Functional and developmental morphology (Funct Dev Morphol )

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  • ISSN
    0862-8416
  • OCLC
    231312657
  • Material type
    Periodical
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper demonstrates the structure and development of the layer of mm. contrahentes in Felis catus (Carnivora). Ontogenesis of the muscle layer was studied on 35 histological series of embryonal extremities and by microdissections of palmar musculature in the domestic cat. It was found that three mm. contrahentes were formed passing to the first, second and fifth digits. A compact anlage of the muscle layer (similar to that in embryos of many mammalian species) has been observed only in foetuses of 15-16 mm crown-rump length. Differentiation of the anlagen of the individual muscles takes place in the foetuses of 20-23 mm crown-rump length.
    Functional and developmental morphology 02/1994; 4(2):109-12.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper demonstrates the structure and development of the layer of mm. flexores breves profundi in Felis catus (Carnivora). By microdissections of the deep palmar musculature, it was found that there were formed two muscle layers: 1) four muscles beginning on the palmar side of the carpus, passing distally through the intermetacarpal spaces and inserting into the dorsal digital aponeurosis of the second to fourth digit--the superficial muscle layer of mm. flexores breves profundi; 2) four muscles beginning on the palmar area of the second to fifth metacarpus and inserting into the capsules of the metacarpophalangeal joints of the second to fifth digit--the deep muscle layer of mm. flexores breves profundi. Ontogenesis of these muscle layers was studied on 35 histological series of embryonal extremities. In early ontogenesis we found a coherent cell condensate of the anlage of mm. flexores breves profundi layer. Differentiation of the anlagen of individual muscles takes place in the foetuses of 17-20 mm crown-rump length. In embryos of 17-19 mm crown-rump length a small cell condensations corresponding to the layer of mm. intermetacarpales anlagen were found in the second and third intermetacarpal spaces. Both anlagen are formed only temporarily whereafter they break into fragments and extinct.
    Functional and developmental morphology 02/1994; 4(2):105-8.
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    ABSTRACT: "Anatrecon" is an original Czech software package. It enables one to make easy three-dimensional reconstructions from serial sections of cells and tissues. It offers very acceptable information on the three-dimensional structure and especially on mutual relationships of biological objects in such cases when other methodical approaches, e.g., scanning electron microscopy or laser scanning confocal light microscopy, cannot be applied. The program runs on a standard IBM compatible personal computer supplemented with a digitizing tablet. The author describes the program in detail and presents examples of reconstructions of dendritic spine and nucleus of nerve cell.
    Functional and developmental morphology 02/1994; 4(2):59-62.
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    ABSTRACT: Three and four-day-old chick embryos were exposed to thalidomide as well as to its hydrolysis products before and after in vitro biotrasformation of these compounds with rat liver homogenate. Significant embryotoxic effects of 30 and 100 micrograms doses per embryo encountered only in the case when the products of alkaline hydrolysis of thalidomide were pretreated with rat liver homogenate.
    Functional and developmental morphology 02/1994; 4(4):313-6.
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    ABSTRACT: The linear marking method was employed to study morphogenetic movements of tissues involved in the development of the definitive position and shaping of the shoulder and arm. Chick embryos in the range of embryonal day 3.5 to 4.5 were used with the following results: -Asymmetrical growth of the early wing bud and the oblique position of humerus anlage in the early wing bud as proposed by Saunders (1948) and Seichert (1965) were confirmed. -It was found that the cranial ascend of the shoulder (Seichert and Knospe 1992) is accompanied by the slight ventromedial rotation of the complex consisting of the scapula and coracoid. -Torsion along the longitudinal axis of the stylopodium was observed: the proximal part of the stylopodium (both the humerus anlage and related soft tissues) moves in the sense of supination, the distal part moves in the sense of pronation.
    Functional and developmental morphology 02/1994; 4(1):33-8.
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    ABSTRACT: The ontogenetic development of the vascular bed was studied in the muscles of human fetuses after India ink and gelatine injections. By the 12th week of intrauterine life the architectural arrangement of the largest (primary) intra-muscular vessels is qualitatively comparable with that of the adult muscles. The smaller (secondary) vessels, as well as the microcirculatory bed, have very immature features in all fetal muscles studied. This part of the vascular bed develops gradually during further time from a primitive intramuscular capillary network. The basic architectural arrangement of the microcirculatory bed in adult muscles, and the development of the structure of the hilar vessels of the gastrocnemius muscle were described in the muscles of fetuses, newborns, and adults.
    Functional and developmental morphology 02/1994; 4(2):99-103.
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    ABSTRACT: Effects of oxacillin administered to pregnant or nursing randombred NMRI mice on the humoral immune response of their offspring were studied. The primary humoral response of male offspring to immunization by sheep red blood cells (SRBC) on the 24th postnatal day was assayed. Spectrophotometric determination of SRBC lysis by anti-SRBC IgM antibodies produced by spleen cells was used. Treatment of pregnant mice with oxacillin (70 mg/kg body weight) from the 12th to 16th day of pregnancy resulted in an enhancement of the spleen IgM antibody response in their offspring. The same treatment of nursing mothers, either on postnatal days 1-4 or 13-16, depressed the humoral response of the offspring. When the litters of control mothers and mothers treated with oxacillin from the 11th to 15th day of pregnancy were cross-fostered at birth, the offspring born of saline-treated mothers and nursed by oxacillin-treated mothers as well as the offspring born to oxacillin-treated mothers and nursed by control mothers produced significantly higher amounts of spleen anti-SRBC IgM than the control offspring. The results suggest that the alteration of the immune response in offspring of mice treated by oxacillin during pregnancy was induced not only in the prenatal period, but also postnatally by factors originating from effects of oxacillin on the maternal organism.
    Functional and developmental morphology 02/1994; 4(2):67-75.
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    ABSTRACT: A surface map of the paired pedal ganglia of Eremina ehrenbergi has been constructed. The pedal ganglia contain large (phi < 80 microns), middle (phi 40-60 microns) and small (phi 15-30 microns) sized neurones. Most of the somata are ipsilateral to their nerves, but there are few cases in which contralateral neurones were observed. The neurones in a ganglion send their axons primarily to the nerves originating from the ganglion, but they have also connections with neurones in other central ganglia.
    Functional and developmental morphology 02/1994; 4(1):9-15.
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    ABSTRACT: An unusual case of spike antlers in male red deer is described in which the antler core apparently survived the partial mineralization of the cortex in the first rut and then in the next year supported a new, "antleroma-like" growth. On one side of the antler beam a "separation gap" developed between the living core and the dead cortex. On the opposite side a new growth of antler tissue was observed; this was made of spongious bone which in some areas partially resembled peruke-like growth and in others resembled antler "pearls". This new tissue, which developed probably in the second antler cycle, grew in the right antler from the base to the apex but in the left antler it was limited to the lower portion of the beam. This new tissue might still have been covered with velvet when the deer was shot. It is speculated that hypoandrogenism or partial lack of testosterone receptors was responsible for the survival of the antler core and the subsequent proliferation of new antler tissue in the following year.
    Functional and developmental morphology 02/1994; 4(1):3-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The vomeronasal organ (VNO) of the mink is restricted to the area of the Fissura palatina and thus always topographically related to the Ductus incisivus (DI). The VNO and DI have also a functional relation because the vomeronasal duct ends in the incisive duct. On the other hand, as the DI has its mouth in the Papilla incisiva there is a communication between the VNO and the oral cavity. The vomeronasal cartilage, approximately in 1/6 of its length, wraps completely the parenchyma of the VNO whose main structure is the vomeronasal duct, with two different epithelia: sensory receptor in the medial wall, and respiratory in the lateral one. Nevertheless the variations of epithelia belong to the segment of the duct because in its rostral and caudal parts the medial and lateral epithelia are very similar. Branches and tubular PAS positive glands stand out in three points: superior, inferior and medial areas of the vomeronasal duct in which they end. An important number of vessels, mainly veins of different diameter, are located around the duct, while the nervous fibers are close to the medial wall of the duct and very easy to identify in the caudal third of the organ. Two immunohistochemical techniques were used to identify the nerve fibers and the receptor cells.
    Functional and developmental morphology 02/1994; 4(2):113-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis in the proerythroblasts and hepatocytes of the chick embryo was examined using the nucleolar test during embryonic days 5-10 after intraamniotic administration of single doses of cyclosporin A (CsA). Administration of the 0.75 or 7.5 g of CsA 5th day of embryonic development caused a significant decrease in proerythroblasts and hepatocytes numbers with active rRNA synthesis. Five days after the CsA administration, the percentage of proerythroblasts with biosynthetically active nucleoli already did not differ from the control while the decreased numbers of hepatocytes actively synthetizing rRNA remained statistically significant. Our results indicate, that CsA inhibits the rRNA biosynthesis in embryonic immature cells. Depending on the cell type, the effect of CsA and its dynamics may be apparently different.
    Functional and developmental morphology 02/1994; 4(2):77-81.
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    ABSTRACT: Seasonal variation of the coloration of the testes due to the presence of melanin pigments was observed in a wild passerine bird Dicrurus adsimillis. The proportion of melanin in the testes is highest in the recrudescence period, when the lipid content is moderate and cholesterol is present in the tissue in trace amounts. In the reproductive period, when lipids are depleted, the melanin content is very low; in this stage, cholesterol is stored in the tissue in large amounts. During the post-reproductive period, melanin pigment and lipids both fall almost to zero level and only traces of cholesterol are to be found. In the recrudescence phase, the amount of all three (i.e. melanin pigment, tissue lipids and cholesterol) rapidly increases. The probable correlation between melanogenesis in testicular tissue and hormones and their lipoid precursors is discussed.
    Functional and developmental morphology 02/1994; 4(1):21-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Daily administration of caffeine (30 or 60 mg/kg) to mature male rabbits for four consecutive weeks caused an increase in the plasma follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and a decrease in the luteinizing hormone (LH). Testosterone was increased with the higher dose only while adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) was not altered by either one. These results suggest that the effects of caffeine on the two gonadotrophic hormones, FSH and LH, involve two separate pathways. The light microscope study revealed reduced sizes of the seminiferous tubules, inhibited spermatogenesis, fatty degeneration of the liver and hepatic lesions. The adrenal glands exhibited signs of stimulated steroidogenesis. It is concluded that long term intake of caffeine induces suppression of spermatogenesis mainly through inhibition of FSH release and this effect is maintained even in the presence of normal or high levels of testosterone and LH.
    Functional and developmental morphology 02/1994; 4(1):45-50.
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of cadmium chloride on the pituitary ACTH cells, gonadotropin- and thyrotropin-secreting cells, thyroid gland and gonads of the catfish, Clarias batrachus was investigated. Exposure to cadmium chloride caused a significant increase in the ACTH cell nuclear indices at day 7, 14 and 28, whereas the thyrotropin- and gonadotropin-secreting cells showed inactivation and accumulation of secretary products. The epithelial height of the thyroid follicles was also significantly reduced (P < 0.001) as compared to that of the untreated control fish. In experimental female fish, the gonosomatic index had undergone a significant reduction at all intervals studied (day 7, 14 and 28). However, in the male catfish a significant reduction in the gonosomatic index was observed only after exposure for 28 days. Ovarian maturation seems to have become arrested at perinucleolar stage and spermatogenesis at spermatocyte stage. The possible involvement of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal system in gonadal regression was discussed.
    Functional and developmental morphology 02/1994; 4(1):39-44.
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    ABSTRACT: Four-day administration of actinomycin D to the albino rat in daily doses of 25 micrograms/kg decreased--in relation to all blood cells of the bone marrow--the values of the more mature stages of the megakaryocytic line, i.e. megakaryocytes and naked megakaryocyte nuclei. The number of megakaryoblasts was not influenced.
    Functional and developmental morphology 02/1994; 4(2):63-5.
  • Functional and developmental morphology 02/1994; 4(2):93-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Different cytochemical techniques at the electron microscopic level were used to investigate the presence of basic and acidic proteins during spermiogenesis in mice. Basic lysine rich proteins were demonstrated with an ethanolic solution of phosphotungstic acid, acidic agryrophilic proteins using two silver staining procedures applied en bloc and on the ultrathin lowicryl sections. Both types of proteins had very similar localization in the nucleoplasm and identical distribution within the postacrosomal dense lamina on the surface of late spermatid heads. The specificity of reactions is briefly discussed.
    Functional and developmental morphology 02/1994; 4(2):83-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Intracytoplasmic filaments were demonstrated in the chondrocytes of articular cartilage of cattle at 82 days post partum and at 3 and 4 years of age using transmission electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry. Samples of cartilage for electron microscopy were processed in a standard way. Immunocytochemical procedures were performed with semithin sections made from the material prepared for electron microscopy after embedding medium and osmium compounds had been eliminated. Vimentin filaments were demonstrated by means of anti-vimentin monoclonal antibody visualized by peroxidase-labelled immunoglobulin. Both techniques showed that intracytoplasmic filaments were situated around the nucleus and only occasionally at the cell periphery, e.g. in cell projections.
    Functional and developmental morphology 02/1994; 4(1):25-8.
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    ABSTRACT: The foot of the desert snail, Eremina ehrenbergi, is supplied by branches of the pedal nerves which enter a coarse-meshed peripheral neural plexus. Light and electron microscopic preparations revealed the presence of ganglionic knots embedded in the foot musculature. In these knots the neural cell bodies are found to be situated on the periphery of neuropile. Cross sections through the neuropile demonstrate the presence of many synaptic junctions of the axo-axonic type. In some axon profiles light and dense synaptic vesicles are observed. Some of the axons which constitute the terminal plexus enter into close apposition with muscle cells and definite areas where synaptic transmission in thought to occur are well observed. On the basis of these results it can be concluded that the neural plexus may be involved in the production of the patterned pedal activity in Eremina ehrenbergi.
    Functional and developmental morphology 02/1994; 4(1):17-9.

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