Seminars in Ophthalmology (Semin Ophthalmol )

Publisher: Taylor & Francis


Seminars in Ophthalmology offers current, clinically oriented reviews on the diagnosis and treatment of ophthalmic disorders. Each issue focuses on a single topic, with a primary emphasis on appropriate surgical techniques.

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    Seminars in Ophthalmology website
  • Other titles
    Seminars in ophthalmology
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    Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

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Taylor & Francis

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    • STM: Science, Technology and Medicine
    • SSH: Social Science and Humanities
    • Publisher last contacted on 25/03/2014
    • 'Taylor & Francis (Psychology Press)' is an imprint of 'Taylor & Francis'
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    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aim: To assess the attitude and practice of contact lens (CL) wearers among teenage school students and to evaluate how much the teenagers adhere to the CL care procedures according to the proper care of CL guidelines. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study of Italian teenagers from high schools in Rome who wear CL. We inquired about the different aspects of CL care through a questionnaire. Results: We investigated 3,106 students from high schools in Rome (2% of all Roman high school students), 293 of whom wore CL (9%); 151 (52%) of participants responded, 42 (27.8%) male and 109 (72.8%) female. The mean age was 16.4 ± 1.6 years. 79.5% of students were daily users. 45.7% wore CL more than nine hours/day. 87.4% wore soft CL. 33.1% wore disposable CL; 7.9% weekly CL, 55% monthly CL. Thirty-four percent wore disposable lenses twice or more. 14.5% of students did not wash their hands before handling CL and 52.3% wore CL after it had fallen in the sink. 39.7% rubbed and cleaned CL before storing it. 10% used expired lens care solutions. Only 31.1% changed CL cases every three months. 38.4% wore CL in a swimming pool. 61.6% were having problems: redness (13.9%), itching (7.9%), and foreign body sensation (29.1%). Conclusion: Many students don’t properly care for their CL. Education regarding proper care and management of CL among users is advised in view of frequency of symptoms and complications reported.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: To investigate the role of some variables including allergy and autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). The VKC is a chronic and often severe form of bilateral keratoconjunctivitis. Usually it begins during the first decade and disappears during the end of the second decade of life. Materials and methods: 26 patients with VKC were selected. The diagnosis was performed by the ophthalmologist through a score based on ocular signs and subjective symptoms before and after administration of 1% cyclosporine A (Cy) eye drops. Each variable was so graded: 0 = absent; 1 = mild; 2 = moderate; 3 = severe. Patients with a total score ≥ 7 were included in the study. Blood samples were collected at the initial time for the determination of autoimmunity by total IgE and antinuclear antibodies (ANA). Skin Prick Test (SPT) was performed to each patient to common inhalants and food allergens. Results: 53.8% of the children resulted atopic. The most important allergens were house dust mites and grasses. 46.1% of the patients showed total IgE > 100 UI/ml and 30.8% had ANA positivity at the first determination. The photophobia occurred in 42.3% of children most frequently respect to other symptoms like secretion or tearing (30.8%), foreign body sensation (15.4%), itching and conjunctival hyperemia (11.5%). Conclusions: Fortunately all children improve their symptoms after Cy eye drops therapy. Moreover there was an elevate percentage (30.8%) of children with ANA positivity compared with the values in the general pediatric population. Despite it is a non specific autoantibody, its high presence in a population of children with VKC may have an important role in clarifying the etiopathogenesis and chronic inflammation.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a bilateral chronic, seasonally exacerbated inflammation of the ocular surface that especially affects male children and young boys. Aim: To evaluate the corneal microscopic features of patients affected by VKC and to assess whether some corneal changes were associated with specific ocular symptoms and/or signs. Methods: 20 children aged between 4 and 14 years of life were enrolled. All patients underwent corneal confocal microscopy by Confoscan CS3 (Nidek). 350 images of the central cornea of each eye were obtained with a ×40 noncontact lens 3,5 micron gap in automode. Results: Some alterations of the sub-basal and stromal corneal nerves were detected. These alterations were more evident in patients with higher severity of photophobia. On the other hand, there were scarce other signs of the anterior segment of the eye. Conclusions: Our preliminary findings show that there is another group of patients affected by VKC, characterized by an intense photophobia caused by the corneal damage and without other significant ocular alterations. Therefore confocal microscopy may be useful for an early identification of corneal alterations before the onset of severe ocular symptoms and to set an appropriate therapeutic management.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 01/2013;
  • Seminars in Ophthalmology 01/2013; 1.
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    ABSTRACT: We present two cases of herpes zoster related orbital inflammatory syndrome that preceded the development of the cutaneous vesicular eruption. These cases demonstrate that patients with presumed idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome should be warned about the development of herpes zoster and should be specifically evaluated for the cutaneous vesicular eruption of herpes zoster ophthalmicus and antiviral treatment initiated, if indicated.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 09/2009; 24(4-5):198-204.
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    ABSTRACT: Graves' disease is a complex autoimmune disorder characterized by multiple systemic manifestations of overproduction of thyroid hormone, and in some cases, orbitopathy. The etiology of this disorder is multifactorial, involving heritable abnormalities of immune regulation as well as environmental triggers. The goal of this paper is to provide a review of recent research investigating candidate genes involved in the pathophysiology of both Graves' disease per se and of thyroid orbitopathy.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 08/2009; 23(1):67-72.
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    ABSTRACT: Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a congenital retinal dystrophy that was first described almost 150 years ago. LCA still remains an important cause of blindness with about 20% of children in schools for the blind being affected by it. LCA has genetic heterogeneity and the study of this disease is elucidating the genetics and molecular interactions involved in the development of the retina. This paper reviews the clinical history of the disease since it was first described. We further discuss the differential diagnosis of the disease and the difficulties encountered in making the diagnosis. We also review the genetics of the disease and the role of future therapies.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 08/2009; 23(1):39-43.
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    ABSTRACT: This review summarizes the current literature regarding the ocular complications of hydroxychloroquine. Hydroxychloroquine has been used since the 1950s for the treatment of various rheumatic and dermatologic diseases. Hydroxychloroquine can cause ocular toxicity, with the most serious being an irreversible retinopathy. At the present time, no "gold standard" exists for identification of the ocular toxicity prior to its development. This has led to controversy regarding the recommendations for ophthalmologic examinations for screening patients on hydroxychloroquine.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 07/2009; 23(3):201-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease with an unknown etiology, characterized by the presence of noncaseating granulomas in involved organs. It has a worldwide prevalence, but variable incidence among different geographical regions. The disease affects adults between 20 and 40 years of age, and it is slightly more common in women than men. Sarcoidosis is 3 to 4 times more prevalent in US blacks than whites. It usually presents with bilateral hilar adenopathy, pulmonary infiltrates and skin or eye involvement. The eye or adnexa are affected in 25 to 80% of the sarcoidosis patients. The disease can involve the orbit, lacrimal gland, anterior and posterior segments of the eye. Typical sarcoid uveitis presents with bilateral mutton-fat keratic precipitates, cells, flare, iris nodules, anterior and posterior synechia, and increased ocular pressure. Posterior involvement includes vitreitis, vasculitis, choroidal lesions, and optic neuropathy. Long term complications are common, and cystoid macular edema is the most important and sight-threatening consequence. Laboratory tests for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis include chest radiography or CT scan, bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), Lysozyme, serum and urinary calcium, gallium scintigraphy, and biopsy. The only confirmatory test is biopsy showing classic noncaseating granulomas. Oral corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment of sarcoidosis. Systemic cytotoxic agents like methrotrexate, azathioprine, and chlorambucil may be used in refractory cases. The visual prognosis of sarcoidosis is usually good.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 07/2009; 20(3):177-82.
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    ABSTRACT: Behçet's disease is a chronic, relapsing vasculitis that can affect most organ systems. The prevalence varies geographically, and the disease is more common in countries along the ancient Silk Road, including Italy, Turkey, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Iran, China, Korea and Japan. Behçet's is more common in men than in women, and typically affects young adults. The classic finding in Behçet's patients is the presence of recurrent mucocutaneous ulcers, and oral aphthous ulcerations are usually the initial symptom. Other manifestations include genital ulcers, skin lesions, vascular, neurological, articular, and ocular disease. The disease can affect the anterior and/or posterior segments of the eye, and the main manifestations include iridocyclitis, hypopyon, mild to moderate vitreitis, retinal vasculitis and occlusion, optic disc hyperemia, and macular edema. There is no pathognomonic laboratory test in Behçet's disease, and the diagnosis is based in systemic and ocular clinical findings. Treatment of ocular Behçet is based in corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents, to suppress acute inflammation and reduce its recurrence frequency. Ocular lesions may improve with immunosuppressive therapy, but usually are not fully reversible, and generally progress over time. The prognosis of anterior uveitis is usually good, but patients with posterior lesions tend to have some degree of visual loss, even with adequate treatment.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 07/2009; 20(3):199-206.
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    ABSTRACT: Toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of posterior uveitis in immunocompetent subjects. The infection can be congenital or acquired. Ocular symptoms are variable according to the age of the subject. For instance, young children present with reduced visual acuity, strabismus, nystagmus, and leucocoria, while teenagers and adults complain of decreased vision, floaters, photophobia, pain, and hyperemia. Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis typically affects the posterior pole, and the lesions can be solitary, multiple or satellite to a pigmented retinal scar. Active lesions present as grey-white focus of retinal necrosis with adjacent choroiditis, vasculitis, hemorrhage and vitreitis. Cicatrization occurs from the periphery towards the center, with variable pigmentary hyperplasia. Anterior uveitis is a common finding, with mutton-fat keratic precipitates, fibrine, cells and flare, iris nodules and posterior synechiae. Atypical presentations include punctate outer retinitis, neuroretinitis, papillitis, pseudo-multiple retinochoroiditis, intraocular inflammation without retinochoroiditis, unilateral pigmentary retinopathy, Fuchs'-like anterior uveitis, scleritis and multifocal or diffuse necrotizing retinitis. The laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is based on detection of antibodies and T. gondii DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Toxoplasmosis therapy includes specific medication and corticosteroids. There are several regimens, with different drug combinations. Medications include pirimetamine, sulfadiazine, clindamycin, trimethoprime-sulphamethoxazol, spiramycin, azithromycin, atovaquone, tetracycline and minocycline. The prognosis of ocular toxoplasmosis is usually good in immunocompetent individuals, as long as the central macula is not directly involved.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 07/2009; 20(3):129-41.
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    ABSTRACT: Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is an uncommon intraocular inflammatory syndrome characterized by severe and diffuse uveitis, retinal vasculitis, and retinal necrosis. It is typically described to occur in immunocompetent patients, but can also be found in immunocompromised subjects. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), herpes simplex virus (HSV 1 and 2), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) have been implicated in the etiology of ARN. The characteristic features of the disease include iridocyclitis, vitritis, retinal vasculitis, and retinal necrosis. Bilateral involvement occurs in two-thirds of the patients, frequently in the first six weeks, but sometimes months to years later. Retinal detachment occurs in 75% of the cases. The diagnosis of ARN is usually based in clinical features. The use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in aqueous humor samples is useful to identify the etiology of the disease. The treatment of ARN includes intravenous acyclovir, corticosteroids and aspirin. To prevent fellow eye involvement, intravenous acyclovir is followed by oral acyclovir for 14 weeks. Alternatives to acyclovir include ganciclovir, foscarnet, famcyclovir, brivudine, and valgancyclovir.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 07/2009; 20(3):155-60.
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    ABSTRACT: DEVIATIONS from normality are best understood by first examining the natural process. To understand retinal angiogenesis, we must first examine normal blood vessel growth.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 07/2009; 2(2).
  • Seminars in Ophthalmology 07/2009; 2(4).
  • Seminars in Ophthalmology 07/2009; 1(2).
  • Seminars in Ophthalmology 07/2009; 10(3).
  • Seminars in Ophthalmology 07/2009; 2(3).
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    ABSTRACT: This review summarizes the diagnosis, clinical manifestations and management of giant cell arteritis. Giant cell arteritis is an immune-mediated vasculitis of medium to large sized arteries that affects individuals older than the age of 50. Patients typically present with signs of vascular insufficiency of the extracranial arteries of the head and systemic inflammation. Temporal artery biopsy remains the hallmark of diagnosis. Specific treatment regimens must be tailored to each individual, but steroids remain the backbone of therapy.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 07/2009; 23(2):99-110.