Comptes Rendus de l Académie des Sciences - Series III - Sciences de la Vie (Compt Rendus Acad Sci III Sci Vie )

Publisher: Académie des sciences (France), Elsevier


The series III of the Comptes rendus de l'Academie des Sciences covers all fields of life sciences: Molecular biology and genetics / Genetics / Development and reproduction biology / Cell biology / Biochemistry / Neurosciences / Physiology / Animal biology and pathology / Plant biology and pathology / Immunology / Microbiology: bacteriology, mycology, parasitology, virology / Pharmacology, toxicology / Medical sciences / Biophysics / Populations biology / Epidemiology / Ecology / Evolution / Taxonomy / Agronomy / Anthropology.The articles presented are original notes describing briefly an important discovery. Each manuscript is submitted to an expert in the field. The series devoted to Life Sciences is published monthly, i.e. 12 issues a year, which leads to rapid publication of significant findings from scientists. The articles are usually published within one or two months after final acceptance. Articles are published in English or in French and at least one page abridged version in the other language is systematically offered. Circulation is expanding worldwide with an increasing number of readers and authors, particularly in countries where scientific progress is significant.

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    Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences - Series III: Sciences de la Vie website
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    Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences., Sciences de la vie, Life sciences, C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Sciences de la vie/Life sciences
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    Document, Government publication, National government publication, Periodical, Internet resource
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    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mammalian cytochrome c oxidase consists of thirteen subunits, ten encoded by the nuclear genome and three by the mitochondrial DNA. In several species, two isoforms have been isolated for nuclear-encoded subunits VIa, VIIa and VIII: an ubiquitous L (liver) form and a heart- and skeletal-muscle specific H form. The gene for murine cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIIa-L (Cox7aL) and its promoter region were isolated, sequenced and analysed. The coding region is split in four exons spanning 4.1 kbp and the promoter carries potential binding sites for Sp1, NRF1 and NRF2 transcription factors. Transcriptional activity of the promoter in reporter assays suggested an ubiquitous expression in mouse tissues.
    Comptes Rendus de l Académie des Sciences - Series III - Sciences de la Vie 01/2002; 324(12):1117-23.
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    ABSTRACT: Embryos and larvae of bivalves are frequently used in marine ecotoxicology for the purpose of assessing seawater quality, because they are very sensitive to pollutants and provide rapid responses. Laboratory studies, however, cannot accurately simulate natural conditions. We conducted bivalve embryo-larval studies in situ at the marina of Arcachon (south-west French Atlantic coast), in order to assess 'biological quality' of the water. One experiment conducted in winter 1999 (temperatures of 10 degrees C) with embryos of the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, has shown that such tests are practicable in winter at low temperatures. This study did not show any deterioration in 'biological quality' of the water. Four series of experiments were subsequently performed during summer 2000 (ambient water temperatures of 19 to 22.4 degrees C) with embryos of the Japanese oyster, Crassostrea gigas. The results show that the 'sea water biological quality' deteriorates from the port entrance towards its inner part. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation of the marine environment in which bivalve embryos have been used in situ. They are very suitable for this type of study, because bivalve embryos and larvae are more sensitive to pollutants than the adults, and also because they belong to euryhaline species and the embryos tolerate summer temperatures (both species) as well as winter temperatures (mussels), allowing biomonitoring to be conducted all over the year.
    Comptes Rendus de l Académie des Sciences - Series III - Sciences de la Vie 01/2002; 324(12):1149-55.
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    ABSTRACT: During the last ten years, Arabidopsis thaliana has become the most favoured plant system for the study of many aspects of development and adaptation to adverse conditions and diseases. The sequencing of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome is nearly completed with more than 90% of the sequence being released in public databases. This is the first plant genome to be analysed and it has revealed a tremendous amount of information about the nature of the genes it contains and its largely duplicated organisation. French groups have been involved in Arabidopsis genomics at several steps: EST (expressed sequence tags) sequencing, construction and ordering (physical mapping of chromosomes) of a YAC (yeast artificial chromosomes) library, genomic sequencing. In parallel an extensive programme of functional genomics is being undertaken through the systematic analysis of insertional mutants. This information provides a support for analysing other more economically important plant genomes such as the rice genome and constitutes the beginning of a systematic investigation on plant gene functions and will promote new strategies for plant improvement.
    Comptes Rendus de l Académie des Sciences - Series III - Sciences de la Vie 01/2002; 324(12):1103-10.
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    ABSTRACT: In vitro, LSLCL is expressed by numerous myeloid, promyelocytic, and T or B lymphoblastoid cell lines. In vivo, LSLCL is strongly expressed in bone marrow and only faintly in lymphoid organs. We show here that, in bone marrow, LSLCL is detected: (i) concentrated in the cytoplasm of immature neutrophils but not in myeloblasts nor in mature neutrophils, (ii) in extracellular bone marrow fluid. Besides, numerous cDNAs, similar to LSLCL (identity of 93-99%), are found in 'expressed sequence tags' databases from various origins, mostly fetal and undifferentiated tumour tissues. Since LSLCL and various closely related cDNAs are expressed at definite stages of cellular maturation processes, we hypothesize that this class of proteins could play an important role in the control of cellular differentiation.
    Comptes Rendus de l Académie des Sciences - Series III - Sciences de la Vie 01/2002; 324(12):1125-32.
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    ABSTRACT: The sequencing of several genomes from each of the three domains of life (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya) has provided a huge amount of data that can be used to gain insight about early cellular evolution. Some features of the universal tree of life based on rRNA polygenies have been confirmed, such as the division of the cellular living world into three domains. The monophyly of each domain is supported by comparative genomics. However, the hyperthermophilic nature of the 'last universal common ancestor' (LUCA) is not confirmed. Comparative genomics has revealed that gene transfers have been (and still are) very frequent in genome evolution. Nevertheless, a core of informational genes appears more resistant to transfer, testifying for a close relationship between archaeal and eukaryal informational processes. This observation can be explained either by a common unique history between Archaea and Eukarya or by an atypical evolution of these systems in Bacteria. At the moment, comparative genomics still does not allow to choose between a simple LUCA, possibly with an RNA genome, or a complex LUCA, with a DNA genome and informational mechanisms similar to those of Archaea and Eukarya. Further comparative studies on informational mechanisms in the three domains should help to resolve this critical question. The role of viruses in the origin and evolution of DNA genomes also appears an area worth of active investigations. I suggest here that DNA and DNA replication mechanisms appeared first in the virus world before being transferred into cellular organisms.
    Comptes Rendus de l Académie des Sciences - Series III - Sciences de la Vie 01/2002; 324(12):1067-76.
  • Comptes Rendus de l Académie des Sciences - Series III - Sciences de la Vie 01/2002; 324(12):1093-5.
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    ABSTRACT: The discovery of a functional division in T helper cells on the basis of their cytokine secretion patterns has changed our vision of immunological responses. This dichotomy has equally shown the complexity of immune responses since there is a well orchestrated cross-regulation of cytokine production induced by viral, bacterial or parasitic pathogens. In the context of type 1-type 2 cytokine pattern, mice has been universally and extensively used to associate an infectious disease according to each category in order to better understand human infections. However, with respect to schistosomiasis, immunological observations in mice have not been confirmed in humans and particularly the nature of the protective immune response. This report will consider the relevance of extrapolating from immunological studies on schistosome in experimentally infected rats to studies on naturally infected humans.
    Comptes Rendus de l Académie des Sciences - Series III - Sciences de la Vie 01/2002; 324(12):1133-40.
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    ABSTRACT: The risk of accident for a parisian pedestrian is of reduced frequency and of moderate severity (terrorism and natural disasters not included) according to the statistics of 1999. This is due to security measures and the excellent organisation of assistance to wounded persons. The improvement in protection of pedestrians, even the disabled and elderly persons will soon make Paris the best protected megalopolis of our continent. Pedestrians are involved in 28% of accidents on public streets with a mortality of 1.2%, with serious injuries in 12.6% of the cases. Injuries without collision occur in 57% of the cases. 18% of the wounded older than 75 years with 1.8% of deaths and 66% of severe injury. Accidents related to public transportation represent a very slight risk of 0.00044%. By modification of the concept of transportation and its materials over a five year period there is a decrease in the number of the victims (-3.75%), in spite of the increase of accidents (3.5%). For lone pedestrian being victims of aggression in public places, after a decrease of 10% in 1999, there is in 2001 an increase which raises the question of police proximity again. Over a five year period the RATP (subway authority) has noticed a 14.77% decrease of thefts and a 54.78% decrease in attacks... This makes the Parisian railnet (subway mostly) seven times less dangerous than the streets.
    Comptes Rendus de l Académie des Sciences - Series III - Sciences de la Vie 01/2002; 324(12):1175-9.
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    ABSTRACT: As a historical consequence of molecular biology, genomics provides a complete theory of information in the field of biology. Genomics through biotechnologies offers also for the first time in history the possibility to create a new living world. Genomics can be seen as a component of actual culture that is in close connection with the economic strategies with strong political implications especially for health care and environment. This article analyses the historical determinants of genomics culture and questions the sense of the interpretations given to life by genomists. It also underlines their responsibility in elaborating this new kind of knowledge.
    Comptes Rendus de l Académie des Sciences - Series III - Sciences de la Vie 01/2002; 324(12):1077-83.
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer is one of the most serious diseases that threaten human being today. To some degree, it is a genetic disease but environmental and other nongenetic factors clearly play a role in many stages of neoplastic process. Genetic factors by themselves are thought to explain only about 5% of all cancer. The remainder can be attributed to external, 'environment' factors that act in conjunction with both genetic and acquired susceptibility. Of note, part of the susceptibility is owing to the variety of human genome. So, environment, human genome and cancer have much to do with each other. Combining all of the information from epidemiology and from research works in laboratory with policy-making and clinical works, purifying the environment, giving special protection to the high risk population, the mortality of cancer may decrease gradually in the future.
    Comptes Rendus de l Académie des Sciences - Series III - Sciences de la Vie 01/2002; 324(12):1085-91.
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    ABSTRACT: A human being or person cannot be reduced to a set of human genes, or human genome. Genetic essentialism is wrong, because as a person the entity should have self-conscious and social interaction capacity which is grown in an interpersonal relationship. Genetic determinism is wrong too, the relationship between a gene and a trait is not a linear model of causation, but rather a non-linear one. Human genome is a complexity system and functions in a complexity system of human body and a complexity of systems of natural/social environment. Genetic determinism also caused the issue of how much responsibility an agent should take for her/his action, and how much degrees of freedom will a human being have. Human genome research caused several conceptual issues. Can we call a gene 'good' or 'bad', 'superior' of 'inferior'? Is a boy who is detected to have the gene of Huntington's chorea or Alzheimer disease a patient? What should the term 'eugenics' mean? What do the terms such as 'gene therapy', 'treatment' and 'enhancement' and 'human cloning' mean etc.? The research of human genome and its application caused and will cause ethical issues. Can human genome research and its application be used for eugenics, or only for the treatment and prevention of diseases? Must the principle of informed consent/choice be insisted in human genome research and its application? How to protecting gene privacy and combating the discrimination on the basis of genes? How to promote the quality between persons, harmony between ethnic groups and peace between countries? How to establish a fair, just, equal and equitable relationship between developing and developed countries in regarding to human genome research and its application?
    Comptes Rendus de l Académie des Sciences - Series III - Sciences de la Vie 01/2002; 324(12):1097-102.
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    ABSTRACT: The validity of Raunkiaer's biological types (or life-forms) was tested on native Corsican flora, using criteria of altitudinal distribution and rarity. The biological basis of this classification has been widely confirmed. The analysis of floras from Corsica and Provence revealed the major role played by both altitude and human impact, and also demonstrated the importance of the predictive value of life-forms to plant conservation. In Southeastern France, there are no clear proportional relationships between rarity and extinction percentages. With increasing levels of human activity, rarity percentages are seen to increase for nearly all types. Conversely, extinction percentages exhibit a clear progression only for the most threatened life-forms: bulb and tuber geophytes, therophytes, parasites and especially hydrophytes. Thus, priority should be given to the protection of these 4 herbaceous types, which are found at low altitudes and lack visible vegetative organs during the unfavourable season.
    Comptes Rendus de l Académie des Sciences - Series III - Sciences de la Vie 01/2002; 324(12):1157-65.
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is of major social, medical and economic importance. The prevalence of HCV is approximatively 1% in most developed countries, and much higher in developing countries. HCV infection is the second major cause, after hepatitis B virus infection, for the generation of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. To date, the only reliable model for the study of HCV infection is the chimpanzee. Indeed, there is no robust in vitro infection system, yet. There is thus an urgent need for such an in vitro infection system in order to evaluate therapeutic agents. Here, a process is provided for infecting hepatocyte cell lines with hepatitis C virus in vitro. It is strongly suggested that cell-bound lipoproteins are playing a crucial role during the infection process. In order to obtain a robust infection, the cell-bound lipoproteins have first to be removed from their cellular receptor prior to the addition of viral inocula originating from human sera, the latter being made originally of a virus-lipoprotein complex.
    Comptes Rendus de l Académie des Sciences - Series III - Sciences de la Vie 01/2002; 324(12):1141-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Studies on singing behavior in Oscine focus essentially on males and are carried out during the breeding season. Singing in females appears rare and is not well documented. However, females of several species can produce a complex song. Does this lack of data correspond to a real difference in males and females or to a non appropriate context of observation? We studied the vocal and social behavior of captive male and female European starlings during two periods: breeding and non-breeding periods. Our results indicated that females sang mostly in a non-breeding context: their singing behavior was strongly diminished when nestboxes were present in the aviary. Moreover, females sang more frequently when their closest neighbor was a female whereas males sang mostly when they had no immediate neighbor. These results indicate a difference between males and females for the context of song production.
    Comptes Rendus de l Académie des Sciences - Series III - Sciences de la Vie 01/2002; 324(12):1167-74.
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    ABSTRACT: Bioluminescence measurements have been made using a bathyphotometer allowing the determination of stimulated light intensities down to 2,000 m depth, in the Mediterranean Sea on the Almeria-Oran front, during the winter 1997-1998, and in the northeastern Atlantic, on the Armorican continental shelf, during summers 1999 and 2000. Bioluminescence is weaker in the Mediterranean than in the Atlantic. In the epipelagic waters, day/night variations appear clearly, stimulated bioluminescence is higher at night than during the day. These diel variations can be explained by vertical migration of bioluminescent organisms and by photoinhibition of dinoflagellate bioluminescence. Fluorescence measurements made at the same time give information about potential bioluminescent sources, autotrophic and heterotrophic.
    Comptes Rendus de l Académie des Sciences - Series III - Sciences de la Vie 12/2001; 324(11):1037-44.