms before and after administration of 1% cyclosporine A (Cy) eye drops. Each variable was so graded: 0 = absent; 1 = mild; 2 = moderate; 3 = severe. Patients with a total score ≥ 7 were included in the study. Blood samples were collected at the initial time for the determination of autoimmunity by total IgE and antinuclear antibodies (ANA). Skin Prick Test (SPT) was performed to each patient to common inhalants and food allergens. Results: 53.8% of the children resulted atopic. The most important allergens were house dust mites and grasses. 46.1% of the patients showed total IgE > 100 UI/ml and 30.8% had ANA positivity at the first determination. The photophobia occurred in 42.3% of children most frequently respect to other symptoms like secretion or tearing (30.8%), foreign body sensation (15.4%), itching and conjunctival hyperemia (11.5%). Conclusions: Fortunately all children improve their symptoms after Cy eye drops therapy. Moreover there was an elevate percentage (30.8%) of children with ANA positivity compared with the values in the general pediatric population. Despite it is a non specific autoantibody, its high presence in a population of children with VKC may have an important role in clarifying the etiopathogenesis and chronic inflammation.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a bilateral chronic, seasonally exacerbated inflammation of the ocular surface that especially affects male children and young boys. Aim: To evaluate the corneal microscopic features of patients affected by VKC and to assess whether some corneal changes were associated with specific ocular symptoms and/or signs. Methods: 20 children aged between 4 and 14 years of life were enrolled. All patients underwent corneal confocal microscopy by Confoscan CS3 (Nidek). 350 images of the central cornea of each eye were obtained with a ×40 noncontact lens 3,5 micron gap in automode. Results: Some alterations of the sub-basal and stromal corneal nerves were detected. These alterations were more evident in patients with higher severity of photophobia. On the other hand, there were scarce other signs of the anterior segment of the eye. Conclusions: Our preliminary findings show that there is another group of patients affected by VKC, characterized by an intense photophobia caused by the corneal damage and without other significant ocular alterations. Therefore confocal microscopy may be useful for an early identification of corneal alterations before the onset of severe ocular symptoms and to set an appropriate therapeutic management.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: It has recently become popular to use mitomycin C (MMC) with trabeculectomy. MMC helps to maintain effective filtration and long-term intraocular pressure (IOP) control, while the use of laser suture lysis has improved the safety of this procedure. We evaluated the outcome of trabeculectomy alone and of trabeculectomy plus phacoemulsification (PEA) and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, each supplemented with MMC. The mean preoperative IOP for the trabeculectomy alone group was 22.4 ± 3.2 mmHg(bleb+), 25.3 ± 2.6 mmHg(bleb−), and that of the combined surgery group was 22.4 ± 2.8 mmHg(bleb+), 21.0 ± 3.5 mmHg(bleb−). Mean postoperative IOP for the two groups were 13.3 ± 2.7 mmHg(bleb+), 17.1 ± 4.4 mmHg(bleb−) and 11.9 ± 2.7 mmHg(bleb+), 16.4 ± 3.4 mmHg(bleb−), respectively. After 4.5 years, the success probability for postoperative IOP control was 38%(bleb+), 3%(bleb−) in the trabeculectomy alone group and 53%(bleb+), 10%(bleb−) in the combined surgery group (≤12 mmHg) and 65%(bleb+), 3%(bleb−) and 75%(bleb+), 10%(bleb−) (≤14 mmHg)(Kaplan-Meier survival rate). With early complications, the frequency of shallow anterior chamber and choroidal detachment were significantly fewer in the combined surgery group. The combined surgery of PEA, IOL implantation and trabeculectomy is an effective procedure that offers visual rehabilitation, fewer early complications and good IOP control in patients with advanced, medically uncontrolled glaucoma and cataract.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 07/2009; 16(3):168-171.
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    ABSTRACT: Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is characterized by an ascending muscle paralysis with progressive loss of muscle stretch reflexes. Annually, approximately 2.4 cases per 100,000 population of GBS are reported. Variant forms do exist. These include the Fisher syndrome, GBS with ophthalmoplegia, Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BBE), and acute ophthalmoparesis without ataxia. In the last 15 years, attention has been directed towards the association of the GQ1b IgG antibody and several GBS variants, particularly the Fisher syndrome and those associated with ophthalmoparesis. We present three cases of GBS variants. All three cases had associated ophthalmoplegia but only one of the three had a positive GQ1b antibody association.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 07/2009; 21(4):223-7.
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    ABSTRACT: An 82-year-old man presented with optic disc melanocytoma and glaucomatous optic neuropathy. The coexistence of these findings is particularly challenging, as there is no specific means for differentiating whether the optic nerve damage is glaucoma- or melanocytoma-related.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 07/2009; 22(3):147-50.
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    ABSTRACT: Ocular infection with HSV-1 continues to be a serious clinical problem despite the availability of effective antivirals. Primary infection with HSV-1 can involve ocular and adenaxial sites and can manifest as blepharitis, conjunctivitis, or corneal epithelial keratitis. After initial ocular infection, HSV-1 can establish latent infection in the trigeminal ganglia for the lifetime of the host. During latency, the viral genome is retained in the neuron without producing viral proteins. However, abundant transcription occurs at the region encoding the latency-associated transcript, which may play significant roles in the maintenance of latency as well as neuronal reactivation. Many host and viral factors are involved in HSV-1 reactivation from latency. HSV-1 DNA is shed into tears and saliva of most adults, but in most cases this does not result in lesions. Recurrent disease occurs as HSV-1 is carried by anterograde transport to the original site of infection, or any other site innervated by the latently infected ganglia, and can reinfect the ocular tissues. Recurrent corneal disease can lead to corneal scarring, thinning, stromal opacity and neovascularization and, eventually, blindness. In spite of intensive antiviral and anti-inflammatory therapy, a significant percentage of patients do not respond to chemotherapy for herpetic necrotizing stromal keratitis. Therefore, the development of therapies that would reduce asymptomatic viral shedding and lower the risks of recurrent disease and transmission of the virus is key to decreasing the morbidity of ocular herpetic disease. This review will highlight basic HSV-1 virology, and will compare the animal models of latency, reactivation, and recurrent ocular disease to the current clinical data.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 07/2009; 23(4):249-73.
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    ABSTRACT: Proper evaluation and treatment of acquired nystagmus requires accurate characterization of nystagmus type and visual effects. This review addresses important historical and examination features of nystagmus and current concepts of pathogenesis and treatment of gaze-evoked nystagmus, nystagmus due to vision loss, acquired pendular nystagmus, peripheral and central vestibular nystagmus, and periodic alternating nystagmus.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 01/2008; 23(2):91-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Stargardt's disease is an autosomal recessive form of juvenile macular degeneration. The clinical presentation, relevant ancillary tests, and classic histologic features will be reviewed. The role of genetic mutations in the pathophysiology of Stargardt's disease will also be explored. Stargardt's disease is caused by mutations in the ABCR (ABCA4) gene on chromosome 1. Mutations in this gene have also been attributed to some cases of cone-rod dystrophy, retinitis pigmentosa, and age-related macular degeneration. The genetic and molecular pathways that produce Stargardt's disease will be discussed. Future diagnostic and therapeutic objectives for this visually disabling condition will also be presented.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 01/2008; 23(1):59-65.
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    ABSTRACT: Birdshot chorioretinopathy is a bilateral, posterior uveitis that affects primarily Caucasians. Although the genetic basis of disease is not completely understood, certain factors are known, such as the strong association with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A29. However, given the prevalence of the HLA-A29 allele in the general population, if it were the only factor required for disease, many more people would have birdshot chorioretinopathy. It has been suggested that some environmental factor may trigger this disease entity in those who are genetically predisposed based on inheritance of the HLA-A29 allele.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 01/2008; 23(1):53-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by an early age of onset and severely elevated intraocular pressures. Large JOAG pedigrees have been pivotal in genetic linkage analyses that have helped establish the association between JOAG and the myocilin gene (MYOC). Numerous disease-causing MYOC mutations have now been identified, and additional loci on other chromosomes have been linked to JOAG. Ongoing molecular genetic studies on myocilin and the search for new gene defects associated with JOAG may offer new directions in our scientific understanding and clinical management of open-angle glaucoma.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 01/2008; 23(1):19-25.
  • Seminars in Ophthalmology 01/2008; 23(2):81-2.
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    ABSTRACT: The past two decades have witnessed major advances in diagnosing vascular conditions that affect blood supply and hemorrhagic risk to the brain and the eye. Technological improvements have resulted in the ability to better radiologically image the cerebrovascular system and to deliver pharmacological and embolic agents that have high specificity. Neuroradiological interventional therapy has become the preferred option in managing many conditions that were previously treated by standard neurosurgical procedures. Some of these conditions were considered either inoperable or treatable only with unacceptable neurosurgical risks. This article reviews the current state of the neuroradiological interventional management in conditions that may be encountered in ophthalmological practice.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 01/2008; 23(2):83-90.
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    ABSTRACT: Acute retinal necrosis is a progressive necrotizing retinopathy caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) or varicella zoster virus (VZV). The mainstay of its treatment is antiviral therapy against these pathogenic organisms, such as intravenous acyclovir or oral valacyclovir. Systemic and topical corticosteroids together with antiviral therapy are used as an anti-inflammatory treatment to minimize damages to the optic nerve and retinal blood vessels. Because the majority of severe cases of the disease show occlusive retinal vasculitis, a low dosage of aspirin is used as anti-thrombotic treatment. Vitreo-retinal surgery is useful to repair rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, one of the main late-stage complications. Moreover, recent articles have reported some encouraging results of prophylactic vitrectomy before rhegmatogenous retinal detachment occurs. The efficacy of laser photocoagulation to prevent the development or extension of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment is controversial. Despite these treatments, the visual prognosis of acute retinal necrosis is still poor, in particular VZV-induced acute retinal necrosis.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 01/2008; 23(4):285-90.
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    ABSTRACT: The management of a patient with a suspected posterior communicating artery aneurysm is discussed with emphasis on neuroimaging including magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), computed tomography angiography (CTA) and intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA). This paper underscores the advantages and disadvantages of each neuroimaging modality, and is presented in an atlas-type format.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 01/2008; 23(3):143-50.
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    ABSTRACT: Lumboperitoneal (LP) shunting is considered an effective method of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). Confirmation of flow out of the distal portion of the catheter once in its final position can be difficult, especially in obese individuals. A new technique to improve placement of the peritoneal catheter involves laparoscopic catheter insertion. We performed laparoscopic-assisted LP shunt placement for IIH on four patients. Improvement in preoperative IIH symptomatology was noted in all patients. No laparoscopic-procedure-related complications were noted. No problems were noted in shunt functioning and none of the shunts have required revision surgery at last follow-up. LP shunt related complications were noted in two of the four patients. Complications included bilateral lower extremity lumbar radiculopathy in one patient that resolved with a short course of gabapentin, spinal headache in one patient that resolved with bed rest and fluids, and development of a small intracranial subdural hygroma without mass effect in one patient that is asymptomatic and being followed without clinical consequence. Laparoscopic insertion of the abdominal catheter is safe and effective and does not appear to independently cause an increased risk of complications.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 01/2008; 23(3):151-5.
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    ABSTRACT: In the herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK), HSV DNA fragments and HSV-IgG immune complexes (HSV-IC) are present in most of the corneas long after infective virus has disappeared. These viral components are highly immunogenic and potentiate production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed on the corneal cells and macrophages. In addition angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) and the tissue damaging enzyme matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) deeply involved in the pathogenesis of HSK, are also induced by corneal cells and macrophages through the recognition of these viral components. These processes elicited by residual viral DNA and HSV-IC are likely one of the sustained driving force in the development of HSK. Hence, strategies developed to alter these pathways should lead to new preventative and therapeutic measures.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 01/2008; 23(4):229-34.
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    ABSTRACT: Adamanitiades-Behcet's disease (ABD) is a relapsing systemic vasculitis that may involve the eyes, skin, and almost all other organ systems. Current research on the pathogenesis of ABD suggests a genetic basis for the disease, with certain MHC genes such as those coding for HLA-B51 being the most obvious candidates. Environmental factors such as infectious disease are thought to be responsible for triggering an immunological reaction and systemic features of the disease in genetically susceptible individuals. Identification of genes responsible for this susceptibility may lead to more definitive diagnostic tests and new approaches to the management of this potentially blinding condition.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 01/2008; 23(1):73-9.
  • Seminars in Ophthalmology 01/2008; 23(3):139-40.
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the efficacies of valacyclovir (VCV) and acyclovir (ACV) on murine herpetic epithelial keratitis, mice inoculated with herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1) strain McKrae were divided into 6 treatment groups: oral VCV 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, oral ACV 50 mg/kg, ACV eye ointment (EO), ACV eye drops (ED), and placebo. Keratitis scores showed that oral VCV 50 mg/kg, oral ACV, and ACV ED had equivalent efficacies, while oral VCV 100 mg/kg was as efficacious as ACV EO during acute infection. Each treatment group was further divided into the stimulated group with HSV-1 reactivation by immunosuppressant drugs and hyperthermia, and the non-stimulated group without reactivation. We assessed the virus titers in tissues by plaque assay and HSV DNA copy number in the trigeminal ganglia (TG) by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results showed that the virus titers in the tissues were lowered after reactivation, and the oral VCV group with reactivation had significantly reduced DNA copy number in the TG than the same treatment group without reactivation. In conclusion, oral VCV is as efficacious as ACV EO and significantly suppresses HSV-1 reactivation.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 01/2008; 23(4):241-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Inherited thrombophilic disorders are a well-recognized risk factor for systemic thromboembolism. These disorders include deficiencies of anticoagulant proteins such as protein C, protein S, and antithrombin III, abnormalities of factor V and prothrombin resulting from genetic mutations, and hyperhomocysteinemia. Except for hyperhomocysteinemia, which has been associated with both venous and arterial thrombosis, the other heritable disorders primarily cause venous thromboembolism. We have reviewed the association between heritable thrombophilia and the development of thrombosis in the eye. The available literature consists of case-control studies and case reports. Preliminary data suggest a relationship between thrombotic disorders of the eye and the inherited hypercoagulable states. Some reports show a risk of thrombosis with the presence of factor V Leiden and hyperhomocysteinemia but these associations frequently disappear upon multivariate analysis. It is possible that inherited thrombophilia plays a supportive role to well-established risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes. Larger, well-designed studies will be necessary to clearly define the role of inherited thrombophilia in the development of thrombotic disorders of the eye.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 01/2008; 23(2):111-9.

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