Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (J GASTROEN HEPATOL)

Publisher: Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology; Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver, Wiley

Journal description

Official publication of the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver and the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology. The Editors have developed Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology into an international journal of scientific excellence in the fields of gastroenterology hepatology and endoscopy with particular emphasis on clinical research and continuing education in the Asian Pacific region. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology is taken by subscribers in more than 50 countries and for the past eight years has been ranked among the world's top 25 gastrointestinal journals by the Science Citation Index.

Current impact factor: 3.63

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 3.627
2012 Impact Factor 3.325
2011 Impact Factor 2.865
2010 Impact Factor 2.41
2009 Impact Factor 2.317
2008 Impact Factor 2.275
2007 Impact Factor 1.673
2006 Impact Factor 1.785
2005 Impact Factor 1.718
2004 Impact Factor 1.796
2003 Impact Factor 1.53
2002 Impact Factor 1.521
2001 Impact Factor 1.258
2000 Impact Factor 1.116
1999 Impact Factor 0.983
1998 Impact Factor 0.944
1997 Impact Factor 0.954
1996 Impact Factor 0.851
1995 Impact Factor 0.916
1994 Impact Factor 0.964
1993 Impact Factor 1.056
1992 Impact Factor 1.261

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 3.08
Cited half-life 5.40
Immediacy index 0.78
Eigenfactor 0.02
Article influence 0.86
Website Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology website
Other titles Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology, JGH
ISSN 0815-9319
OCLC 14037025
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details


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    • Author's pre-print may not be updated with Publisher's Version/PDF
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    • On a non-profit server
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Publisher source must be acknowledged with citation
    • Must link to publisher version with set statement (see policy)
    • If OnlineOpen is available, BBSRC, EPSRC, MRC, NERC and STFC authors, may self-archive after 12 months
    • If OnlineOpen is available, AHRC and ESRC authors, may self-archive after 24 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 07/08/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Wiley'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 02/2015; 30(2):235. DOI:10.1111/jgh.12829
  • Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 02/2015; 30(2):234. DOI:10.1111/jgh.12828
  • Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 02/2015; 30(2):233. DOI:10.1111/jgh.12819
  • Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 02/2015; 30(2):231. DOI:10.1111/jgh.12822
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    ABSTRACT: The new developed ultrathin transnasal endoscope, the GIF-XP290N, makes possible a resolving power similar to the GIF-H260 at a distance of 3 mm. In this study, using the GIF-XP290N, we evaluated whether endoscopic diagnosis (discrimination between benign and malignant) of gastric lesions is possible using nonmagnified narrow-band imaging (NBI) endoscopy. The subjects were 255 consecutive patients who underwent screening of the gastrointestinal tract using new ultrathin transnasal endoscopy. Their average age was 65.2 ± 11.4 years. The male-female ratio was 2.5:1. All cases were examined using conventional white-light imaging (WLI) and nonmagnified NBI. When a depressed lesion was detected in the stomach, it was examined using WLI, then NBI close examination (at about 3 mm). We observed the mucosal structure of the lesion using close visualization with NBI. Concerning mucosal structural changes, we looked for a clear demarcation line between the lesion and the surrounding mucosa, and loss, irregularity, or nonuniformity of the lesion mucosal microsurface pattern. A total of 52 depressed lesions were examined. The histological diagnosis was cancer for 8 lesions, and noncancer for 44 lesions. WLI examination yielded a sensitivity of 50.0% (4/8), specificity of 63.6% (28/44), and accuracy 61.5% (32/52). On the other hand, NBI close examination yielded a sensitivity of 87.5% (7/8), specificity of 93.2% (41/44), and accuracy of 92.3% (48/52), significantly higher. NBI close examination using ultrathin transnasal endoscopy enables mucosal diagnosis even without magnification and was considered to be an effective technique for improving endoscopic diagnosis. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 12/2014; 29 Suppl S4:33-36. DOI:10.1111/jgh.12797
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    ABSTRACT: We recently reported that topical application of acetic acid promptly caused tumor necrosis in a mouse model of gastric cancer. The aim of the present study was to examine whether acetic acid can directly induce cancer cell death. Rat gastric epithelial cell line (RGM-1), rat gastric carcinoma cell line (RGK-1), human gastric cancer cell line (KATO III), and human mesothelioma cell lines (ACC-MESO1 and MSTO-211H) were used. Acetic acid was added into the cell culture at different concentrations for different time periods. Cell death was analyzed by MTT assay, flow cytometry, and trypan blue exclusion test. Acetic acid promptly induced the cell death of RGM-1, RGK-1 cells, and KATO III cells in a concentration-dependent manner from 0.01% to 0.5%. Acetic acid at 0.5% for 1 min induced the cell death by 80%. RGK-1 cells were more sensitive to acetic acid than RGM-l cells. KATO III cells were more sensitive to acetic acid than RGK-1 cells. Acetic acid at 0.5% for 10 min induced almost complete cell death of ACC-MESO1 and MSTO-211H. Acetic acid is a powerful anticancer agent. Topical application of acetic acid may be a feasible approach for the treatments of gastric cancer and possibly other malignancies. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 12/2014; 29 Suppl S4:65-69. DOI:10.1111/jgh.12775
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    ABSTRACT: Only few large-scale epidemiological studies have examined the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in Japan. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence and incidence of H. pylori infection in Japan in terms of gender, age and region. Serum anti-H. pylori antibody testing was included in workers' annual health checks conducted by T-company's health insurance association in 2008. The testing was continued for the next 5 years in 35-year-old subjects. The total number of subjects was 21 144 (18 398 males and 2746 females). Stratified for age, there were 5016 subjects (male : female = 4219:797) in their 30s, 8748 (7770:978) in their 40s, 5589 (4807:782) in their 50s, and 1769 (1584:185) in their 60s. The H. pylori seropositive rate (male : female) was 27.5% (27.5:27.7) overall, 18.0% (18.3:16.1) in subjects in their 30s, 22.9% (22.7:24.7) in those in their 40s, 37.4% (37.2:38.2) in those in their 50s, and 46.1% (45.7:49.2) in those in their 60s. The prevalence of H. pylori seropositivity increased as age increased; however, no significant differences were seen between genders or among regions (χ(2) test). The numbers of 35-year-old subjects from 2008 to 2012 were 1072, 1107, 941, 1065, and 940, respectively. The corresponding H. pylori seropositive rates were 17.4, 17.4, 14.3, 13.3, and 14.0%, respectively. The Japanese H. pylori infection rate had already declined to 27.5% in 2008, with subjects in the 35-70 age range. The prevalence of H. pylori infection is also decreasing gradually from 2008 to 2012. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 12/2014; 29 Suppl S4:16-19. DOI:10.1111/jgh.12795
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    ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis (also referred to as neovascularization-formation of new blood vessels from existing vessels) is a fundamental process essential for healing of tissue injury and ulcers because regeneration of blood microvessels is a critical requirement for oxygen and nutrient delivery to the healing site. This review article updates the current views on angiogenesis in gastric mucosa following injury and during ulcer healing, its sequential events, the underlying mechanisms, and the impairment of angiogenesis in aging gastric mucosa. We focus on the time sequence and ultrastructural features of angiogenesis, hypoxia as a trigger, role of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling (VEGF), serum response factor, Cox2 and prostaglandins, nitric oxide, and importin. Recent reports indicate that gastric mucosa of aging humans and experimental animals exhibits increased susceptibility to injury and delayed healing. Gastric mucosa of aging rats has increased susceptibility to injury by a variety of damaging agents such as ethanol, aspirin, and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs because of structural and functional abnormalities including: reduced gastric mucosal blood flow, hypoxia, reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and survivin, and increased expression of early growth response protein 1 (egr-1) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). Until recently, postnatal neovascularization was assumed to occur solely through angiogenesis sprouting of endothelial cells and formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing blood vessels. New studies in the last decade have challenged this paradigm and indicate that in some tissues, including gastric mucosa, the homing of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells to the site of injury can also contribute to neovascularization by a process termed vasculogenesis. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 12/2014; 29 Suppl S4:112-123. DOI:10.1111/jgh.12734
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    ABSTRACT: Proton-pump inhibitors are known to be effective in the treatment and prevention of ulcers related to low-dose aspirin (LDA), but few reports address H2 -receptor antagonists (H2RAs) and gastroprotective agents (GPs). This study was intended to compare the therapeutic effects of an H2RA and a GP against gastroduodenal mucosal injuries in patients taking LDA. The subjects consisted of patients requiring continuous LDA treatment, in whom no peptic ulcer was found on endoscopy at enrollment. The patients were randomized to either famotidine 20 mg/day (group F) or teprenone 150 mg/day (group T). The study medication was administered for 12 weeks. The patients underwent endoscopy after administration of the study medication in order to obtain a Lanza score. A total of 66 patients (38 in group F, 28 in group T) were included in the efficacy analysis population. The Lanza score changed as follows: in group F, it improved significantly, from 0.89 ± 1.03 (mean ± standard deviation) before medication to 0.39 ± 0.75 after medication (P = 0.006); in group T, no significant difference was observed: 0.75 ± 0.93 before medication and 0.68 ± 0.82 after medication. Famotidine is better than teprenone in terms of reducing the number of the erosions under use of LDA. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 12/2014; 29 Suppl S4:11-15. DOI:10.1111/jgh.12768
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    ABSTRACT: Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) derives from vegetables commonly consumed by man and has been demonstrated as a promising chemopreventive agent against several types of cancer. However, the potential in preventing gastric cancer as well as the underlying mechanisms are to date not fully understood. The present study aimed at elucidating the cellular effects induced by PEITC in gastric cancer cells leading to apoptosis. The human gastric cancer cell lines Kato-III and MKN74 were employed. Cell proliferation was assayed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Morphology and migration were investigated through a contrast microscope. Cell cycle distribution was analyzed using flow cytometry of PI-stained cells. Microtubules were studied by confocal detection of Kato-III cells transfected to express GFP-tagged microtubules. Commercial kits were employed to study the effect of PEITC on apoptosis, caspase-3 activity, and glutathione content in MKN74 cells. Kato-III and MKN74 cells responded, with different sensitivity, dose- and time-dependently in inhibition of cell proliferation to PEITC treatment. Further, PEITC induced aberrated cell morphologies and inhibited migration of MKN74 cells. Kato-III cells treated with PEITC accumulated in G2 /M phase and displayed a loss of microtubuli with the subsequent formation of apoptotic bodies. Although weak responses, MKN74 cells also accumulated in G2 /M phase, became apoptotic, increased caspase-3 activity, and suffered a reduction of glutathione pool. Our findings demonstrate that PEITC induces disintegration of microtubules in human gastric cancer cells contributing to cell cycle arrest and ultimately apoptosis, contributing to an increased understanding of PEITC-induced inhibition of gastric cancer cell growth. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 12/2014; 29 Suppl S4:99-106. DOI:10.1111/jgh.12732
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    ABSTRACT: In our previous study, the SLCO1B1 521TT genotype and the SLCO1B1*1b haplotype were significantly associated with the risk of peptic ulcer in patients taking low-dose aspirin (LDA). The aim of the present study was to investigate pharmacogenomic profile of LDA-induced peptic ulcer and ulcer bleeding. Patients taking 100 mg of enteric-coated aspirin for cardiovascular diseases and with a peptic ulcer or ulcer bleeding and patients who also participated in endoscopic surveillance were studied. Genome-wide analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was performed using the Affymetrix DME Plus Premier Pack. SLCO1B1*1b haplotype and candidate genotypes of genes associated with ulcer bleeding or small bowel bleeding identified by genome-wide analysis were determined using TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay kits, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and direct sequencing. Of 593 patients enrolled, 111 patients had a peptic ulcer and 45 had ulcer bleeding. The frequencies of the SLCO1B1*1b haplotype and CHST2 2082 T allele were significantly greater in patients with peptic ulcer and ulcer bleeding compared to the controls. After adjustment for significant factors, the SLCO1B1*1b haplotype was associated with peptic ulcer (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.24-3.89) and CHST2 2082 T allele with ulcer bleeding (2.57, 1.07-6.17). The CHST2 2082 T allele as well as SLCO1B1*1b haplotype may identify patients at increased risk for aspirin-induced peptic ulcer or ulcer bleeding. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 12/2014; 29 Suppl S4:47-52. DOI:10.1111/jgh.12770
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    ABSTRACT: Basolateral water channel, aquaporin-4 (AQP4), is known to be expressed in gastric parietal cells, especially in the basal side of gastric mucosa. However, the role of AQP4 in the stomach is still unknown. Histamine type 2 receptor (H2 R) knockout mice, which are characterized by suppressed gastric acid secretion, are known as formation of mucosal hyperplasia with cystic dilatation and spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) in the stomach. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether the expression of AQP4 is changed by the condition of acid suppression and Helicobacter pylori infection. Male H2 R knockout mice and their controls (C57BL/6) were used. H. pylori was orally infected at the age of 5 weeks. The distributions of AQP4 and H(+) /K(+) -ATPase in the gastric mucosa were investigated by fluorescent immunohistochemistry. The mRNA expressions of AQP4, H(+) /K(+) - ATPase, sonic hedgehog (Shh), and trefoil factor-2 (TFF2) were investigated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In the H2 R knockout mice, the distribution of AQP4-positive parietal cells was extended toward the surface of the fundic glands. Although the mRNA expression levels of AQP4 and H(+) /K(+) ATPase were elevated in H2 R knockout mice at the age of 20 weeks, the elevations were not maintained by aging or H. pylori infection. In H2 R knockout mice with H. pylori infection, the expression level of TFF2 mRNA was elevated while the ratio between AQP4 and H(+) /K(+) ATPase mRNA expression was decreased compared with the H2 R knockout mice without H. pylori infection. In the H2 R knockout mice, massive SPEM was induced by H. pylori colonization and the ratio between AQP4 and H(+) /K(+) ATPase mRNA expression was decreased. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 12/2014; 29 Suppl S4:53-59. DOI:10.1111/jgh.12771
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the prophylactic effect of rebamipide on gastric bleeding induced by the perfusion of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid [ASA]) plus clopidogrel under the stimulation of acid secretion in rats. Under urethane anesthesia, acid secretion was stimulated by the i.v. infusion of histamine (8 mg/kg/h), and the stomach was perfused with 25 mmol/L ASA at a rate of 0.4 mL/min. Gastric bleeding was evaluated as the concentration of hemoglobin in the perfusate. Clopidogrel (30 mg/kg) was given p.o. 24 h before the perfusion. Rebamipide (3-30 mg/kg) or other antiulcer drugs were given i.d. before the ASA perfusion. Slight gastric bleeding or damage was observed with the perfusion of ASA under the stimulation of acid secretion, whereas these responses were significantly increased in the presence of clopidogrel. Both omeprazole and famotidine inhibited acid secretion and prevented these responses to ASA plus clopidogrel. Rebamipide had no effect on acid secretion, but dose-dependently prevented gastric bleeding in response to ASA plus clopidogrel, with the degree of inhibition being almost equivalent to that of the antisecretory drugs, and the same effects were obtained with the gastroprotective drugs, irsogladine and teprenone. These agents also reduced the severity of gastric lesions, although the effects were less than those of the antisecretory drugs. These results suggest that the antiplatelet drug, clopidogrel, increases gastric bleeding induced by ASA under the stimulation of acid secretion, and the gastroprotective drug, rebamipide, is effective in preventing the gastric bleeding induced under such conditions, similar to antisecretory drugs. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 12/2014; 29 Suppl S4:37-46. DOI:10.1111/jgh.12774
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    ABSTRACT: Secondary stomach cancer in lesions of the remnant stomach occurs relatively soon after distal gastrectomy using the Billroth I reconstruction procedure. Prophylactic eradication of Helicobacter pylori after endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer should be used to prevent the development of metachronous gastric carcinoma. However, the effect of H. pylori eradication on the gastric remnant has not been clearly determined. Eight patients who were H. pylori-positive after distal gastrectomy for primary gastric cancer underwent eradication therapy and were followed by endoscopy for 9 years. Upper gastroenteroscopy series were done before and at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 years after eradication, and biopsy specimens were taken from the lesser and greater curvatures, respectively. Histological changes, including chronic inflammation, activity, atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia, were evaluated using the updated Sydney system. Successful eradication was confirmed using the urea breath test in all eight patients. Chronic inflammation scores were improved after eradication at both the lesser (mean scores ± SD: before eradication, 2.9 ± 0.5; 1 year after, 2.3 ± 0.4; 3 years, 1.8 ± 0.3; 5 years, 1.5 ± 0.3; 7 years, 1.3 ± 0.3; and 9 years, 1.0 ± 0.3) and greater curvatures (before, 2.9 ± 0.4; 1 year after, 1.9 ± 0.3; 3 years, 1.4 ± 0.4; 5 years, 1.3 ± 0.3; 7 years, 1.1 ± 0.2; and 9 years, 0.6 ± 0.3). Atrophy scores improved more quickly after eradication than chronic inflammation scores at both the lesser (before, 2.4 ± 0.5; 1 year after, 1.8 ± 0.4; 3 years, 0.8 ± 0.3; 5 years, 0.3 ± 0.1; 7 years, 0.0; and 9 years, 0.0) and greater curvatures (before, 2.2 ± 0.4; 1 year after, 1.3 ± 0.3; 3 years, 0.5 ± 0.3; 5 years, 0.0; 7 years, 0.0; and 9 years, 0.0). No secondary stomach cancers were found on endoscopy. Undergoing H. pylori eradication improved possible precancerous lesions of the gastric remnant among patients who had undergone distal gastrectomy. Prophylactic H. pylori eradication in the gastric remnant may be useful in preventing the development of metachronous gastric carcinoma. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 12/2014; 29 Suppl S4:60-64. DOI:10.1111/jgh.12772
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    ABSTRACT: Although Andre Robert's historic article on "gastric cytoprotection" in 1979 introduced this new name and concept, gastroprotective drugs (e.g. sofalcone, sucralfate), which prevent and/or accelerate healing of gastric ulcers without inhibiting acid secretion, were known in Japan before or around that time. But since Robert's studies were solely focused on prostaglandins (PG), they became the center of gastrointestinal research for more than 30 years. As endogenous products, PG were implicated in mediating the gastroprotective effect of other drugs such as sofalcone and sucralfate, despite that the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin diminished but never abolished gastroprotection by other drugs. Another group of endogenous substances, that is, sulfhydryls (SH), investigated in parallel with PG, also seem to play a mechanistic role in gastroprotection, especially since SH alkylators like N-ethylmaleimide counteract virtually any form of gastroprotection. In Robert's terms of "prevention of chemically induced acute mucosal lesions," so far no single mechanism could explain the beneficial effects of diverse protective agents, but I argue that these two endogenous substances (i.e. PG, SH), in addition to histamine, are the main mechanistic mediators of acute gastroprotection: PG and histamine, because as mediators of acute inflammation, they increase vascular permeability (VP), and SH scavenge free radicals. This is contrary to the search for a single mechanism of action, long focused on enhanced secretion of mucus and/or bicarbonate that may contribute but cannot explain all forms of gastroprotection. Nevertheless, based on research work of the last 30 years, in part from our lab, a new mechanistic explanation of gastroprotection may be formulated: it's a complex but orderly and evolution-based physiologic response of the gastric mucosa under pathologic conditions. Namely, one of the first physiologic defense responses of any organ is inflammation that starts with rapid vascular changes (e.g. increased VP and blood flow), followed by cellular events (e.g. infiltration by acute and chronic inflammatory cells). Thus, PG and histamine, by increasing VP create a perivascular edema that dilutes and delays toxic agents reaching the subepithelial capillaries. Otherwise, damaging chemicals may induce severe early vascular injury resulting in blood flow stasis, hypoxia, and necrosis of surrounding epithelial and mesenchymal cells. In this complex response, increased mucus and/or bicarbonate secretion seem to cause luminal dilution of gastrotoxic chemicals that is further reinforced by a perivascular, histodilutional component. This mechanistic explanation would encompass the protective actions of diverse agents as PG, small doses of histamine, motility stimulants, and dilute irritants (i.e. "adaptive cytoprotection"). Thus, although markedly increased VP is pathologic, slight increase in VP seems to be protective, that is, a key element in the complex pathophysiologic response during acute gastroprotection. Over the years, "gastroprotection" was also applied to accelerated healing of chronic gastroduodenal ulcers without reduction of acid secretion. The likely main mechanism here is the binding of angiogenic growth factors (e.g. basic fibroblast growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor) to the heparin-like structures of sucralfate and sofalcone. Thus, despite intensive research of the last 30 years, gastroprotection is incompletely understood, and we are still far away from effectively treating Helicobacter pylori-negative ulcers and preventing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-caused erosions and ulcers in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract; hence "gastric cytoprotection" research is still relevant. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 12/2014; 29 Suppl S4:124-132. DOI:10.1111/jgh.12735
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    ABSTRACT: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), the most highly prescribed drugs in the world for the treatment of pain, inflammation, and fever, are associated with gastric mucosal damages including ulcer directly or indirectly. This study was aimed to document the preventive effects of an organosulfur constituent of garlic, S-allyl cysteine (SAC), against NSAIDs-induced gastric damages, as well the elucidation of its pharmacological actions, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and cytoprotective actions. Different doses of SAC were administrated intragastrically before the indomethacin administration. After killing, in addition to gross and pathological evaluations of ulcer, the expressions of inflammatory mediators, including cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2 , IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, and anti-oxidant capacity, were analyzed by Western blot analysis or ELISA, respectively. Transferase deoxytidyl uridine end labeling assay, periodic acid and Schiff staining, F4/80 staining, and CD31 staining were compared among doses of SAC. Detailed documentation of in vitro biological actions of SAC, including NF-κB, histone deacetylator inhibition, phase 2 enzyme, and MAPKs, was performed. SAC was very effective in preventing indomethacin-induced gastric damages in a low dose through significant decreases in macrophage infiltration as well as restorative action. Indomethacin-induced expressions of inflammatory mediators were all significantly attenuated with SAC in accordance with histone deacetylator inhibition. In addition, SAC significantly increased the total anti-oxidant concentration and mucus secretion, and allows for a significant induction of HO-1. However, these preventive effects of SAC were dependent on dosage of SAC; higher dose above 10 μM paradoxically aggravated NSAID-induced inflammation. Synthetic SAC can be promising therapeutics agent to provide potent anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and mucosa protective effects against NSAID-induced damages. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 12/2014; 29 Suppl S4:80-92. DOI:10.1111/jgh.12730
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the roles of cyclooxygenase (COX) isozymes and prostaglandins (PGs) and their receptors in mucosal defense against cold-restraint stress (CRS)-induced gastric lesions. Male C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice and those lacking COX-1 or COX-2 as well as those lacking EP1, EP3, or IP receptors were used after 18 h fasting. Animals were restrained in Bollman cages and kept in a cold room at 10°C for 90 min. CRS induced multiple hemorrhagic lesions in WT mouse stomachs. The severity of these lesions was significantly worsened by pretreatment with the nonselective COX inhibitors (indomethacin, loxoprofen) or selective COX-1 inhibitor (SC-560), while neither of the selective COX-2 inhibitors (rofecoxib and celecoxib) had any effect. These lesions were also aggravated in animals lacking COX-1, but not COX-2. The expression of COX-2 mRNA was not detected in the stomach after CRS, while COX-1 expression was observed under normal and stressed conditions. The gastric ulcerogenic response to CRS was similar between EP1 or EP3 knockout mice and WT mice, but was markedly worsened in animals lacking IP receptors. Pretreating WT mice with iloprost (the PGI2 analog) significantly prevented CRS-induced gastric lesions in the presence of indomethacin. PGE2 also reduced the severity of these lesions, and the effect was mimicked by the EP4 agonist, AE1-329. These results suggest that endogenous PGs derived from COX-1 play a crucial role in gastric mucosal defense during CRS, and this action is mainly mediated by PGI2 /IP receptors and partly by PGE2 /EP4 receptors. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 12/2014; 29 Suppl S4:3-10. DOI:10.1111/jgh.12767