Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A Vacuum Surfaces and Films (J VAC SCI TECHNOL A)

Publisher: American Vacuum Society; American Institute of Physics, American Vacuum Society

Journal description

The Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A is devoted to reports of original research, review articles, and Critical Review articles. JVST A will include topics such as applied surface science, electronic materials and processing, fusion technology, plasma technology, surface science, thin films, vacuum metallurgy, and vacuum technology. It will contain the program and papers from the AVS National Symposium as well as the papers from other conferences and symposia sponsored by the AVS and its Divisions. JVST A is published six times annually.

Current impact factor: 2.32

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 2.322
2013 Impact Factor 2.14
2012 Impact Factor 1.432
2011 Impact Factor 1.253
2010 Impact Factor 1.286
2009 Impact Factor 1.297
2008 Impact Factor 1.173
2007 Impact Factor 1.278
2006 Impact Factor 1.394
2005 Impact Factor 1.399
2004 Impact Factor 1.557
2003 Impact Factor 1.628
2002 Impact Factor 1.301
2001 Impact Factor 1.448
2000 Impact Factor 1.569
1999 Impact Factor 1.742
1998 Impact Factor 1.612
1997 Impact Factor 1.576
1996 Impact Factor 1.612
1995 Impact Factor 1.662
1994 Impact Factor 1.771
1993 Impact Factor 1.699
1992 Impact Factor 2.154

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.86
Cited half-life >10.0
Immediacy index 0.37
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.52
Website Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A website
Other titles Journal of vacuum science & technology. A. Vacuum, surfaces, and films, JVST A, Journal of vacuum science and technology., Vacuum, surfaces, and films
ISSN 0734-2101
OCLC 8697396
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

American Vacuum Society

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • On a public eprint server
    • On authors and employers website
    • Publisher's version/PDF may be used, on authors and employers website only
    • Must link to publisher abstract version
    • Published source must be acknowledged (see policy for wording)
    • If funding agency rules apply, authors may post articles in PubMed Central 12 months after publication
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A Vacuum Surfaces and Films 03/2016; 34(2):02D101. DOI:10.1116/1.4932039
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The thermal surface chemistry of copper(I)-N,N′-di-sec-butylacetamidinate, [Cu( sBu-amd)]2, a metalorganic complex recently proposed for the chemical-based deposition of copper films, has been characterized on SiO2 films under ultrahigh vacuum conditions by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Initial adsorption at cryogenic temperatures results in the oxidation of the copper centers with Cu 2p3/2 XPS binding energies close to those seen for a +2 oxidation state, an observation that the authors interpret as the result of the additional coordination of oxygen atoms from the surface to the Cu atoms of the molecular acetamidinate dimer. Either heating to 300 K or dosing the precursor directly at that temperature leads to the loss of one of its two ligands, presumably via hydrogenation/protonation with a hydrogen/proton from a silanol group, or following a similar reaction on a defect site. By approximately 500 K the Cu 2p3/2, C 1s, and N 1s XPS data suggest that the remaining acetamidinate ligand is displaced from the copper center and bonds to the silicon oxide directly, after which temperatures above 900 K need to be reached to promote further (and only partial) decomposition of those organic moieties. It was also shown that the uptake of the Cu precursor is self-limiting at either 300 or 500 K, although the initial chemistry is somewhat different at the two temperatures, and that the nature of the substrate also defines reactivity, with the thin native silicon oxide layer always present on Si(100) surfaces being less reactive than thicker films grown by evaporation, presumably because of the lower density of surface nucleation sites.
    Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A Vacuum Surfaces and Films 01/2016; 34(1):01A101. DOI:10.1116/1.4927843
  • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A Vacuum Surfaces and Films 01/2016; 34(1):01A105. DOI:10.1116/1.4931568
  • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A Vacuum Surfaces and Films 01/2016; 34(1):01A107. DOI:10.1116/1.4931722
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Molybdenum oxide (MoO x ) films have been deposited by atomic layer deposition using bis(tert-butylimido)-bis(dimethylamido)molybdenum and oxygen plasma, within a temperature range of 50–350 °C. Amorphous film growth was observed between 50 and 200 °C at a growth per cycle (GPC) around 0.80 Å. For deposition temperatures of 250 °C and higher, a transition to polycrystalline growth was observed, accompanied by an increase in GPC up to 1.88 Å. For all deposition temperatures the O/Mo ratio was found to be just below three, indicating the films were slightly substoichiometric with respect to MoO3 and contained oxygen vacancies. The high purity of the films was demonstrated in the absence of detectable C and N contamination in Rutherford backscattering measurements, and a H content varying between 3 and 11 at. % measured with elastic recoil detection. In addition to the chemical composition, the optical properties are reported as well.
    Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A Vacuum Surfaces and Films 01/2016; 34(1):01A103. DOI:10.1116/1.4930161
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Atomic layer deposition (ALD) relies on a sequence of self-limiting surface reactions for thin film growth. The effect of non-ALD side reactions, from insufficient purging between pulses and from precursor self-decomposition, on film growth is well known. In this article, precursor condensation within an ALD valve is described, and the effect of the continuous precursor source from condensate evaporation on ALD growth is discussed. The influence of the ALD valve temperature on growth and electrical resistivity of ZrN plasma enhanced ALD (PEALD) films is reported. Increasing ALD valve temperature from 75 to 95 °C, with other process parameters being identical, decreased both the growth per cycle and electrical resistivity (ρ) of ZrN PEALD films from 0.10 to 0.07 nm/cycle and from 560 to 350 μΩ cm, respectively. Our results show that the non-ALD growth resulting from condensate accumulation is eliminated at valve temperatures close to the pressure corrected boiling point of precursor.
    Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A Vacuum Surfaces and Films 12/2015; 33(6):060603. DOI:10.1116/1.4926382
  • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A Vacuum Surfaces and Films 11/2015; 33(6):061507. DOI:10.1116/1.4929539
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The authors report on a facile method for introducing defects in graphene in a controlled manner. Samples were mounted face down between supports, and exposed to oxygen plasma in a reactive ion etching (RIE) system. Defect density and the rate of defect formation in graphene were analyzed according to the oxygen flow rates and power conditions, using Raman spectroscopy. The mechanism of defect formation was systematically investigated via both experiment and density functional theory (DFT) calculation. Based on our DFT results, sp3 oxygen in the epoxide form would most likely be induced in pristine graphene after exposure to the oxygen plasma. Defect engineering through the fine tuning of the graphene disorder using a conventional RIE system has great potential for use in various graphene-based applications.
    Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A Vacuum Surfaces and Films 11/2015; 33(6). DOI:10.1116/1.4926378
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aurivillius Bim+1Ti3Fem−3O3m+3 (m = 4, 5, 6) thin films have been deposited by a pulsed laser deposition system. The x-ray diffraction patterns indicate the formation of orthorhombic phase. The remanent polarization (2Pr) of Bim+1Ti3Fem−3O3m+3 thin films is decreased with the m-number. Positive-up-negative-down measurements indicate the presence of ferroelectric (FE) polarization in as-obtained thin films. Piezoresponse force microscopy investigations confirm the existence of FE domains and the switchable polarization. Weak magnetic moment is detected in the Aurivillius films at room temperature. The present work suggests the possibility of Aurivillius Bim+1Ti3Fem−3O3m+3 (m = 4, 5, 6) materials as potential room-temperature multiferroics.
    Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A Vacuum Surfaces and Films 11/2015; 33(6):060605. DOI:10.1116/1.4926982
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sputtering yields and surface chemical compositions of tin-doped indium oxide (or indium tin oxide, ITO) by CH+, CH3 +, and inert-gas ion (He+, Ne+, and Ar+) incidence have been obtained experimentally with the use of a mass-selected ion beam system and in-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been found that etching of ITO is chemically enhanced by energetic incidence of hydrocarbon (CHx +) ions. At high incident energy incidence, it appears that carbon of incident ions predominantly reduce indium (In) of ITO and the ITO sputtering yields by CH+ and CH3 + ions are found to be essentially equal. At lower incident energy (less than 500 eV or so), however, a hydrogen effect on ITO reduction is more pronounced and the ITO surface is more reduced by CH3 + ions than CH+ ions. Although the surface is covered more with metallic In by low-energy incident CH3 + ions than CH+ ions and metallic In is in general less resistant against physical sputtering than its oxide, the ITO sputtering yield by incident CH3 + ions is found to be lower than that by incident CH+ ions in this energy range. A postulation to account for the relation between the observed sputtering yield and reduction of the ITO surface is also presented. The results presented here offer a better understanding of elementary surface reactions observed in reactive ion etching processes of ITO by hydrocarbon plasmas.
    Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A Vacuum Surfaces and Films 11/2015; 33(6):060606. DOI:10.1116/1.4927125
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In addition to the usual set of the well-known reconstructions that have been observed on the N-polar GaN surface, namely 1×1, 3×3, 6×6, and c(6×12), an additional structure is occasionally seen at high Ga coverage, which can extend over a large area of the surface. This structure, which is referred to as trench line structure, is partially ordered and consists of parallel-running dark (trench) lines separating wide and narrow strips of atomically ordered regions. There are also randomly placed defects interrupting the ideal ordering. Reflection high energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy in ultrahigh vacuum are applied to investigate this trench line structure on samples prepared using molecular beam epitaxy. It is found that the trench line structure results from annealing the Ga-rich c(6×12) at high temperature followed by quenching to room temperature. By careful comparison of the scanning tunneling microscopy images with those from neighboring c(6×12) regions, it is found that the trench line structure can be decomposed into subunits of the c(6×12). Using these subunits, some simple models for the trench line structure are created. It is proposed that the trench line structure is composed of two primary c(6×12) subunits consisting of first and second layer Ga adatoms and that the trench lines are regions devoid of Ga adatoms, going down to the Ga adlayer.
    Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A Vacuum Surfaces and Films 11/2015; 33(6). DOI:10.1116/1.4927163
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study investigates the shape anisotropy and instability of holes formed during dewetting of single-crystal palladium and nickel films. The length ratios of edges constrained to expose {111} facets to other edges of the holes are found to be greater in palladium than in nickel films. The pinch-off is found to occur earlier in palladium than in nickel films. These morphological differences are explained in terms of oxygen adsorption and its effect on the surface energy anisotropy of the film materials.
    Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A Vacuum Surfaces and Films 11/2015; 33(6). DOI:10.1116/1.4926373
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ab initio studies of a GaN(0001)-Ga system with various thicknesses of a metallic Ga layer were undertaken. The studied systems extend from a GaN(0001) surface with a fractional coverage of gallium atoms to a Ga-GaN metal-semiconductor (m-s) contact. Electronic properties of the system are simulated using density functional theory calculations for different doping of the bulk semiconductor. It is shown that during transition from a bare GaN(0001) surface to a m-s heterostructure, the Fermi level stays pinned at a Ga-broken bond highly dispersive surface state to Ga-Ga states at the m-s interface. Adsorption of gallium leads to an energy gain of about 4 eV for a clean GaN(0001) surface and the energy decreases to 3.2 eV for a thickly Ga-covered surface. The transition to the m-s interface is observed. For a thick Ga overlayer such interface corresponds to a Schottky contact with a barrier equal to 0.9 and 0.6 eV for n- and p-type, respectively. Bond polarization-related dipole layer occurring due to an electron transfer to the metal leads to a potential energy jump of 1.5 eV, independent on the semiconductor doping. Additionally high electron density in the Ga-Ga bond region leads to an energy barrier about 1.2 eV high and 4 Å wide. This feature may adversely affect the conductivity of the n-type m-s system.
    Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A Vacuum Surfaces and Films 11/2015; 33(6). DOI:10.1116/1.4927166
  • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A Vacuum Surfaces and Films 11/2015; 33(6):061308. DOI:10.1116/1.4931782
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ)-related materials such as CoFeB, MgO, and W were etched in a pulse-biased inductively coupled plasma etch system using a CO/NH3 gas combination, and the effects of substrate temperature (room temperature ∼200 °C) in the pulse-biased condition on the etch characteristics of the MTJ-related material were investigated. The etch selectivity of MTJ materials over W was improved by substrate heating possibly due to the easy removal of the compounds from the etched CoFeB surface during the pulse-on time at the elevated substrate temperature. At high substrate temperature, decreased thickness of etch residue was observed not only on the bottom surface but also on the sidewall surface during the etching, which indirectly indicated the increased volatility of the etch compounds at higher substrate temperature. The etching of CoFeB features masked with W also showed a more anisotropic etch profile by heating the substrate up to 200 °C possibly due to the increased the etch selectivity of CoFeB over W and the decreased redeposition of etch products on the sidewall of the CoFeB features.
    Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A Vacuum Surfaces and Films 11/2015; 33(6):061304. DOI:10.1116/1.4929466
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The electroluminescence (EL) spectra of blue-green light emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures grown via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition are investigated. With increasing In content in InGaN well layers, the peak energy redshifts, the emission intensity reduces and the inhomogeneous broadening of the luminescence band increases. In addition, it is found that the EL spectra shrink with increasing injection current at low excitation condition, which may be ascribed to both Coulomb screening of polarization field and carrier transferring from shallower localization states to the deeper ones, while at high currents the state-filling effect in all localization states may become significant and lead to a broadening of EL spectra. However, surprisingly, for the MQW sample with much higher In content, the EL spectral bandwidth can be almost unchanged with increasing current at the high current range, since a large number of carriers may be captured by the nonradiative recombination centers distributed outside the localized potential traps and the state-filling effect in the localization states is suppressed.
    Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A Vacuum Surfaces and Films 11/2015; 33(6):061502. DOI:10.1116/1.4927388
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The authors investigate the effects of microwave annealing (MWA) on the recovery of plasma process-induced ion-bombardment damage in Si substrates. For damage creation, Ar discharges by a capacitively coupled plasma etcher are used. For damage repairing, the MWA or a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) are conducted. The authors employ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), photoreflectance spectroscopy (PRS), and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement to analyze the damaged structures. Recovery of the damage is discussed by comparing the obtained parameters before and after the annealing processes. In the SE analysis, the change in the real part of dielectric constant (Δε r) is investigated. The Δε r spectral peak around 3.4 eV decreases with an increase in the annealing temperature (T a) for both MWA and RTA, indicating the decrease in the density of defects created in the Si substrate. In the PRS analysis, the spectral peak intensity is found to decrease by the plasma exposure, and then to increase with T a, which implies the recovery of the Si crystalline structure by MWA as well as by RTA. In the C-V measurement, the voltage shift (ΔV b) in the respective C-V curves is used as a measure of the number of defects present in the surface and interface damaged regions. The ΔV b in the negative bias direction is observed after the plasma exposure for all damaged structures, while after annealing the ΔV b in the positive bias direction is confirmed, suggesting the recovery of the damage in the surface and interface regions. Moreover, it is experimentally found that MWA induces larger |ΔV b| than RTA. These findings indicate the decrease in carrier trap sites in the surface and interface regions of damaged structures, and that MWA is more effective in repairing such damage than RTA. The authors propose a model explaining these mechanisms where defect-induced dipole moments that interact with the incident microwave are considered. The present results draw a new damage-recovery picture by MWA, in particular, for plasma-induced damage in surface and interface regions of Si substrates.
    Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A Vacuum Surfaces and Films 11/2015; 33(6):061403. DOI:10.1116/1.4927128