Immunological investigations (IMMUNOL INVEST )

Publisher: Taylor & Francis


Disseminating immunological developments on a worldwide basis, Immunological Investigations encompasses all facets of fundamental and applied immunology, including immunohematology and the study of allergies. This journal provides information presented in the form of original research articles and book reviews, giving a truly in-depth examination of the latest advances in molecular and cellular immunology.

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    Immunological Investigations website
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    Immunological investigations (Online), Immunological investigations
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Publications in this journal

  • Immunological investigations 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Seminal plasma and follicular fluid (FF) cytokine analysis are valuable tools for diagnoses and validation of therapeutic approaches for improving the chance of conception. Despite the initial discovery over a decade ago, the IL-17 family has not received much attention in the case of infertility. In this study, we analyzed the level of IL-17A in seminal plasma, follicular fluid and blood serum of infertile patients with different clinical diagnoses by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The results showed that the level of IL-17A was higher in seminal plasma and blood serum of varicocele patients than the control group. The level of this cytokine was higher in follicular fluid of endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and tubal factor patients than the control group. A similar elevation in IL-17A level was observed in blood serum of these patients. Furthermore, there was a correlation between the numbers of meiosis I (MI) oocytes and the level of blood serum and follicular fluid IL-17A in PCOS patients. Our data suggest a putative role of IL-17A in mediating these conditions and may have possible applications in the development of more effective diagnostic tools and therapeutic treatments for human reproductive disorders.
    Immunological investigations 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) play an important role in eradicating bacterial infections. To test if PMN of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have defective capacity to produce IL-12, IL-12 p35 gene transcription and p70 excretion by PMN were evaluated in SLE patients and normal subjects. Peripheral blood PMN from 25 patients with active SLE and 25 normal individuals were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100ng/mL) in the presence or absence of recombinant interferon (IFN)-gamma (5-200IU/mL). The IL-12 p35 gene transcripts were analyzed by reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the IL-12 p70 in culture supenatants was quantified by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). At the 6th hour of stimulation, IL-12 expression in PMN of SLE patients was less prominent than that of the normal controls. The IL-12 was produced by normal PMN on LPS stimulation in the absence of IFN-gamma. IFN-gamma enhanced the IL-12 production by normal PMN stimulated with LPS, but it inhibited the IL-12 production in PMN from active lupus patients in the presence of LPS. Analysis with PCR using the same primers on the chromosomal DNA showed that p35 gene was intact in SLE patients. These results have suggested that SLE-PMN may have defect in IL-12 expression and the defect may be exaggerated in the presence of IFN-gamma which normally stimulates IL-12 production. This may account for increased susceptibility to multiple infections in patients with active SLE.
    Immunological investigations 07/2009; 31(3-4):177-89.
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    ABSTRACT: Over the last dozen years the relative frequencies of specific transfusion reactions have markedly altered, in general for the better. Although AIDS remains the Public's primary concern, the risk of AIDS from a transfusion is extremely low at this point. Hepatitis remains the most common infectious complication of blood transfusion, but only 1 in 6,000 units now carry a risk, whereas in the early 1980's the risk is believed to have been close to 10% per patient. Transmission of HTLV-I/II has also been markedly reduced by tests of donor sera. In contrast, cytomegalovirus has become of increased importance in view of the large number of patients immunosuppressed for transplantation and cancer therapy; bacterial growth in blood components appears to be increasingly common; and Chagas disease is likely to become a serious transfusion problem in this country. More widespread use of filters which remove three logs or more of white blood cells from components should play a major role in reducing transfusion reactions further.
    Immunological investigations 07/2009; 24(1-2):289-302.
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the current emphasis in transfusion medicine on regulatory compliance and cost containment, there is continuing activity in quality improvement of blood products. Quality can be assessed by measuring both benefit and risk. High quality products are those in which the benefit is maximized and the risk minimized. Risk, in the context of platelet transfusions, is minimized by reducing infectious agents, sources of allergic reactions, and other factors likely to cause adverse reactions in recipients. Benefit can be better described as potency. Potency is the ability to produce a desired effect. For platelet concentrates, potency has both quantitative [platelet yield] and qualitative [platelet viability, survival, and function] components. There are many activities which may influence the potency of the final transfused platelet product and these are summarized in Figure 1. It is helpful to review each step in order to assess the potential impact on the potency of the final transfused product.
    Immunological investigations 07/2009; 24(1-2):353-70.
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    ABSTRACT: The biological activities of IL-18 include its ability to induce the production of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 or IL-8 by immunocompetent cells. Our previous study demonstrated that rhIL-18 induces IL-1beta and, to a lesser exted, the secretion of IL-1beta regulatory proteins involving interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-IRa) and soluble interleukin-1 receptor II (sIL-1RII) by neutrophils (PMN), suggesting a significant role of IL-18 in the reactions mediated by IL-1beta. In this study, we estimated the effect of rhIL-18 on the induction of IL-6 and its soluble receptors - sIL-6Ralpha and sgp130 by these cells. Results obtained indicate that IL-18 is a promising candidate for the enhanced secretion of IL-6 by human neutrophils. In contrast, we have not found a significant effect of IL-18 on the release of both soluble receptors of IL-6. The influence of IL-18 on the IL-6 production by PMN appears to indicate a potential role of IL-18 in the early steps of the inflammatory cascade and other immune reactions mediated by IL-6.
    Immunological investigations 07/2009; 31(3-4):159-67.
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    ABSTRACT: Thirty patients who fulfilled clinical criteria defined by the CDC for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome were treated with alfa 2a interferon or placebo in a double-blind crossover study. Outcome was evaluated by Natural Killer (NK) cell function, lymphocyte proliferation to mitogens and soluble antigens, CD4/CD8 counts and a 10 item Quality of Life (QOL) survey. Although mean NK function rose from 87.8 +/- 19.6 to 129.3 +/- 20.7 lytic untis (LU; p < .05) with 12 weeks of interferon therapy, there was no significant change in the other immunologic parameters or QOL scores. When the 26 patients who completed the study were stratified according to their baseline NK function and lymphocyte proliferation, 4 groups were identified: 3 patients had normal NK cell function and lymphocyte proliferation when compared to normal, healthy controls, 9 had isolated deficiency in lymphocyte proliferation, 7 had diminished NK function only, and 7 had abnormalities for both parameters. QOL scores were not significantly different for the four groups at baseline. After 12 weeks of interferon therapy, QOL score significantly improved in each of the seven patients with isolated NK cell dysfunction (mean score, 16.3 +/- 7.9) compared to baseline (39.7 +/- 12.1; p < .05). In these patients the mean NK function increased from 35.1 +/- 11.7 to 91.5 +/- 22.7 LU (p < .01). Significant improvement was not recorded for QOL in the other three groups. Thus, therapy with alpha interferon has a significant effect on the QOL of that subgroup of patients with CFS manifesting an isolated decrease in NK function.
    Immunological investigations 07/2009; 25(1-2):153-64.
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    ABSTRACT: Previously we demonstrated that endogenously produced Interleukin (IL-)10 suppressed the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in CD3 activated T-cells via down-regulation of paracrine IL-12 secretion from APC. Here we investigated the effect of endogenous IL-10 on TNF-alpha production in purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated monocytes and its mechanism. Similarly to its effects on T-cells, IL-10 inhibited monocyte TNF-alpha production by about half. Unlike in T-cells, however, this effect was not mediated via IL-12. While blockade of endogenous IL-10 binding to the IL-10 receptor enhanced the autocrine production of TNF-alpha, IL-12 and IL-1 beta, the neutralization of IL-12 or IL-1 beta did not affect the IL-10 effects on TNF-alpha production. This suggests that despite its inhibitory effects on IL-12 and IL-1 beta, which is quite similarly observed in T-cells, in purified monocytes IL-10 does not effect its TNF-alpha suppression by this mechanism. These findings indicate that IL-10 regulates production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by distinct mechanisms in different cells and tissues. Our study thus adds to the appreciation of the complex cytokine regulation of the immune system.
    Immunological investigations 07/2009; 28(2-3):165-75.
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    ABSTRACT: Of thirty surgical specimens of human lung carcinoma examined with electron microscopy, eleven were found to contain killer cells (cytotoxic lymphocytes). Nearly one-third of the killer cells showed the polarization of their cytoplasm in which Golgi apparatus, dense granules or centrioles could be seen. The tumor cells conjugated by the killer cells showed lesions to varying degrees, including loss of cell membranes, alterations of cell organelles, even cell necrosis. The killer cells frequently penetrated into the cytoplasm, even the muclei of the tumor cells. The results of the present study suggest that the lymphocyte-mediated tumor cell lysis may exist in the microenvironment of human lung carcinoma and that some of these cytotoxic lymphocytes may kill their target cells by a similar mechanism of the pore formation or granule exocytosis model, but some different aspects were also observed, as compared with the results of the in vitro studies.
    Immunological investigations 07/2009; 18(9-10):1095-105.
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    ABSTRACT: Our previous study demonstrated that cataract Shionogi (CTS) mice, an inbred strain related to non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, are T lymphocytopenic and that their T cell-mediated in vitro reactions, such as proliferative responses of spleen cells to T cell mitogens and alloantigens or production of IL 2 and IL 2 receptors after stimulation of spleen cells with Con A, are greatly reduced. To confirm these in vitro characteristics, in vivo immune responses of CTS mice to T-dependent and T-independent antigens were compared with those of some reference strains including NOD mice. Antibody responses of CTS mice after one injection of a high dose (10(8)) or one or two injections of a low dose (10(5)) of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) were markedly lower than those of the reference strains. The decrease was particularly striking in the IgM antibody production at primary response to both high and low doses, and the IgG antibody production at the secondary response to low dose. Similar lower antibody production was observed in CTS mice against bovine serum albumin (BSA). Little production of IgE antibody was observed from 1 through 3 weeks after an injection of BSA plus Bordetella pertussis. IgG1 response was observed at high incidence but lower in titer than those in the reference strains. Unexpectedly, in spite of the poor antibody production to BSA, potent systemic sensitization for anaphylactic shock was easily established; incidence of lethal shock being comparable with those in the reference strains. This suggests that CTS mice are highly susceptible to the effector phase of active anaphylactic shock. Cell-mediated immunity was also impaired. Delayed type of hypersensitivity to SRBC was low, and the rejection of the skin graft from NOD mouse did not occur. In contrast to the reduced T cell-mediated responses, no difference was found between CTS and reference strains with regard to the antibody production to LPS, a T-independent antigen. These in vivo findings are consistent with the previous in vitro study.
    Immunological investigations 07/2009; 19(5-6):493-505.
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    ABSTRACT: Evaluation of the influence of N-nitrosodimethyloamine (NDMA) on the apoptosis of neutrophils of peripheral blood (PMN) and the expression of the IL-6R membrane receptor - in vitro research. The aim of the present work was the evaluation of N-nitrosodimethyloamine (NDMA) on the induction of apoptosis in the neutrophils of peripheral blood as well as the evaluation of the surface receptors for IL-6. The isolated neutrophils were incubated for 1 and 3 hours with NDMA of a concentration of 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 mg/ml. In the samples incubated for 1 hour a significant, dose- dependent increase of apoptosis in the examined cells was observed. In the cells incubated for 3 hours, the increase of apoptosis was observed only at concentration of NDMA of 2.5 and 5 mg/ml. In case of higher concentration used, probably necrotic processes dominated in the cells. No influence of NDMA on the expression of IL-6R was observed.
    Immunological investigations 07/2009; 28(2-3):177-84.
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has emerged as a public health concern over the past decade. A working case definition was created in 1988 and revised in 1994, and this has been used to establish prevalence estimates using physician-based surveillance and an a random digit dial telephone survey. Although CFS has some characteristics of an infectious disease, so far no infectious agent has been associated with the illness. Studies of immune function in CFS patients failed to detect differences between cases and healthy controls. However, when cases were subgrouped according to whether they had a sudden or gradual onset, differences in immunologic markers were detected between cases and their matched controls.
    Immunological investigations 07/2009; 26(1-2):269-73.
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence and distribution of immunoglobulin receptors on oral mucosal T cells were investigated. Enrichment of either Thy-1.2, L3T4 or Lyt-2.2-positive cells was achieved by the use of a panning procedure following cell extraction by an optimized digestion method that preserved all three T-cell markers. The percentage of cells possessing Fc receptors was determined by using immunoglobulin-coated (IgM, IgG or IgA) fluorescent microspheres in a multipoint rosetting assay. We report that approximately 60% of Thy-1.2, L3T4 and Lyt-2.2 positive cells bear Fc gamma R whereas less than 5% of T cells of any subset bear Fc alpha R or Fc mu R. In frozen tissue sections, Fc gamma R+ cells were mainly scattered throughout the basal and suprabasal epithelium and were observed at a lower frequency in the minor salivary gland network. From their distribution, it is anticipated that Fc gamma R+ cells may be involved in the surveillance of the epithelium while the minor Fc alpha R+ L3T4+ T lymphocyte population may promote the expression of sIgA by resident sIgM-bearing B cells, and their differentiation into IgA plasma cells.
    Immunological investigations 07/2009; 19(5-6):463-74.
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    ABSTRACT: In the last 10 years many of the superantigens of the microbial world have been defined and the mechanisms of cellular interaction between lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells has been elucidated in great detail. The consequences of superantigen stimulation of the immune system, though less well defined, can be considered in three separate stages: T-cell proliferation, apoptosis, and recovery. Understanding these stages may explain why diverse superantigens may cause markedly different clinical processes ranging from acute shock to chronic arthritis and may form the basis for novel treatments of these diverse diseases.
    Immunological investigations 07/2009; 26(1-2):275-81.
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    ABSTRACT: Antipeptide and antiidiotypic antibodies to several receptors are known to mimic their respective ligands in transducing signals on binding their receptors. In our attempts to study gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor, antipeptide and antiidiotypic monoclonal antibodies specific to the receptor were established earlier. The antipeptide mAb F1G4 was to a synthetic peptide corresponding to the extracellular domain of human GnRH receptor and the antiidiotypic mAb 4D10C1 was to the idiotype of a GnRH specific mAb. Here we report the physiological effects of the two mAbs on binding the receptor, as investigated using in vitro cultures of (a) human term placental villi and (b) rat pituitaries. The mAb 4D10C1 exerted a dose-dependent release of human chorionic gonadotropin in cultures of human term placental villi as well as luteinising and follicle stimulating hormones in cultures of rat pituitaries.
    Immunological investigations 07/2009; 28(2-3):103-14.
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental evidence is accumulating to support a central role for cytokines in the pathophysiology of hemolytic transfusion reactions. The production of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein occurs in whole blood in response to ABO incompatible red cells, a model of acute hemolytic transfusion reactions. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells may produce interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in response to IgG-coated red cells, a model of delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions. Cultured umbilical vein endothelial cells respond to conditioned plasma from ABO-incompatibility reactions by expressing the procoagulant tissue factor and the leukocyte adhesion molecules ELAM-1 and ICAM-1. These in vitro endothelial cell responses can be inhibited by neutralizing antibodies to tumor necrosis factor, suggesting that TNF may have a central role in intravascular coagulation and end-organ injury that may occur in acute hemolytic transfusion reactions.
    Immunological investigations 07/2009; 24(1-2):319-31.
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    ABSTRACT: HLA heterogeneity occurs in various ethnic groups and has been significantly associated with Graves' disease. In this study we have determined that DQ3 is associated with Graves' disease in African-Americans. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing of D-region antigens in 139 controls and 45 Graves' disease patients reveals significant differences for HLA-DR2, DR9, DQ1, and DQ3. The latter remained significant after correction. Increases in HLA-DR9 and DR3 are associated with increases in DQ3 and DQ2, respectively. The decrease in DR2 is associated with a decrease in DQ1. The associated increases and decreases in DR with DQ antigens probably reflect linkage disequilibrium. Patients were evaluated for autoantibodies against microsomal antigens and/or against thyroglobulin. All of the normal control volunteers were negative for thyroid antibodies and thirteen percent of patients produced autoantibodies. No significant associations were detected for antibody production, type of treatment required, age of onset, family history of Graves', status of T3, T4 levels, goiter and/or ophthalmopathy.
    Immunological investigations 07/2009; 25(1-2):103-10.
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    ABSTRACT: Mononuclear cell elicitation has gained renewed interest with the discovery of a supergene family of small polypeptide chemotactic cytokines (< 10 kD). These chemotactic cytokines have been divided into the C-X-C and C-C chemokine families depending upon whether the first two conserved cysteine amino acid residues are separated by one amino acid or are in juxtaposition, respectively. A salient feature of the C-C chemokine family is their ability to induce both monocyte and lymphocyte chemotaxis. Although monocyte and lymphocyte migration in vitro is measured in chemotactic bioassays, this technique often fails to determine the specific quantitative contribution of a chemotaxin to a biological specimen. Our laboratory has developed two sensitive and specific sandwich ELISAs for the detection of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha and beta (MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta). The lower threshold for detection of both MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta was 100 pg/ml, and both of these ELISAs were efficacious for the detection of MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta in conditioned media from pulmonary fibroblasts, monocytes, neutrophils, and a pulmonary epithelial cell line. The development of these ELISAs will allow the measurement of MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta from biologically relevant fluids and ascertain whether these two C-C chemokines are present in disease.
    Immunological investigations 07/2009; 22(6-7):441-9.

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