Pharmaceutical Research Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists, American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists

Journal description

Pharmaceutical Research the official journal of the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists publishes innovative basic research and reports of technological advances in the pharmaceutical-biomedical sciences. Research areas covered include: pharmaceutics and drug delivery pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics drug metabolism pharmacology and toxicology medicinal chemistry natural products chemistry analytical chemistry chemical kinetics and drug stability biotechnology pharmaceutical technology and clinical investigations. This monthly journal also presents articles on the social economic or management aspects of the pharmaceutical sciences. For more information including submission instructions and cumulative tables of contents please visit the Pharmaceutical Research Web page on the Web site for the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists.

Current impact factor: 3.42

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 3.42
2013 Impact Factor 3.952
2012 Impact Factor 4.742
2011 Impact Factor 4.093
2010 Impact Factor 4.456
2009 Impact Factor 3.277
2008 Impact Factor 4.024
2007 Impact Factor 3.441
2006 Impact Factor 2.848
2005 Impact Factor 2.752
2004 Impact Factor 2.94
2003 Impact Factor 2.609
2002 Impact Factor 2.354
2001 Impact Factor 2.801
2000 Impact Factor 2.475
1999 Impact Factor 2.847
1998 Impact Factor 2.53
1997 Impact Factor 2.204

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 4.29
Cited half-life 9.50
Immediacy index 0.55
Eigenfactor 0.02
Article influence 1.03
Website Pharmaceutical Research website
Other titles Pharmaceutical research (Online)
ISSN 0724-8741
OCLC 45690422
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Now published by Springer (1st Jan 2007)
    • Authors own final version only can be archived
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On author's personal website
    • On institutional repository or funders designated website/repository after 12 months
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set phrase to accompany link to published version: The original publication is available at
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors can deposit in PubMed Central for public release after 12 month embargo
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Liposomes are robust drug delivery systems that have been developed into FDA-approved drug products for several pharmaceutical indications. Direct control in producing liposomes of a particular particle size and particle size distribution is extremely important since liposome size may impact cellular uptake and biodistribution. Methods: A device consisting of an injection-port was fabricated to form a coaxial turbulent jet in co-flow that produces liposomes via the ethanol injection method. By altering the injection-port dimensions and flow rates, a fluid flow profile (i.e., flow velocity ratio vs. Reynolds number) was plotted and associated with the polydispersity index of liposomes. Results: Certain flow conditions produced unilamellar, monodispersed liposomes and the mean particle size was controllable from 25 up to >465 nm. The mean liposome size is highly dependent on the Reynolds number of the mixed ethanol/aqueous phase and independent of the flow velocity ratio. Conclusions: The significance of this work is that the Reynolds number is predictive of the liposome particle size, independent of the injection-port dimensions. In addition, a new model describing liposome formation is outlined. The significance of the model is that it relates fluid dynamic properties and lipid-molecule physical properties to the final liposome size.
    Pharmaceutical Research 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11095-015-1798-8
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the potential of zein as a sole excipient for controlled release formulations prepared by hot melt extrusion. Physical mixtures of zein, water and crystalline paracetamol were hot melt extruded (HME) at 80°C and injection moulded (IM) into caplet forms. HME-IM Caplets were characterised using differential scanning calorimetry, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. Hydration and drug release kinetics of the caplets were investigated and fitted to a diffusion model. For the formulations with lower drug loadings, the drug was found to be in the non-crystalline state, while for the ones with higher drug loadings paracetamol is mostly crystalline. Release was found to be largely independent of drug loading but strongly dependent upon device dimensions, and predominately governed by a Fickian diffusion mechanism, while the hydration kinetics shows the features of Case II diffusion. In this study a prototype controlled release caplet formulation using zein as the sole excipient was successfully prepared using direct HME-IM processing. The results demonstrated the unique advantage of the hot melt extruded zein formulations on the tuneability of drug release rate by alternating the device dimensions.
    Pharmaceutical Research 03/2015; 32(8). DOI:10.1007/s11095-015-1663-9
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the untreatable neurodegenerative diseases characterised by the pathologic amyloid plaque deposition and inflammation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of nanoformulated SurR9-C84A, a survivin mutant belonging to the inhibitors of the apoptosis (IAP) protein family. The effect of SurR9-C84A was studied against the β-amyloid toxicity and various inflammatory insults in the differentiated SK-N-SH neurons. SurR9-C84A loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles were prepared following the modified double emulsion technique. The neuroprotective effect of SurR9-C84A was evaluated against the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide fragment, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) toxicity and the inflammatory assaults. To mimic the in vivo situation, a co-culture of neurons and microglia was also studied to validate these results. SurR9-C84A treatments showed improved neuronal health following Aβ, and NMDA toxicity in addition to inflammatory insults induced in mono and co-cultures. The neuroprotective effect was evident with the reduced neuronal death, accelerated expression of neuronal integrity markers (neurofilaments, beta-tubulin III etc.,) and the neuroprotective ERK/MAPK signalling. The current results demonstrated that the SurR9-C84A nanoformulation was very effective in rescuing the neurons and holds a potential future application against AD.
    Pharmaceutical Research 03/2015; 32(8). DOI:10.1007/s11095-015-1664-8
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Transdermal reverse iontophoresis offers a noninvasive tool for clinical and therapeutic monitoring of drugs and endogenous molecules. This study investigated the viability of reverse iontophoresis as an alternative technique to blood sampling for the monitoring of gabapentin. Methods Ex vivo studies assessed the influence of polarity, applied current (0.064–0.32 mA) and subdermal concentration (0.5–20 μg/mL) on the recovery of gabapentin. These experiments were carried out in vertical Franz diffusion cell for a period of 3 h using rat skin. In vivo experiments examined the versatility of this method to extract gabapentin from the subdermal region following intravenous administration of gabapentin (30 mg/kg) in rat model. Results Preliminary studies demonstrate that greater amount of gabapentin was extracted in the cathodal chamber due to the contribution of electroosmosis. Increasing the current intensity significantly enhances the extraction flux (P
    Pharmaceutical Research 03/2015; 32(4):1417-1424. DOI:10.1007/s11095-014-1546-5
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    ABSTRACT: Drug repositioning strategies were employed to explore new therapeutic indications for existing drugs that may exhibit dual negative mGluR1/5 modulating activities as potential treatments for neuropathic pain. A customized in silico-in vitro-in vivo drug repositioning scheme was assembled and implemented to search available drug libraries for compounds with dual mGluR1/5 antagonistic activities, that were then evaluated using in vitro functional assays and, for validated hits, in an established animal model for neuropathic pain. Tizoxanide, the primary active metabolite of the FDA approved drug nitazoxanide, fit in silico pharmacophore models constructed for both mGluR1 and mGluR5. Subsequent calcium (Ca++) mobilization functional assays confirmed that tizoxanide exhibited appreciable antagonist activity for both mGluR1 and mGluR5 (IC50 = 1.8 μM and 1.2 μM, respectively). The in vivo efficacy of nitazoxanide administered by intraperitoneal injection was demonstrated in a rat model for neuropathic pain. The major aim of the present study was to demonstrate the utility of an in silico-in vitro-in vivo drug repositioning protocol to facilitate the repurposing of approved drugs for new therapeutic indications. As an example, this particular investigation successfully identified nitazoxanide and its metabolite tizoxanide as dual mGluR1/5 negative modulators. A key finding is the vital importance for drug screening libraries to include the structures of drug active metabolites, such as those emanating from prodrugs which are estimated to represent 5-7% of marketed drugs.
    Pharmaceutical Research 03/2015; 32(8). DOI:10.1007/s11095-015-1665-7
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    ABSTRACT: Estrogen Receptor-α (ERα) expression is increased in prostate cancer and acts as an oncogene. We propose that blocking of estrogen hormone binding to ERα using the ERα blocker toremifene will reduce the tumorigenicity of prostate cancer, and nano-targeted delivery of toremifene will improve anticancer efficacy. We report the synthesis and use in an orthotopic mouse model of PLGA-PEG nanoparticles encapsulating toremifene and nanoparticles encapsulating toremifene that are also conjugated to anti-PSMA for targeted prostate tumor delivery. Human prostate cancer cell line PC3M and a nude mouse model were used to test efficacy of nano-targeted and nano-encapsulated toremifene versus free toremifene on the growth and differentiation of tumor cells. Treatment with free toremifene resulted in a significant reduction in growth of prostate tumor and proliferation, and its nano-targeting resulted in greater reduction of prostate tumor growth, greater toremifene tumor uptake, and enhanced tumor necrosis. Tumors from animals treated with nano-encapsulated toremifene conjugated with anti-PSMA showed about a 15-fold increase of toremifene compared to free toremifene. Our data provide evidence that blocking ERα by toremifene and targeting prostate cancer tissues with anti-PSMA antibody on the nanoparticles' surface repressed the tumorigenicity of prostate cancer cells in this mouse model.
    Pharmaceutical Research 03/2015; 32(8). DOI:10.1007/s11095-015-1662-x
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: For the rational design of nanovaccines against respiratory pathogens, careful selection of optimal particle size and chemistry is paramount. This work investigates the impact of these properties on the deposition, biodistribution, and cellular interactions of nanoparticles within the lungs. Method: In this work, biodegradable poly(sebacic anhydride) (poly(SA)) nanoparticles of multiple sizes were synthesized with narrow particle size distributions. The lung deposition and retention as well as the internalization by phagocytic cells of these particles were compared to that of non-degradable monodisperse polystyrene nanoparticles of similar sizes. Results: The initial deposition of intranasally administered particles in the lungs was dependent on primary particle size, with maximal deposition occurring for the 360-470 nm particles, regardless of chemistry. Over time, both particle size and chemistry affected the frequency of particle-positive cells and the specific cell types taking up particles. The biodegradable poly(SA) particles associated more closely with phagocytic cells and the dynamics of this association impacted the clearance of these particles from the lung. Conclusions: The findings reported herein indicate that both size and chemistry control the fate of intranasally administered particles and that the dynamics of particle association with phagocytic cells in the lungs provide important insights for the rational design of pulmonary vaccine delivery vehicles.
    Pharmaceutical Research 03/2015; 32:1368-1382. DOI:10.1007/s11095-014-1540-y
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    ABSTRACT: To develop a strategy to control benzene, an ICH Q3C Class 1 impurity that may be present in spray solvents at ppm concentration, in amorphous polymer-stabilized spray-dried dispersion (SDD) products. Risk assessments included determining the probability for benzene concentration in primary spray solvents, the physical properties of volatiles, and the potential enrichment of benzene from solution to solid. Mechanistic understanding of benzene removal was gained through a benzene-spiked fate and tolerance (F&T) study simulating worst-case spray-drying conditions and application of diffusion models for secondary drying. The mass ratio of spray solution to solid presented the highest risk of benzene enrichment. With slow spray-drying kinetics, benzene was reduced about 700-fold. Under standard secondary-drying conditions to remove residual solvents, residual benzene was further removed. Using diffusion models, the maximum benzene concentration was approximated for SDDs dried to the in-process control (IPC) limit of primary solvents. Two critical control points were established to eliminate any risk of residual benzene reaching patients: (1) upstream control of benzene in solvents (≤10 ppm) and (2) IPC of residual solvents in polymer-stabilized SDDs.
    Pharmaceutical Research 02/2015; 32(8). DOI:10.1007/s11095-015-1649-7
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    ABSTRACT: Percutaneous absorption assays of molecules for pharmaceutical and cosmetology purposes are important to determine the bioavailability of new compounds, once topically applied. The current method of choice is to measure the rate of diffusion through excised human skin using a diffusion cell. This method however entails significant drawbacks such as scarce availability and poor reproducibility of the sample, low sampling rate, and tedious assay setup. The objective of the present work is to propose an alternative method that overcomes these issues by integrating an experimental model of the skin (artificial stratum corneum) and online optical sensors into a microfluidic device. The measurement of the diffusion profile followed by the calculation of the permeability coefficients and time lag were performed on seven different molecules and obtained data positively fit with those available from literature on human skin penetration. The coating of the lipid mixture to generate the artificial stratum corneum also proved robust and reproducible. The results show that the proposed device is able to give fast, real-time, accurate, and reproducible data in a user-friendly manner, and can be produced at a large scale. These assets should help both the cosmetics and pharmaceutics fields where the skin is the target or a pathway of a formulated compound, by allowing more candidate molecules or formulations to be assessed during the various stages of their development.
    Pharmaceutical Research 02/2015; 32(8). DOI:10.1007/s11095-015-1654-x
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the function of multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) using (11)C-labeled metformin ([(11)C]metformin) by positron emission tomography (PET). PET was performed by intravenous bolus injection of [(11)C]metformin. Pyrimethamine at 0.5 and 5 mg/kg was intravenously administered to mice 30 min prior to the scan. Integration plot analysis was conducted for calculating liver (CLuptake,liver), kidney (CLuptake,kidney) tissue uptake, intrinsic biliary (CLint,bile) and urinary (CLint,urine) excretion clearances of [(11)C]metformin. Visualization by PET showed that pyrimethamine increased concentrations of [(11)C]metformin in the liver and kidneys, and decreased the concentrations in the urinary bladder without changing the blood profiles. Pyrimethamine had no effect on the CLuptake,liver and CLuptake,kidney, which were similar to the blood-flow rate. CLint,bile with regard to the liver concentration was unable to be determined, but administration of 0.5 and 5 mg/kg of pyrimethamine increased the liver-to-blood ratio to 1.6 and 2.3-fold, respectively, indicating that pyrimethamine inhibited the efflux of [(11)C]metformin from the liver. CLint,urine with regard to the corticomedullary region concentrations was decreased 37 and 68% of the control by administration of 0.5 and 5 mg/kg of pyrimethamine, respectively (P < 0.05). Tissue concentration based investigations using [(11)C]metformin by PET enables the functional analysis of MATEs in the liver and kidneys.
    Pharmaceutical Research 02/2015; 32(8). DOI:10.1007/s11095-015-1642-1
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to improve the absorption behavior of N-251, a novel antimalarial drug, by preparing an appropriate self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS). Two different types of SNEDDS formulations, medium-chain fatty acid-based SNEDDS (MC-SNEDDS) and long-chain fatty acid-based SNEDDS (LC-SNEDDS), were prepared based on pseudo-ternary phase diagram, and examined for their in vivo oral absorption behavior in rats. Oral dosing of MC-SNEDDS formulations significantly improved the bioavailability (BA) of N-251 compared with N-251 powders. However, its high hepatic extraction limited the BA of N-251 to only 0.49 for MC-SNEDDS B, the best formulation of MC-SNEDDS. LC-SNEDDS formulations, especially LC-SNEDDS F provided the highest BA, 0.65, and successfully attenuated the inter-individual difference in the absorption behavior. Furthermore, it was confirmed that lymphatic transport of N-251 for LC-SNEDDS F was significantly increased up to around 3.19 times larger than that for MC-SNEDDS B. Simulation study suggested that 20 to 39% of N-251 uptaken by the small intestine would be delivered to lymphatic system after oral administration of LC-SNEDDS F. SNEDDS formulations significantly improved the absorption behavior of N-251 and long-chain fatty acid-based lipid further improved it by avoiding the hepatic first-pass elimination.
    Pharmaceutical Research 02/2015; 32(8). DOI:10.1007/s11095-015-1646-x
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    ABSTRACT: To analyze the dissolution mechanism of solid dispersions of poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), to predict the dissolution profiles of the APIs and to find appropriate ways to improve their dissolution rate. The dissolution profiles of indomethacin and naproxen from solid dispersions in PVP K25 were measured in vitro using a rotating-disk system (USP II). A chemical-potential-gradient model combined with the thermodynamic model PC-SAFT was developed to investigate the dissolution mechanism of indomethacin and naproxen from their solid dispersions at different conditions and to predict the dissolution profiles of these APIs. The results show that the dissolution of the investigated solid dispersions is controlled by dissolution of both, API and PVP K25 as they codissolve according to the initial API loading. Moreover, the dissolution of indomethacin and naproxen was improved by decreasing the API loading in polymer (leading to amorphous solid dispersions) and increasing stirring speed, temperature and pH of the dissolution medium. The dissolution of indomethacin and naproxen from their amorphous solid dispersions is mainly controlled by the surface reaction, which implies that indomethacin and naproxen dissolution can be effectively improved by formulation design and by improving their solvation performance. The chemical-potential-gradient model combined with PC-SAFT can be used to analyze the dissolution mechanism of solid dispersions and to describe and predict the dissolution profiles of API as function of stirring speed, temperature and pH value of the medium. This work helps to find appropriate ways to improve the dissolution rate of poorly-soluble APIs.
    Pharmaceutical Research 02/2015; 32(8). DOI:10.1007/s11095-015-1644-z