Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A Vacuum Surfaces and Films (J VAC SCI TECHNOL A )

Publisher: American Vacuum Society; American Institute of Physics, American Vacuum Society


The Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A is devoted to reports of original research, review articles, and Critical Review articles. JVST A will include topics such as applied surface science, electronic materials and processing, fusion technology, plasma technology, surface science, thin films, vacuum metallurgy, and vacuum technology. It will contain the program and papers from the AVS National Symposium as well as the papers from other conferences and symposia sponsored by the AVS and its Divisions. JVST A is published six times annually.

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  • Website
    Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A website
  • Other titles
    Journal of vacuum science & technology. A. Vacuum, surfaces, and films, JVST A, Journal of vacuum science and technology., Vacuum, surfaces, and films
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  • Material type
    Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

American Vacuum Society

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
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    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • On a public eprint server
    • On authors and employers website
    • Publisher's version/PDF may be used, on authors and employers website only
    • Must link to publisher abstract version
    • Published source must be acknowledged (see policy for wording)
    • If funding agency rules apply, authors may post articles in PubMed Central 12 months after publication
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Atomic layer deposition (ALD) holds markedly high potential of becoming the enabling method for achieving the three-dimensional all-solid-state thin-film lithium ion battery (LiB). One of the most crucial components in such a battery is the electrolyte that needs to hold both low electronic conductivity and at least fair lithium ion conductivity being at the same time pinhole free. To obtain these desired properties in an electrolyte film, one necessarily has to have a good control over the elemental composition of the deposited material. The present study reports on the properties of ALD lithium aluminum oxide (LixAlyOz) thin films. In addition to LiB electrolyte applications, LixAlyOz is also a candidate low dielectric constant (low-k) etch stop and diffusion barrier material in nanoelectronics applications. The LixAlyOz films were deposited employing trimethylaluminum-O3 and lithium tert-butoxide-H2O for Al2O3 and Li2O/LiOH, respectively. The composition was aimed to be controlled by varying the pulsing ratio of those two binary oxide ALD cycles. The films were characterized by several methods for composition, crystallinity and phase, electrical properties, hardness, porosity, and chemical environment. Regardless of the applied pulsing ratio of Al2O3 and Li2O/LiOH, all the studied ALD LixAlyOz films of 200 and 400 nm in thickness were polycrystalline in the orthorhombic β-LiAlO2 phase and also very similar to each other with respect to composition and other studied properties. The results are discussed in the context of both fundamental ALD chemistry and applicability of the films as thin-film LiB electrolytes and low-k etch stop and diffusion barriers.
    Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A Vacuum Surfaces and Films 01/2015; 33(1):01A101-01A101-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a technique for depositing thin films of materials with a precise thickness control and uniformity using the self-limitation of the underlying reactions. Usually, it is difficult to predict the result of the ALD process for given external parameters, e.g., the precursor exposure time or the size of the precursor molecules. Therefore, a deeper insight into ALD by modeling the process is needed to improve process control and to achieve more economical coatings. In this paper, a detailed, microscopic approach based on the model developed by Yanguas-Gil and Elam is presented and additionally compared with the experiment. Precursor diffusion and second-order reaction kinetics are combined to identify the influence of the porous substrate's microstructural parameters and the influence of precursor properties on the coating. The thickness of the deposited film is calculated for different depths inside the porous structure in relation to the precursor exposure time, the precursor vapor pressure, and other parameters. Good agreement with experimental results was obtained for ALD zirconiumdioxide (ZrO2) films using the precursors tetrakis(ethylmethylamido)zirconium and O2. The derivation can be adjusted to describe other features of ALD processes, e.g., precursor and reactive site losses, different growth modes, pore size reduction, and surface diffusion.
    Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A Vacuum Surfaces and Films 01/2015; 33(1):01A104-01A104-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Comprehensive and systematic electrical studies were performed on fabrication of high quality SiO2 thin films MOS capacitor using the robust, novel, and simple atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique using highly reactive ozone and tris (dimethylamino) silane (TDMAS) precursors. Ideal capacitance–voltage curve exhibits a very small frequency dispersion and hysteresis behavior of the SiO2 MOS capacitor grown at 1 s TDMAS pulse, suggesting excellent interfacial quality and purity of the film as probed using x-ray photoelectron studies. The flat-band voltage of the device shifted from negative toward positive voltage axis with increase of TDMAS pulses from 0.2 to 2 s. Based on an equivalent oxide thickness point of view, all SiO2 films have gate leakage current density of (5.18 × 10−8 A/cm2) as well as high dielectric break down fields of more than (∼10 MV/cm), which is better and comparable to that of thermally grown SiO2 at temperatures above 800 °C. These appealing electrical properties of ALD grown SiO2 thin films enable its potential applications such as high-quality gate insulators for thin film MOS transistors, as well as insulators for sensor and nanostructures on nonsilicon substrates.
    Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A Vacuum Surfaces and Films 01/2015; 33(1):01A107-01A107-10.
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    ABSTRACT: The authors report the development and implementation of a scalable control program to control flow type atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor with multiple precursor delivery lines. The program logic is written and tested in labview environment to control ALD reactor with four precursor delivery lines to deposit up to four layers of different materials in cyclic manner. The programming logic is conceived such that to facilitate scale up for depositing more layers with multiple precursors and scale down for using single layer with any one precursor in the ALD reactor. The program takes precursor and oxidizer exposure and purging times as input and controls the sequential opening and closing of the valves to facilitate the complex ALD process in cyclic manner. The program could be used to deposit materials from any single line or in tandem with other lines in any combination and in any sequence.
    Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A Vacuum Surfaces and Films 01/2015; 33(1):013201-013201-8.
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    ABSTRACT: A method to enhance thermal microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) actuators in aqueous media by using dielectric encapsulation layers is presented. Aqueous media reduces the available mechanical energy of the thermal actuator through an electrical short between actuator structures. Al2O3 and TiO2 laminates with various thicknesses were deposited on packaged PolyMUMPs devices to electrically separate the actuator from the aqueous media. Atomic layer deposition was used to form an encapsulation layer around released MEMS structures and the package. The enhancement was assessed by the increase of the elastic energy, which is proportional to the mechanical stiffness of the actuator and the displacement squared. The mechanical stiffness of the encapsulated actuators compared with the noncoated actuators was increased by factors ranging from 1.45 (for 45 nm Al2O3 + 20 nm TiO2) to 1.87 (for 90 nm Al2O3 + 40 nm TiO2). Displacement measurements were made for all laminate combinations in filtered tap water and seawater by using FFT based displacement measurement technique with a repeatability of ∼10 nm. For all laminate structures, the elastic energy increased and enhanced the actuator performance: In seawater, the mechanical output energy increased by factors ranging from 5 (for 90 nm Al2O3) to 11 (for 90 nm Al2O3 + 40 nm TiO2). The authors also measured the long-term actuator stability/reliability in seawater. Samples were stored for 29 days in seawater and tested for 17 days in seawater. Laminates with TiO2 layers allowed constant operation over the entire measurement period.
    Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A Vacuum Surfaces and Films 01/2015; 33(1):01A126.
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    ABSTRACT: Titanium oxide (TiO2) deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is used as a protective layer in photocatalytic water splitting system as well as a dielectric in resistive memory switching. The way ALD is performed (thermally or plasma-assisted) may change the growth rate as well as the electronic properties of the deposited films. In the present work, the authors verify the influence of the ALD mode on functional parameters, by comparing the growth rate and electronic properties of TiO2 films deposited by thermal (T-) and plasma-enhanced (PE-) ALD. The authors complete the study with the electrical characterization of selected samples by means of capacitance–voltage and current–voltage measurements. In all samples, the authors found a significant presence of Ti3+ states, with the lowest content in the PE-ALD grown TiO2 films. The observation of Ti3+ states was accompanied by the presence of in-gap states above the valence band maximum. For films thinner than 10 nm, the authors found also a strong leakage current. Also in this case, the PE-ALD films showed the weakest leakage currents, showing a correlation between the presence of Ti3+ states and leakage current density.
    Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A Vacuum Surfaces and Films 01/2015; A33:01A144.
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    ABSTRACT: The authors report on the structural and electrical properties of TiN/Al2O3/TiN metal–insulator–metal (MIM) capacitor structures in submicron three-dimensional (3D) trench geometries with an aspect ratio of ∼30. A simplified process route was employed where the three layers for the MIM stack were deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a single run at a process temperature of 250 °C. The TiN top and bottom electrodes were deposited via plasma-enhanced ALD using a tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium precursor. 3D trench devices yielded capacitance densities of 36 fF/μm2 and quality factors >65 at low frequency (200 Hz), with low leakage current densities (<3 nA/cm2 at 1 V). These devices also show strong optical iridescence which, when combined with the covert embedded capacitance, show potential for system in package (SiP) anticounterfeiting applications.
    Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A Vacuum Surfaces and Films 01/2015; 33(1):01A103-01A103-5.
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    ABSTRACT: The fracture strength of Al2O3 membranes deposited by atomic layer deposition at 110, 150, 200, and 300 °C was investigated. The fracture strength was found to be in the range of 2.25–3.00 GPa using Weibull statistics and nearly constant as a function of deposition temperature. This strength is superior to common microelectromechanical systems materials such as diamondlike carbon, SiO2, or SiC. As-deposited membranes sustained high cycling pressure loads >10 bar/s without fracture. Films featured, however, significant reduction in the resistance to failure after annealing (800 °C) or high humidity (95%, 60 °C) treatments.
    Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A Vacuum Surfaces and Films 01/2015; 33(1):01A106-01A106-5.