Immunological investigations (IMMUNOL INVEST )

Publisher: Taylor & Francis


Disseminating immunological developments on a worldwide basis, Immunological Investigations encompasses all facets of fundamental and applied immunology, including immunohematology and the study of allergies. This journal provides information presented in the form of original research articles and book reviews, giving a truly in-depth examination of the latest advances in molecular and cellular immunology.

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    Immunological Investigations website
  • Other titles
    Immunological investigations (Online), Immunological investigations
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    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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Taylor & Francis

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    • Publisher last contacted on 25/03/2014
    • 'Taylor & Francis (Psychology Press)' is an imprint of 'Taylor & Francis'
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The study is conducted to evaluate relationship between LEPRQ223R (Gln > Arg) polymorphism, serum leptin levels, soluble leptin receptor (SOb-R) levels and SLE risk in Kashmiri population.LEPR genotyping was done by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method in 100 unrelated SLE patients and equal number of healthy control subjects. Leptin and SOb-R levels were measured by ELISA assays. The present study showed higher frequency of variant genotype (AG + GG) in cases compared to controls [OR = 2.52, CI = 1.18–5.35, p = 0.03]. Moreover the rare (G) allele was significantly more predominant in cases than controls [OR = 1.49, p = 0.04]. Interestingly a positive association between the variant genotype and the development of arthritis [OR = 11.8, CI = 1.6–85.1, p = 0.002] and an inverse association with cardiac disorder [OR = 0.09, CI = 0.02–0.46, p = 0.001] was observed in this study. Furthermore the study showed significant differences of leptin levels in SLE patients and controls (23.9 ± 19.5 vs 14.8 ± 10.4, p < 0.001). SLE patients in the highest quartile leptin levels (≥32.5 ng/mL) were significantly more likely to have higher BMI (p = 0.001) and increased risk of developing arthritis (p = 0.02). Furthermore positive association was observed between the variant genotype(AG + GG) and leptin levels (p = 0.001) in SLE patients. Thus, it is evident from our study that LEPRQ223R polymorphism and elevated leptin levels are associated with increased susceptibility of SLE in Kashmiri population.
    Immunological investigations 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: S100 calcium binding protein A12 (S100A12) has been supposed to be a pro-inflammatory factor associated with non-infectious inflammatory diseases. However, whether S100A12 is involved in the inflammatory process of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) has not been shown. Methods: The levels of S100A12 mRNA transcripts in peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMCs) of 66 Chinese patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), 62 healthy controls (HC) and 55 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) were measured by qRT-PCR. S100A12 serum concentrations in 34 PBC patients were measured by ELISA. Results: The levels of S100A12 mRNA transcripts in PBMCs of patients with PBC were significantly higher than healthy controls (p < 0.01) and that of patients with CHB (p < 0.01). Importantly, the levels of S100A12 mRNA in PBMCs and S100A12 protein levels in serum were positively correlated with biochemical indicators of bile duct and hepatocyte damage. Conclusion: S100A12 might participate in the damage of biliary epithelial cells and hepatocytes in PBC, and analysis of S100A12 expression could be useful as a surrogate marker for the evaluation of PBC activity.
    Immunological investigations 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Historically, cellular rather than humoral immunity has gathered the most attention in kidney transplantation. As the specter of cellular acute rejection and early graft loss has faded due to the availability of highly effective immunosuppressive therapy, scientific and clinical studies now focus on improving long-term graft survival. It is increasingly appreciated that alloantibodies directed against HLA and non-HLA antigens are key factors in determining graft longevity. Significant efforts are now being made to better understand the critical impact that B cells and alloantibodies make on organ allocation and graft survival. Future therapies directed specific for the humoral alloresponse will undoubtedly lead to improved outcomes after kidney transplantation. This review will cover some of the advances in the understanding and management of the continuum of humoral immunity in renal transplantation in the pre, peri and post-transplant periods.
    Immunological investigations 10/2014; 43(8).
  • Immunological investigations 10/2014; 43(8):734-737.
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    ABSTRACT: Transplant science has improved significantly over the last decade. Influenced by novel advancements, rejection rates and short-term graft losses diminished substantially. Induction therapy was shown to reduce rejection rates and improve short-term graft survival. In this article, we discuss the most commonly used induction agents and the choice of induction therapy in different renal transplant recipient subgroups. The medical literature as well as our own experience was used to prepare this review. At this time, induction therapy is commonly used in upwards of 80%, of renal transplant recipients. Depleting agents are the most frequently used agents and they account for more than 75% of all induction therapies in the United States. Currently, there is no consensus regarding the choice of induction therapy. The type of induction therapy is generally selected based on a comprehensive evaluation of the recipient and the donor’s immunological risks, the risk of developing opportunistic infection and malignancy, recipient comorbidities, financial burden and the choice of maintenance immunosuppressive regimen.
    Immunological investigations 10/2014; 43(8).
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    ABSTRACT: Corneal transplant is the most common solid tissue transplant in humans. Advances in microsurgical techniques, eye banking and the use of corticosteroids have improved the success of corneal transplants. Over 65,000 corneal transplants are being performed worldwide annually. Most of these transplants are performed in developed countries. Cornea is considered an immune privileged site. Despite this, immune mediated graft rejection is the most single cause of cornea graft failure and is one of the major postoperative complications. Incidences from as low as 2% to as high as 50% have been reported depending upon the degree of vascularization. Rejection involves donor tissue recognition and various factors may influence this rejection. Major factors include the antigenic load of the donor tissue; other factors include death to enucleation time, methods and temperature of preserving the tissue. Host factors that may impact the graft include ocular surface diseases such as dry eye, chemical burns and autoimmune diseases such as mucous membrane pemphigoid. Following infection, surgery or trauma, cells of the innate immune system invade the cornea as a result of up-regulation of cytokines, cellular adhesion molecules and growth and angiogenic factors. These factors results in neoangiogenesis and lymphoangiogenesis, leading to immune activation and graft rejection. The various immunological mechanisms that may play a role in the corneal transplant are discussed.
    Immunological investigations 10/2014; 43(8).
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term outcomes following renal transplantation remain limited due to chronic progressive injury partly as a result of calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) toxicity. Thus, patients have been converted to non-CNI immunosuppressives despite the lack of evidence of long-term benefits from CNI free therapy. We now report our 10-year experience converting patients with well functioning transplants from CNI to sirolimus. We retrospectively analyzed outcomes of patients receiving continuous CNI based therapy (CNI, n = 309) or who were switched to sirolimus within the first year of post-transplantation (CONV, n = 54). The groups were similar for most recipient, graft and donor characteristics, however, diabetes was more common in the CNI group and statin use was more frequent in the CONV group. The average time to conversion was 7.2 months and the creatinine level at the time of switching was 1.4 mg/dl. Ten year graft and patient survival rates were equivalent in both groups. There were no differences in the causes of death or graft loss in both groups. Renal function was available for 5 years posttransplant and was no different between groups. Thus, there is no evidence that routinely switching patients with well functioning renal allografts to sirolimus from CNI based immunosuppression provides long-term benefit.
    Immunological investigations 10/2014; 43(8).
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    ABSTRACT: In the field of transplantation, flow cytometry serves a well-established role in pre-transplant crossmatching and monitoring immune reconstitution following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The capabilities of flow cytometers have continuously expanded and this combined with more detailed knowledge of the constituents of the immune system, their function and interaction and newly developed reagents to study these parameters have led to additional utility of flow cytometry-based analyses, particularly in the post-transplant setting. This review discusses the impact of flow cytometry on managing alloantigen reactions, monitoring opportunistic infections and graft rejection and gauging immunosuppression in the context of solid organ transplantation.
    Immunological investigations 10/2014; 43(8).
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    ABSTRACT: Despite preservation methods, surgical procedures, current immunosuppressive therapy regimens advances, organ transplantation is accompanied with a poor long-term survival and significant mortality. This has led to an increased interest to optimize outcomes while minimizing associated toxicity by using alternative methods for maintenance immunosuppression, organ rejection treatment, and monitoring of immunosuppression. Advance in long-standing allograft outcomes may depend on new drugs with novel mechanisms of action with minimal toxicity. Newer treatment techniques have been developed, including using novel stem cell-based therapies such as mesenchymal stem cells, phagosomes and exosomes. Immunoisolation techniques and salvage therapies, including photopheresis and total lymphoid irradiation have emerged as alternate therapeutic choices. The present review evaluates the recent clinical advances in immunosuppressive therapies for organ transplantation.
    Immunological investigations 10/2014; 43(8).
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether there was a relationship between damage associated molecular pattern molecule (DAMP) expression and recruitment of suppressor cells to sites of metastasis we measured relative expression of DAMPs, regulatory T cells (Tregs), and myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) in mice at various stages of breast cancer progression using the 4T1 model. Although S100A8 was expressed at relatively low levels in the tumor cells, expression was 100-fold higher in the lung and liver which are common sites of metastasis for this tumor. Despite the relatively high level of S100A8 expression in the lungs of naïve mice, the level of expression increased further and was significantly elevated after only 7 days of tumor growth. The same pattern was observed for MDSC, and both S100A8 and MDSC expression peaked in the lungs of mice following 21 days of tumor growth. Characterization of MDSC from the lungs revealed expression of RAGE, and the cells were capable of migrating in a dose-dependent manner toward S100A8. In addition, the MDSC expressed low levels of MHC Class I, MHC Class II, CD80, and secreted TGF-β. Taken together, these data suggest that expression of S100A8 in the lungs may facilitate recruitment of MDSC, which may in turn aid in establishing a metastatic niche capable of suppressing a localized immune response.
    Immunological investigations 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 alleles have been studied in a Mixtec Mexican Amerindian population by indirect DNA sequencing. HLA relatedness has been tested by comparing results with other Amerindians and worldwide populations; a total of 15,681 chromosomes have been used. Genetic distances between populations, Neighbour Joining (NJ) dendrograms and correspondence analyses have been carried out. Conclusions are: 1) Our Mixtec sample from Oaxaca Coastal Mexican area shows an HLA profile different to that of Oaxaca Central Mountains area showing that genes and languages do not correlate which is inferred both by plane genetic distances and NJ dendrograms and correspondence analyses. 2) Genetic distances and NJ dendrograms join together Mazatecan Mexican Amerindians with our studied Coastal Mixtec group; it fits with the historical relationship between Mixtec and Mazatecans. 3) A*24:02-B*35:14-DRB1*04:11, A*02:01-B*15:15-DRB1*04:11 and A*68:03-B*39:08-DRB1*08:02 extended HLA haplotypes have been "de novo" found in our Mixtec Coastal sample. 4) Shared HLA alleles are found between our Pacific Coast Mixtec Amerindians and Pacific Islanders. 5) These results are useful for establishing a future area transplantation waiting list, for the study of HLA linked diseases epidemiology and for pharmacogenomics in certain drug therapy.
    Immunological investigations 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Monoclonal non-specific suppressor factor β (MNSFβ) is a ubiquitously expressed member of the ubiquitin-like family that is involved in various biological functions. Previous studies have demonstrated that MNSFβ covalently binds to intracellular pro-apoptotic protein Bcl-G and regulates apoptosis in macrophages. In this study, we demonstrate that MNSFβ negatively regulates T cell function. In murine T-helper type 2 clone, D10.G4.1 (D10) cells transfected with MNSFβ cDNA, CD3/CD28-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation leading to IL-4 production was significantly inhibited. The formation of MNSFβ-Bcl-G complex was induced by the CD3/CD28 stimulation. Co-transfection with MNSFβ and Bcl-G greatly enhanced CD3/CD28-induced apoptosis in D10 cells. Similarly, co-over-expression of MNSFβ and Bcl-G caused a marked enhancement of apoptosis in purified splenic T cells. Interestingly, this MNSFβ adduct was also induced in T cells derived from DO11.10 mice stimulated with antigen. Collectively, CD3/CD28-inducible MNSFβ-Bcl-G complex may be involved in the regulation of T cell function and survival.
    Immunological investigations 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammation is major symptom of the innate immune response by infection of microbes. Macrophages, one of immune response related cells, play a role in inflammatory response. Recent studies reported that various natural products can regulate the activation of immune cells such as macrophage. Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. Agardh is one of brown algae. Recently, various seaweeds including brown algae have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, anti-inflammatory effects of Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. Agardh are still unknown. In this study, we investigated anti-inflammatory effects of ethanolic extract of Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. Agardh (ESH) on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. The ESH was extracted from dried Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. Agardh with 70% ethanol and then lyophilized at -40 °C. ESH was not cytotoxic to RAW 264.7, and nitric oxide (NO) production induced by LPS-stimulated macrophage activation was significantly decreased by the addition of 200 μg/mL of ESH. Moreover, ESH treatment reduced mRNA level of cytokines, including IL-1β, and pro-inflammatory genes such as iNOS and COX-2 in LPS-stimulated macrophage activation in a dose-dependent manner. ESH was found to elicit anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting ERK, p-p38 and NF-κB phosphorylation. In addition, ESH inhibited the release of IL-1β in LPS-stimulated macrophages. These results suggest that ESH elicits anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-stimulated macrophage activation via the inhibition of ERK, p-p38, NF-κB, and pro-inflammatory gene expression.
    Immunological investigations 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a procedure in which infusion of hematopoietic stem cells is used to reestablish hematopoietic function in patients with damaged or defective bone marrow or immune systems. Early and late complications following allogeneic HSCT include acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), donor rejection, graft failure, relapse of primary malignancy, conditioning-related toxicity, immunodeficiency and infections. Immunology has a central role in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Any appreciation of the immunological mechanism involved in engraftment, GVHD, the development of tolerance, immune reconstitution, and the control of malignancy requires some understanding of the immunologic basis for immune reactions provoked by grafting tissue from one individual to another. In the future it should be possible to learn what gene(s) must be activated and which must be repressed to force stem cells into division without maturation; to engineer a mechanism into the cells that stops proliferation and sets the stage for amplification; to search if there could be a universal donor cell line, neatly packaged and stabilized in sealed vials and distributed by the pharmaceutical industry; to modify the transplanted cells in such a way that they have a proliferative advantage over those of the host and to deliver the lethal blow against the neoplasm, perhaps the cells that are infused will be engineered in such a way as to be able to distinguish between normal host cells and tumor.
    Immunological investigations 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: CD8(+)CD62L(+) T cells have been shown to play pivotal roles in anti-viral immunity, chronic myeloid leukemia and renal cell carcinoma. Recently, CD8(+)CD62L(+) T cells from naïve mice (nCD8(+)CD62L(+) T cells) have shown superior anti-tumor properties in melanoma-bearing mice. Considering that antigen-specific memory T cells have shown to possess more potent immunity than non-specific memory T cells, we hypothesized that CD8(+)CD62L(+) T cells from tumor-bearing individuals (mCD8(+)CD62L(+) T cells) might have superior anti-tumor effect than nCD8(+)CD62L(+) T cells. Therefore, we investigated phenotypes, functions and the in vivo distribution of mCD8(+)CD62L(+) T cells in tumor-bearing mice. We found that, while keeping the features of central memory T cells, the frequency of mCD8(+)CD62L(+) T cell in the spleen of tumor-bearing mice was significantly higher than that the one of nCD8(+)CD62L(+) T cell in naive mice. Moreover, we demonstrated that mCD8(+)CD62L(+) T cells had higher proliferation rate and IFN-γ production than nCD8(+)CD62L(+) T cells, in vitro. We performed adoptive transfer of mCD8(+)CD62L(+) T cells into melanoma-bearing mice and tracked them in spleen, lymph nodes and in melanoma tissues. Our results show that mCD8(+)CD62L(+) T cells had stronger in vivo anti-tumoral activity than nCD8(+)CD62L(+) T cells. This study highlights the therapeutic potential of mCD8(+)CD62L(+) T cells in the immunotherapy of melanoma and possibly other tumors.
    Immunological investigations 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare hereditary disorder that is characterized by a greatly increased susceptibility to life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections. CGD is caused by mutations in any one of the genes encoding subunits of phagocyte NADPH oxidase. X-linked CGD, more than half of all CGD cases, is caused by mutations in CYBB gene encoding gp91-phox subunit. We identified the mutations in the CYBB gene of 29 Korean patients with X-linked CGD from 26 unrelated families. Twenty-three mutations were identified: five splice site mutations (c.45 + 1G > C, c.141 + 5G > A, c.897 + 2T > C c.1461 + 1G > T, c.1586 + 2T > A), four frameshift mutations (c.27dupG, [c.737A > C; c.742delA], c.742dupA, c.1636 del C), seven non-sense mutations (c217C > T, c.469C > T, c.676C > T, c.868C > T, c.1222G > T, c.1272G > A, c.1281T > A), five missense mutations (c.164 C > A, c.422T > C, c.665 A > G, c.1012C > T, c.1461G > T) and two gross deletions. Eight out of 23 mutations identified in this study are novel mutations: two splice mutations(c.897 + 2T > C, c.1586 + 2T > A), two frame shift mutations ([c.737A > C; c.742delA], c.1636 del C), two nonsense mutations (c.1222G > T, c.1281T > A), one missense mutation (c.1461G > T), one gross deletion (c.1667_1629 del.). Our results confirmed that mutations of CYBB gene in the X-CGD are very heterogeneous and not show the peculiarity of the ethnic group.
    Immunological investigations 08/2014; 43(6):585-594.
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    ABSTRACT: Cytokines in follicular fluid (FF) are important for reproduction as they modulate oocyte maturation and ovulation which influence subsequent fertilization, development of early embryo and potential for implantation. We evaluated FF cytokines in women who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and their association with fertilized oocytes, embryo quality and pregnancy outcome. FF belonging to 38 patients including 18 polycystic ovary (PCO) and 20 male/unexplained infertility patients were investigated for granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and presumably secreted (RANTES), tumour necrosis factor (TNFα), interferon gamma (IFNγ) and interleukins (IL-4 and IL-2) by bead-based sandwich immunoassay. Our findings revealed that on the day of oocyte retrieval, G-CSF was positively correlated with the number of fertilized oocytes, while TNFα detection was associated with reduced number of fertilized oocytes. Only G-CSF showed significant positive effect to the pregnancy outcome although the cytokines studied were not associated with embryo quality. PCO as the cause of infertility did not show an association with cytokines in FF. The functions of cytokines in reproduction are likely to be complex, and cytokine evaluation may offer insight to the understanding of the mechanisms leading to success or failure of assisted reproduction.
    Immunological investigations 08/2014; 43(6):572-584.