Seminars in Ophthalmology (Semin Ophthalmol )

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

Journal description

Seminars in Ophthalmology offers current, clinically oriented reviews on the diagnosis and treatment of ophthalmic disorders. Each issue focuses on a single topic, with a primary emphasis on appropriate surgical techniques.

Current impact factor: 1.20

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1.196
2012 Impact Factor 1.085
2011 Impact Factor 0.901

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 0.00
Cited half-life 6.00
Immediacy index 0.00
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.00
Website Seminars in Ophthalmology website
Other titles Seminars in ophthalmology
ISSN 0882-0538
OCLC 11729970
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Taylor & Francis

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    • STM: Science, Technology and Medicine
    • SSH: Social Science and Humanities
    • Publisher last contacted on 25/03/2014
    • 'Taylor & Francis (Psychology Press)' is an imprint of 'Taylor & Francis'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the clinical utility of ultra-widefield imaging as an adjunctive tool in the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of eyes with non-traumatic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Methods: Retrospective chart review of patients with a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment who received ultra-widefield imaging with the Optos® Optomap® P200Tx. Comparisons were made between UWF imaging and indirect ophthalmoscopy for features of detachments, including extent of detachment, holes, retinopexy, and related pathology. Results: Thirty-six eyes of 34 patients were included. Preoperatively, ultra-widefield imaging more precisely documented the extent of retinal detachments in the superior, inferior, and nasal quadrants in 13.9% of cases. Ultra-widefield imaging failed to detect retinal holes in the superior and inferior quadrants in 11.1% and 19.4% of cases, respectively. In postoperative imaging, UWF photos did not detect retinopexy which was ophthalmoscopy-visible both superiorly and inferiorly in 19.4% of cases. The mean differences in clock hours of the detachments as documented on the clinical exam compared to ultra-widefield imaging in the superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal quadrants were -0.18 ± 0.84, 0.41 ± 1.16, 0.08 ± 1.08, and -0.13 ± 2.25 hours, respectively. Conclusion: Ultra-widefield imaging is a useful adjunct for documentation of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments and their postoperative repair. However, detection of retinal holes, tears, and postoperative scarring is poor, especially in the inferior and superior periphery.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Preserved anti-glaucoma drops cause ocular surface disease (OSD), which is increasingly being recognized as a likely cause of trabeculectomy failure. Aim: To determine the routine pre-trabeculectomy management of the ocular surface by glaucoma specialists. Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 11 questions was posted to 146 UK glaucoma specialists. Results: The first-time response rate was 43.8%. Regarding routine pre-operative management, 40.6% of specialists use preservative-free drops, 29.7% commence a drop holiday, and 53% advise lid hygiene. 42.1% prescribe lubricants, 50% prescribe topical steroids, 7.8% topical NSAIDs, and 34.4% systemic tetracyclines. 84.4% of specialists change their routine management if OSD is present. Pre-operative optimization of the ocular surface is viewed "necessary" by 48.4% and "beneficial" by 85.9%. Conclusion: A wide variation exists in the routine pre-operative management of the ocular surface. Research to determine the impact of different pre-operative interventions upon trabeculectomy outcomes is required.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the results of Artisan iris-supported phakic anterior chamber intraocular lens (pIOL) implantation in patients with high myopia. Methods: Medical records of patients who underwent Artisan pIOL implantation for surgical correction of myopia were retrospectively reviewed. Only patients with at least a two- year follow-up were included. Spherical equivalent of manifest refractive error (SE), uncorrected visual acuity (UDVA), distance corrected visual acuity (CDVA), and endothelial cell density (ECD) were analyzed at six months, one year, and two years after surgery. Results: Sixty-two eyes of 42 patients were included in the study. All patients had a minimum anterior chamber depth of 3.0 mm from the endothelium. At two years, 68% of the patients were within ±0.50 D. Mean ECD was 2723 ± 311 cells/mm2 preoperatively and 2630 ± 291 cells/mm2 at six months postoperatively (3.4% loss, p = 0.001). ECD loss from six months postoperatively to two years postoperatively was not statistically significantly different. In three eyes (4.8%) of two patients, a temporary, steroid-induced increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) was detected. Conclusion: Artisan pIOL implantation is a safe and highly effective procedure for surgical correction of high myopia. ECD loss stabilizes in the early postoperative period.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the effects of the Valsalva Maneuver (VM) on ocular biometry and intraocular pressure (IOP). Methods: This prospective observational study included 55 eyes of 55 healthy volunteers. Axial length (AL), central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), corneal curvature (K-steep, K-flat and K-mean), corneal diameter (WtW), and pupil diameter (PD) were measured with a LenStar LS 900® biometer at rest and during VM. The IOP was also measured at rest and during VM measurements were compared. Results: The VM did not have any significant influence on AL, WtW, K-flat, and K-mean (p > 0.05), but it decreased K-steep significantly (p < 0.001). Moreover, CCT and ACD decreased significantly during VM (p < 0.001), but VM increased IOP, PD (p < 0.001), and LT significantly (p = 0.002). Conclusions: The VM might reversibly change in IOP and ocular biometry, so it should be considered during anterior segment examinations.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To describe how a multifocal fundus imaging system assisted the early diagnosis of cat scratch neuroretinitis in a case of a 27-year-old male with unilateral visual loss, neuroretinitis, and a peripapillary angiomatous lesion. Multimodal fundus imaging analysis was an essential contributor to the clinical diagnosis of cat scratch neuroretinitis during the early stage of the disease.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To compare central corneal thickness (CCT) measurement results obtained by RTVue OCT, Lenstar, Sirius topography, and ultrasound pachymetry (UP) (OcuScan RxP Ophthalmic Ultrasound System, Alcon Laboratories) in healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: 256 eyes of 128 healthy subjects were included in the study. CCT measurements were obtained from the eyes for each subject using the UP, Lenstar, Sirius topography, and RTVue OCT instruments. Ultrasound pachymetry measurements were performed after the eyes were anesthetized with one drop of 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride and were performed at the same day after 15 minutes after previous measurements. Results: Of 128 participants, 84 were male and 44 were female with a mean age of 33.15 ± 12.95 years (ranging from 18 to 75 years). The mean CCTs for UP, Lenstar, Sirius topography, and RTVue OCT were 535.60 ± 35.15 (440,00–668,00); 532.63 ± 34.44 (449,00–650,00); 526.05 ± 36.45 (314,00–640,00); 525.89 ± 33.21 (437,00–646,00) µm, respectively. The mean CCT measurements were statistically different among the three groups (p = 0.002). CCT measurements obtained using RTVue-OCT were significantly thinner than those obtained using UP (p = 0.009). Sirius CCT measurements were also thinner than UP (p = 0.011). Mean CCT measurements between UP and Lenstar were similar (p = 0.769). Measurements with Lenstar (r = 0.849), Sirius topography (r = 0.883), and RTVue OCT (0.949) were highly correlated with UP measurements. Conclusion: RTVue OCT and Sirius topography significantly underestimated the CCT compared with UP. Although highly correlated, the measurement values with these devices are not directly interchangeable in clinical practice.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate refractive errors in patients with migraine headache and to compare with healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: This prospective case-control study includes patients with migraine and age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Clinical and demographic characteristics of the patients were noted. Detailed ophthalmological examinations were performed containing spherical refractive error, astigmatic refractive error, spherical equivalent (SE), anisometropia, best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, slit lamp biomicroscopy, fundus examination, axial length, anterior chamber depth, and central corneal thickness. Spectacle use in migraine and control groups was compared. Also, the relationship between refractive components and migraine headache variables was investigated. Results: Seventy-seven migraine patients with mean age of 33.27 ± 8.84 years and 71 healthy subjects with mean age of 31.15 ± 10.45 years were enrolled (p = 0.18). The migraine patients had higher degrees of astigmatic refractive error, SE, and anisometropia when compared with the control subjects (p = 0.01, p = 0.03, p = 0.02, respectively). Conclusion: Migraine patients may have higher degrees of astigmatism, SE, and anisometropia. Therefore, they should have ophthalmological examinations regularly to ensure that their refractive errors are appropriately corrected.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To investigate the effects of dehydration due to fasting on diurnal changes of intraocular pressure, anterior segment biometrics, and refraction. Subjects and methods: The intraocular pressures, anterior segment biometrics (axial length: AL; Central corneal thickness: CCT; Lens thickness: LT; Anterior chamber depth: ACD), and refractive measurements of 30 eyes of 15 fasting healthy male volunteers were recorded at 8:00 in the morning and 17:00 in the evening in the Ramadan of 2013 and two months later. The results were compared and the statistical analyses were performed using the Rstudio software version 0.98.501. The variables were investigated using visual (histograms, probability plots) and analytical methods (Kolmogorov-Smirnov/Shapiro-Wilk test) to determine whether or not they were normally distributed. Results: The refractive values remained stable in the fasting as well as in the control period (p = 0.384). The axial length measured slightly shorter in the fasting period (p = 0.001). The corneal thickness presented a diurnal variation, in which the cornea measured thinner in the evening. The difference between the fasting and control period was not statistically significant (p = 0.359). The major differences were observed in the anterior chamber depth and IOP. The ACD was shallower in the evening during the fasting period, where it was deeper in the control period. The diurnal IOP difference was greater in the fasting period than the control period. Both were statistically significant (p = 0.001). The LT remained unchanged in both periods. Conclusions: The major difference was shown in the anterior chamber shallowing in the evening hours and IOP. Our study contributes the hypothesis that the posterior segment of the eye is more responsible for the axial length alterations and normovolemia has a more dominant influence on diurnal IOP changes.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: This study was conducted in an attempt to identify the regional, geographic, climatic, socioeconomic, and other risk factors for microbial keratitis in south Nile Delta, Egypt. Methods: This is a prospective cross-sectional study that was carried out on 340 eyes of 340 patients with microbial keratitis attending at the outpatient clinic of Ophthalmology Department of Menoufia University Hospital during a period of three years between March 2010 and March 2013. Results: Epidemiological factors, lines of management, and follow-up results were recorded and statistically analyzed and there were regional variations in the prevalence, risk factors, and outcome in resistant corneal ulcers. Conclusion: Higher incidence of affections and complications has appeared in farmers, rural area residents, and illiterates which are considered the main predisposing factors for ulcer resistance. According to culture results, bacterial organisms (especially Staphylococcus aureus) were the main cause of resistant corneal ulcers.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: "Poppers" is a slang term for a group of alkyl nitrites that are used as recreational drugs. Their inhalative intoxication leads to muscle relaxation, analgesia, and euphoria. Maculopathy is a rare but serious side-effect. Patients/Methods: Clinical, imaging, and electrophysiological findings of seven patients with maculopathy after consumption of poppers were presented. Results: All seven patients were male with a median age of 35 years (range 28-45 years), the median duration of periodical poppers use until the onset of symptoms was 9.8 years (one day to 25 years). Five of seven patients were HIV-positive, one patient was negative, and the HIV-status of one patient was unknown. Median average of visual acuity at presentation was 20/30 in each eye. In all patients, optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed pathognomonic alterations of the outer foveal retina. One patient showed an almost complete restitution of the maculopathy six months after cessation of drug use and following the oral intake of Lutein. Imaging alterations returned to normal and visual acuity recovered from 20/50 and 20/30 (right and left eye, respectively) to 20/20 on both eyes. Follow up of two other cases showed no relevant functional decline or improvement. Discussion: Toxic maculopathy due to the consumption of poppers is an important differential diagnosis in acute visual loss without clinico-morphological correlate. Optical coherence tomography is the only reliable diagnostic tool in these cases. Complete recovery of visual function and macular morphology is rare, even after cessation of drug abuse. Oral lutein therapy may have a beneficial effect.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To identify the referral pattern and identify causes of missed referrals to low-vision services in a tertiary eye care center. Methods: A retrospective review of all the hospital records of patients seen from September-December 2012 was done to identify patients with visual impairment. Low vision was defined as has a best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in the better eye of <20/60 to light perception (as per WHO definition); or a visual field of <20° from the point of fixation. The frequency of referrals in this database was used to identify referral patterns of physicians and also causes for missed referrals for these patients. Results: Of 14,938 hospital medical records reviewed during the period, 499 patients missed low-vision services with a mean age of 46 ± 18.2 years, including 158 females. Among those missed, 12.07% were in the age group 0-15 years, while 30.9% of the patients were >60 years, with 157 requiring rehabilitative services and training. Causes for missed referrals were clear misses or non-referrals by the physician (39%), non-acceptance of services by the patient (53%), loss from appointment desks (4.5%), and loss to follow-up (3.5%). Conclusion: Missed referral to low-vision services in tertiary centers can be considerable; these need to be identified for optimal utilization and delivery of these services to patients with low vision.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Aim: To examine corneal biomechanical properties, intraocular pressure, and central corneal thickness in uveitic eyes with Behçet disease (BD) and to compare them with healthy controls. Methods: This study included 40 eyes of 34 patients with ocular BD and 20 eyes of 20 healthy controls. Eyes with ocular BD were subdivided into active and inactive groups. Ocular response analyzer (ORA) measurements were performed on the 20 eyes of 16 patients with active BD (group 1), 20 eyes of 18 patients with inactive BD (group 2), and 20 eyes of 20 healthy volunteers who served as the control group (group 3). Corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), intraocular pressure (Goldmann correlated [IOPg], and corneal compensated [IOPcc]) and central corneal thickness (CCT) values were recorded. Results: Mean age of patients in groups 1, 2, and 3 was 33.81 ± 9.36, 32.38 ± 9.08, and 31.05 ± 5.85 years, respectively (p = 0.76). Mean CH, CRF, IOPg, IOPcc, and CCT values in groups 1, 2, and 3 were [8.51 ± 1.88, 9.72 ± 2.11, 19.87 ± 2.92, 16.13 ± 3.29, and 592.50 ± 39.95], [8.46 ± 1.82, 8.45 ± 1.98, 15.89 ± 2.68, 15.35 ± 2.91, and 528.35 ± 19.18], and [8.47 ± 1.48, 8.43 ± 1.58, 15.59 ± 2.74, 15.42 ± 3.19, and 526.30 ± 18.21], respectively [(p1 = 0.040, 0.904, <0.001, 0.495 and <0.001 for CRF, CH, IOPg, IOPcc and CCT in group 1, respectively), (p2 = 0.989, 0.904, 0.659, 0.989, and 0.989 for CRF, CH, IOPg, IOPcc and CCT in group 2, respectively), (p3 = 0.989, 0.904, 0.660, 0.989, and 0.989 for CRF, CH, IOPg, IOPcc and CCT in group 3, respectively)]. Conclusion: CRF, IOPg, and CCT values altered in active BD group when compared with inactive BD and control group (p < 0.005). Further studies are required to establish the effects of BD on corneal biomechanical properties.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Background: To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of various conditions among patients with pterygium. Methods: A retrospective observational case control study of 4,037 patients who were diagnosed with pterygium in the Central District of Clalit Health Services in Israel from 2000-2009. A total of 16,054 randomly selected controls from the district HMO members. Personal, medical, and demographic information were extracted from patients' files. We calculated the prevalence of various ocular, systemic, and demographic conditions as risk factors for pterygium. Results: The average age of pterygium patients was 58.4 ± 14 years; 56.9% were male. A significant tendency to develop pterygium was found among individuals of lower socioeconomic status (p < 0.001) and in populations living in rural areas (p < 0.001). A logistic regression model adjusted to marital status, socio-economic class, and area of living was performed. The following conditions were significantly associated with pterygium: blepharitis (OR = 1.71; 99.9% CI: 1.53-1.93), chalazia (OR = 1.46; 99.9% CI: (1.19-1.78)), anxiety (OR = 1.14, 99.9% CI: 0.98-1.33), and G6PD deficiency (OR = 1.85; 99.9% CI: 1.11-3.07). Schizophrenia (OR 0.31; 99.9% CI: 0.19-0.50) and smoking (OR 0.82; 99.9% CI: 0.76-0.89) were significantly less prevalent among pterygium patients. Conclusions: Pterygium etiology is multifactorial. Some demographic, systemic, and periocular conditions are significantly more prevalent and some are less prevalent among pterygium patients. Better understanding of the pathophysiological association between those diseases and pterygium may help in its prevention and treatment.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Neuro-ophthalmologists typically observe a temporal pallor of the optic disc in patients with multiple sclerosis. Here, we describe the emergence of an idea to quantify these optic disc color changes in multiple sclerosis patients. We recruited 12 multiple sclerosis patients with previous optic neuritis attack and obtained photographs of their optic discs. The Laguna ONhE, a new colorimetric software using hemoglobin as the reference pigment in the papilla, was used for the analysis. The papilla of these multiple sclerosis patients showed greater pallor, especially in the temporal sector. The software detected the pallor and assigned hemoglobin percentages below normal reference values. Measurements of optic disc hemoglobin levels obtained with the Laguna ONhE software program had good ability to detect optic atrophy and, consequently, axonal loss in multiple sclerosis patients. This new technology is easy to implement in routine clinical practice.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To study the efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab on a pro re nata basis for treatment of idiopathic choroidal neovascular membrane. Material and methods: Thirty-seven eyes of 37 patients presenting with idiopathic choroidal neovascular membrane were included in the study. Intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.05 ml) was given on a pro re nata basis from the base line. Results: Twenty-one (58.3%) patients were male and 15 (41.7%) were female aged 13–49 years. Idiopathic choroidal neovascular membrane showed a classic leak on fluorescein angiogram in all the eyes. Subfoveal location (25; 67.6%) was the commonest site of involvement. Mean number of intravitreal bevacizumab injections required to achieve resolution was 2.81 ± 1.4. At final follow-up, 31 (83.8%) eyes had maintained or improved vision (Group A) and six (16.2%) eyes had worsening of vision (Group B). There was no significant difference in mean age, gender, and mean number of injections between groups A and B. Conclusion: Intravitreal bevacizumab on a pro re nata basis is effective in the treatment of idiopathic choroidal neovascular membrane. A larger controlled study would be required to formulate an accurate injection protocol.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in acromegalic patients. Methods: A study group of 29 patients with acromegaly and a control group of 38 age-matched healthy individuals were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. The study group was further divided by tumor size into two subgroups, a macroadenoma group and a microadenoma group. Serum growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) levels were detected at the time of ophthalmological examination in the study group. In both the study and control group, the RNFL thickness in the four quadrants was measured by optical coherence tomography. The relationship between GH and IGF-I levels and RNLF thickness was also evaluated. Results: The difference in mean RNLF thickness in all quadrants between the study and control groups was not statistically significant. In acromegalic patients with macroadenoma, the mean RNLF thickness of the inferior quadrant decreased significantly compared to both patients with microadenoma and healthy individuals (p = 0,032 and p = 0,046). GH and IGF-1 levels were not significantly correlated with the RNLF thickness in the study group. Conclusions: Excessive GH and IGF-1 levels do not affect the optic nerve or RNLF thickness, whereas the RNLF becomes thinner in the inferior quadrant in acromegalic patients with macroadenoma as a result of the chiasmal compression.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objectives: Epiphora (excess tearing) is a common complaint among patients visiting ophthalmology clinics. The etiology of epiphora in patients presenting to a primary ophthalmologist might be very different compared to those referred to an oculoplastic unit. Purpose: To describe the etiology of epiphora in patients referred to an oculoplastics clinic. Methods: A retrospective, observational study of all consecutive referrals to oculoplastic service for epiphora in 2011-2012. Slit-lamp examination, eyelid position, dry eye tests, ocular surface pathology, the patency of the nasolacrimal system, and punctal aperture were evaluated. Results: A total of 445 eyes of 280 patients (205 men; 46.1%) participated. The mean age was 69.4 ± 15 (range 15-96) years. Bilateral epiphora occurred in 165 (58.9%) patients and unilateral in 115 (41.1%). The etiologies referred for epiphora were lower lid malposition (33.3%), nasolacrimal/canalicular obstruction (29%), multifactorial (22%), punctal stenosis (11%), and reflex tearing (4.7%). Women were younger than men (p < 0.0001). More women had punctal stenosis compared to men (34.6% versus 22.4%, p = 0.01), and more men had eyelid malposition than women (39.5% versus 27.9%, p = 0.005). Conclusions: Women with epiphora tend to present with nasolacrimal duct obstruction and punctal stenosis at younger ages, and unilaterally more often than men. Men with epiphora were older, with more cases attributed to laxity of the lower eyelid. Multiple etiologies frequently need to be addressed to achieve optimal results in treating epiphora.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To describe the prevalence of epiphora and associated factors after uncomplicated phacoemulsification. Methods: Prospective and descriptive design. A group of 125 patients was asked about tearing one to two weeks after cataract surgery. A comprehensive examination was performed on the patients who answered affirmatively. All patients were re-interviewed by phone after three months and those who complained of epiphora were explored again. Results: Two weeks after surgery, prevalence of epiphora was 10.4%, but only 3.2% appeared after surgery. In patients with preoperative epiphora, the most frequently associated factors were ocular surface alterations (89%) and unctual and canalicular stenosis (56%). In patients with "new onset" epiphora (4 patients), these factors were: blepharitis (2/4), low tear break-up time (2/4), high tear meniscus (2/4), partial nasolacrimal duct obstruction (2/4), and unctual stenosis (1/4). Three months after surgery, the prevalence of epiphora was 13%, but only 7% appeared after surgery (6 patients). Of those 6 patients, 4 were re-examined: nasolacrimal duct obstruction (2/4), ocular surface problems (3/4), and unctual stenosis (1/4). Conclusions: Presence of epiphora two weeks after phacoemulsification was infrequent, despite being present in a high proportion of patients before surgery. There was not a noticeable increase in epiphora at three months. The most frequently related factors were mixed disorders of the ocular surface and lacrimal system, without an important incidence of unctual and canalicular stenosis. We consider that our perception about complaints from patients after phacoemulsification may be biased due to those who had previously suffered from epiphora.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We studied 87 cases of children aged 3 to 10 with unilateral amblyopia (with types of anisometropia, strabismus, or both) who received good recovery after occlusion therapy. The proportional improvement had moderate positive correlation with amblyopic eye improvement (p < 0.05) and negative correlation with residual amblyopia (p < 0.05); the amblyopia residual had no correlation with amblyopic eye improvement (p < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, the proportion of the deficit-corrected of the <5 years group with 2 h/d occlusion therapy group displayed the best outcome (p < 0.05). The BCVA of amblyopia eye and residual amblyopia are simple and direct indicators for clinical application. The proportion of the deficit-corrected method should be graded as the proportion of change in visual acuity with respect to the absolute potential for improvement, and these optimum outcomes can provide powerful evidence for good therapeutic effect.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 11/2014;