Plant Cell Reports (PLANT CELL REP )

Publisher: Springer Verlag

Description

Plant Cell Reports will publish original short communications dealing with new advances concerning all aspects of research and technology in plant cell science plant cell culture and molecular biology including biochemistry genetics cytology physiology phytopathology plant regeneration genetic manipulations nucleic acid research

  • Impact factor
    2.94
    Show impact factor history
     
    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    2.83
  • Cited half-life
    7.40
  • Immediacy index
    0.47
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    0.64
  • Website
    Plant Cell Reports website
  • Other titles
    Plant cell reports
  • ISSN
    0721-7714
  • OCLC
    8037527
  • Material type
    Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Authors own final version only can be archived
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On author's website or institutional repository
    • On funders designated website/repository after 12 months at the funders request or as a result of legal obligation
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set phrase to accompany link to published version (The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com)
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Being sessile organisms, plants must respond to various challenges in the environment. The priming process consists of three clear stages. The first stage includes all the cellular changes in the absence of the challenge so-called pre-challenge priming stage. These changes are expected to be rather subtle, affecting the preparation of the plant to properly manage subsequent responses to pathogens with no major fitness costs. Most of the research that has been conducted at this stage has been dedicated to the study of changes in gene expression and protein phosphorylation. However, the metabolic changes that occur during the pre-challenge priming stage are poorly understood. The second stage affects the early to late stages of the defence response, which occurs after the interaction with a pathogen has been established. Most studies involving priming are dedicated to the molecular events that take place during this stage. Most studies have shown that defence priming is strongly hormonally regulated; however, there is also evidence of the involvement of phenolic derivative compounds and many other secondary metabolites, leading to stronger and faster plant responses. The third priming phase ranges from long lasting defence priming to trans-generational acquired resistance. Long-term metabolic transitions, that occur in the offspring of primed plants, remain to be elucidated. Here we review existing information in the literature that relates to the metabolic changes that occur during all three defence priming stages and highlight the metabolic transitions that are associated with the stimulation of priming and the characteristics of the pathogens whenever possible.
    Plant Cell Reports 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The ripening-induced MaBSD1 acts as a transcriptional activator, and might be involved in banana fruit ripening partly through directly activating the expression of two ripening-associated genes, MaEXP1/2. BSD (BTF2-like transcription factors, synapse-associated proteins and DOS2-like proteins) transcription factors are characterized by a typical BSD domain. However, little information is available concerning their possible roles in plant growth and development, especially in fruit ripening. In the present study, one BSD gene, designated as MaBSD1, was isolated from banana fruit. MaBSD1 has an open reading frame (ORF) of 921 bp which encodes a polypeptide of 306 amino acid residues with molecular weight of 34.80 kDa, and isoelectric point (pI) of 4.54. Subcellular localization and transcriptional activation assays showed that MaBSD1 was localized in both the nucleus and cytoplasm and possessed transcriptional activity. RT-qPCR and promoter activity analysis indicated that MaBSD1 was ethylene and ripening inducible, and the accumulation of MaBSD1 transcript was correlated well with the evolution of ethylene production and ripening process. Moreover, transient assay showed that MaBSD1 could activate the expression of two cell wall modification-related genes, MaEXP1/2, via directly interacting with their promoters. Together, these data suggest that ripening-induced MaBSD1 acts as a transcriptional activator and might be associated with banana fruit ripening, at least partially through directly activating the expression of MaEXP1/2, expanding the limited information concerning the BSD transcription factor in relation to fruit ripening.
    Plant Cell Reports 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: SlNAC4 functions as a stress-responsive transcription factor and might be useful for crop salt and drought tolerance improvement. Abiotic stresses, especially salinity and drought, are major factors that significantly limit crop growth and productivity. Plant-specific NAC transcription factors play crucial roles in various stress responses. However, to date only little information regarding stress-related NAC genes is available in tomato. Previously, we reported that tomato SlNAC4-SlNAC10 genes are involved in response of various abiotic stresses. Expression analysis revealed that SlNAC4 was also induced significantly by MeJA, but not by ABA. To further unravel the function of SlNAC4 in response to abiotic stress, we investigated the effects of salt and drought stress on wild-type and SlNAC4-RNAi transgenic tomato plants. The results demonstrated that the root and shoot growth of RNAi plants was more inhibited by salt stress than that of wild-type at post-germination stage. The leaf salt assay also showed less tolerance in transgenic plants by retaining lower chlorophyll content compared with wild-type plants. In addition, transgenic plants became less tolerant to salt and drought stress in soil, which were demonstrated by lower levels of water and chlorophyll contents, and higher water loss rate in their leaves as compared to wild-type plants under stressed conditions. Notably, the expressions of multiple stress-related genes were downregulated in SlNAC4-RNAi plants under both control and salt-stressed conditions. Collectively, these results highlight the important role of SlNAC4 functions as a stress-responsive transcription factor in positive modulation of abiotic stress tolerance through an ABA-independent signaling networks and possibly in response to biotic stress, and may hold promising applications in the engineering of salt- and drought-tolerant tomato.
    Plant Cell Reports 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: TaACO1 could catalyze ACC into ethylene in vitro. Constitutive expression of TaACO1 in Arabidopsis conferred salt sensitivity, and TaACO1 regulates salt stress mainly via the DREB1/CBF signal transduction pathway. Ethylene signaling plays essential roles in mediating plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, besides regulating plant growth and development. The roles of ethylene biosynthesis in abiotic stress, however, remain elusive. In this study, an aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase gene, TaACO1, affecting the terminal step in ethylene biosynthesis, was isolated from a salt-tolerant bread wheat introgression line Shanrong No. 3 (SR3) and its effect on salt-stress response was examined. Purified recombinant protein of TaACO1 heterogenously expressed in Escherchia coli could catalyze ACC into ethylene in vitro. TaACO1 transcripts were down-regulated by salt, drought, oxidative stress and ABA. TaACO1-transgenic plants conferred salt sensitivity as judged from the seed germination, cotyledon greening and the relative root growth under salt stress. Constitutive expression of TaACO1 in Arabidopsis increased AtMYB15 expression and suppressed the expression of stress-responsive genes AtRAB18, AtCBF1 and AtCBF3. These findings are helpful in understanding the roles of ethylene biosynthesis in plant salt-stress response.
    Plant Cell Reports 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Three TaLTPs were found to enhance chilling tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis, which were characterized by analyzes of promoter-GUS activity, subcellular localization, chromosomal location and transcriptional profile. Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTP) are abundantly expressed in plants, however, their functions are still unclear. In this study, we primarily characterized the functions of 3 type I TaLTP genes that were localized on chromosomes 3A, 3B, and 5D, respectively. The transcripts of TaLTPIb.1 and TaLTPIb.5 were induced under chilling, wound, and drought conditions, while TaLTPId.1 was only up-regulated by dark treatment. All the 3 TaLTP genes could be stimulated by the in vitro treatment of salicylic acid, while TaLTPId.1 was also positively regulated by methyljasmonic acid. Furthermore, the promoter-reporter assay of TaLTPIb.1 in the transgenic brachypodium showed a typical epidermis-specific expression pattern of this gene cluster. When fused with EGFP, all the 3 proteins were shown to localize on the plasma membrane in transgenic tobacco, although a signal in chloroplasts was also observed for TaLTPId.1. Heterogeneous overexpression of each of the TaLTP genes in Arabidopsis resulted in longer root length compared with wild type plants under chilling condition. These results suggest that type I TaLTPs may have a conserved functionality in chilling tolerance by lipid permeation in the plasma membrane of epidermal cells. On the other hand, the type I TaLTPs may exert functional divergence mainly through regulatory subfunctionalization.
    Plant Cell Reports 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Chitinases in Glycine max roots specifically respond to different metal types and reveal a polymorphism that coincides with sensitivity to metal toxicity. Plants evolved various defense mechanisms to cope with metal toxicity. Chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14), belonging to so-called pathogenesis-related proteins, act as possible second line defense compounds in plants exposed to metals. In this work their activity was studied and compared in two selected soybean (Glycine max L.) cultivars, the metal-tolerant cv. Chernyatka and the sensitive cv. Kyivska 98. Roots were exposed to different metal(loid)s such as cadmium, arsenic and aluminum that are expected to cause toxicity in different ways. For comparison, a non-metal, NaCl, was applied as well. The results showed that the sensitivity of roots to different stressors coincides with the responsiveness of chitinases in total protein extracts. Moreover, detailed analyses of acidic and neutral proteins identified one polymorphic chitinase isoform that distinguishes between the two cultivars studied. This isoform was stress responsive and thus could reflect the evolutionary adaptation of soybean to environmental cues. Activities of the individual chitinases were dependent on metal type as well as the cultivar pointing to their more complex role in plant defense during this type of stress.
    Plant Cell Reports 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The cereal aleurone cells differentiate from the endosperm epidermis with the exception of endosperm transfer cells. Aleurone cells contain proteins, lipids, and minerals, and are important for digesting the endosperm storage products to nurse the embryo under effects of several hormones during the seed germination. The differentiation of aleurone cells is related to location effect and special gene expression. Moreover, the differentiation of aleurone cells is probably affected by the cues from maternal tissues. In the paper, differentiation mechanism and function of aleurone cells and hormone effects on them are reviewed. Some speculations about the differentiation mechanism of aleurone cells are given here.
    Plant Cell Reports 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: GhH2A12 was preferentially expressed at the initiation and early elongation stage of cotton fiber development, and overexpression of GhH2A12 caused retardation of fiber initiation and produced shorter fibers. Histone H2A is a component of eukaryotic chromatin whose function has not been studied in cotton. We have isolated an H2A gene encoding 156 amino acids, named GhH2A12. Like other plant histone H2As, GhH2A12 contains a typical SPKK motif in the carboxy-terminal and a plant-unique peptide-binding A/T-rich DNA region, and it was localized to the nucleus. GhH2A12 was preferentially expressed at the initiation and early elongation stage of cotton fiber, from 0 to 5 days post anthesis and the transcript level declined rapidly when the fiber entered the fast elongation stage, suggesting that GhH2A12 was involved in fiber differentiation. Therefore, GhH2A12 overexpression and RNAi transgenic cotton lines were developed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Overexpression of GhH2A12 caused retardation of fiber initiation and produced shorter fibers and lower lint percentages. Moreover, the overexpressors showed negative effects on seedling growth, and the leaf emergence was delayed compared to wild type. However, no significant change in the GhH2A12 suppression line was observed. Coupled with retardation of fiber initiation, upregulation of GhH2A12 downregulated the expression of genes involved in cell-cycle performance. These results suggest that GhH2A12 might regulate fiber differentiation via regulating the cell cycle-related genes.
    Plant Cell Reports 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The genes coding for wheat ATG4 and ATG8 were cloned and their roles in autophagy were verified. Implications of ATG4/ATG8 in wheat responses to stresses were suggested by expression profiling. Autophagy-related proteins ATG4 and ATG8 are crucial for autophagy biogenesis. ATG4 processes ATG8 precursor to expose its C-terminal glycine for phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE) lipidation. ATG8, in the form of ATG8-PE adduct, functions in the organization dynamics of autophagic membranes. Here, we report the identification of two/nine members of the ATG4/ATG8 family from common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Expression of each wheat ATG4/ATG8 could complement the autophagy activity of yeast atg4/atg8 mutant cells. GFP fusion proteins of ATG8s, especially of ATG8s with innate C-terminal-exposed glycines, localized to punctate autophagic membranes. Both of purified ATG4s could cleave ATG8s in vitro, but they had different activities and different preferences for ATG8 substrates. Two times of transcript accumulation, an early one and a late one, of ATG4s/ATG8s were detected in the early phases of the Pm21- and Pm3f-triggered wheat incompatible reactions to the powdery mildew causal fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), and fluorescence microscopy also revealed a Bgt-induced enhanced wheat autophagy level in the Pm21-triggered incompatible reaction. Only one time of Bgt-induced transcript accumulation of ATG4s/ATG8s, corresponding to but much higher than the late one in incompatible reactions, was detected in a susceptible line isogenic to the Pm21 resistance line. These results suggested positive roles of ATG4/ATG8-associated autophagy process in the early stage and possible negative roles in the late stage of wheat immunity response to Bgt. In addition, expression of wheat ATG4s/ATG8s was also found to be upregulated by abiotic stress factors and distinctively regulated by different phytohormones.
    Plant Cell Reports 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Key message VvMATE1 and VvMATE2 encode putative PA transporters expressed during seed development in grapevine. The subcellular localization of these MATE proteins suggests different routes for the intracellular transport of PAs. Abstract Proanthocyanidins (PAs), also called condensed tannins, protect plants against herbivores and are important quality components of many fruits. PAs biosynthesis is part of the flavonoid pathway that also produces anthocyanins and flavonols. In grape fruits, PAs are present in seeds and skin tissues. PAs are synthesized in the cytoplasm and accumulated into the vacuole and apoplast; however, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the transport of these compounds to such cellular compartments. A gene encoding a Multidrug And Toxic compound Extrusion (MATE) family protein suggested to transport anthocyanins—named VvMATE1—was used to identify a second gene of the MATE family, VvMATE2. Analysis of their deduced amino acid sequences and the phylogenetic relationship with other MATE-like proteins indicated that VvMATE1 and VvMATE2 encode putative PA transporters. Subcellular localization assays in Arabidopsis protoplasts transformed with VvMATE–GFP fusion constructs along with organelle-specific markers revealed that VvMATE1 is localized in the tonoplast whereas VvMATE2 is localized in the Golgi complex. Major expression of both genes occurs during the early stages of seed development concomitant with the accumulation of PAs. Both genes are poorly expressed in the skin of berries while VvMATE2 is also expressed in leaves. The presence of putative cis-acting elements in the promoters of VvMATE1 and VvMATE2 may explain the differential transcriptional regulation of these genes in grapevine. Altogether, these results suggest that these MATE proteins could mediate the transport and accumulation of PAs in grapevine through different routes and cellular compartments.
    Plant Cell Reports 07/2014; 33(7).
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    ABSTRACT: 2 n megagametophyte formation plays an important role in polyploidization in polyembryonic citrus and is valuable for plant improvement. Tetraploid plants are frequently observed in the seedlings of diploid polyembryonic citrus genotypes. However, the mechanisms underlying the formation of tetraploids are still indistinct when apomictic citrus genotypes are used as female parent to cross with tetraploids. Herein, 54 tetraploid progenies, which were unexpectedly obtained previously from four 2x × 4x crosses using polyembryonic 'Nadorcott' tangor as seed parent, were analyzed by 22 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, aiming to reveal their genetic origin and the mechanism underlying 2n megagametophyte formation. The results showed that 13 tetraploids from all these four crosses were doubled diploids as indicated by their identical SSR allelic profile with their female parent; while the remaining 41 tetraploids apparently exhibited paternally derived alleles, which confirmed their zygotic origin. Furthermore, the genotyping of all hybrids indicated that all of them arose from 2n megagametophytes. Based on the genotypes of 2n megagametophytes, the analysis of maternal heterozygosity restitution (HR) for each marker showed that it varied from 0.00 to 87.80 % with a mean value of 40.89 %. In addition, it was observed that 13 markers displayed a lower rate than 50 %. On the basis of the above results, it can be speculated that the second division restitution (SDR) is the mechanism underlying the 2n megagametophyte formation in 'Nadorcott' tangor. The elucidation of the mechanism of 2n megagametophyte formation will be of great help to optimize further sexual hybridization for polyploids in citrus.
    Plant Cell Reports 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Two novel NAC transcription factors from C itrullus colocynthis implicated in light and auxin signaling pathway. NAC transcription factors (NAM, ATAF1, 2, CUC2) have multiple functions in plant growth and development. Two NACs, CcNAC1 and CcNAC2, were recently identified in the highly drought-tolerant cucurbit species, Citrullus colocynthis. This study examines the functional role of these genes under different qualities of light based on the in silico analysis of the CcNAC1 and CcNAC2 promoters that revealed the presence of several light-associated motifs. The impact of both light and auxin on CcNAC1 and CcNAC2 expression was examined in C. colocynthis leaves, and using reporter (pCcNAC1, 2::GUS) lines in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, the effects of constitutive overexpression (OE-CcNAC1, 2) in Arabidopsis were also examined under a range of conditions to confirm reporter line linkages. White, blue, red, and far-red light treatments resulted in similar patterns of quantitative changes in CcNAC1and CcNAC2 expression in both species, with the highest transcript increases following red light. Photomorphogenic changes in Arabidopsis hypocotyls were correlated with gene transcript levels. In the absence of light, hypocotyls of OE-CcNAC1/CcNAC2 lines were significantly longer as compared to WT. The addition of exogenous auxin (+IAA) to growth medium also resulted in changes to the hypocotyl lengths of overexpression lines and spatiotemporal reporter line changes in seedlings. Our data suggest that CcNAC1, 2 might be functionally important in the light signaling pathway, and appear connected to the hormone auxin. This is the first study to indicate that NAC genes might play a role in both light and auxin signaling pathways.
    Plant Cell Reports 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Spatio-temporal expression patterns of 13 out of 119 poplar WRKY genes indicated dynamic and tissue-specific roles of WRKY family proteins in salinity stress tolerance. To understand the expression patterns of poplar WRKY genes under salinity stress, 51 of the 119 WRKY genes were selected from di-haploid Populus simonii × P. nigra by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). We used qRT-PCR to profile the expression of the top 13 genes under salinity stress across seven time points, and employed RNA-Seq platforms to cross-validate it. Results demonstrated that all the 13 WRKY genes were expressed in root, stem, and leaf tissues, but their expression levels and overall patterns varied notably in these tissues. Regarding overall gene expression in roots, the 13 genes were significantly highly expressed at all six time points after the treatment, reaching the plateau of expression at hour 9. In leaves, the 13 genes were similarly up-regulated from 3 to 12 h in response to NaCl treatment. In stems, however, expression levels of the 13 genes did not show significant changes after the NaCl treatment. Regarding individual gene expression across the time points and the three tissues, the 13 genes can be classified into three clusters: the lowly expressed Cluster 1 containing PthWRKY28, 45 and 105; intermediately expressed Clusters 2 including PthWRKY56, 88 and 116; and highly expressed Cluster 3 consisting of PthWRKY41, 44, 51, 61, 62, 75 and 106. In general, genes in Cluster 2 and 3 displayed a dynamic pattern of "induced amplification-recovering", suggesting that these WRKY genes and corresponding pathways may play a critical role in mediating salt response and tolerance in a dynamic and tissue-specific manner.
    Plant Cell Reports 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: OsiSAP1, an A20/AN1 zinc-finger protein, confers water-deficit stress tolerance at different stages of growth by affecting expression of several endogenous genes in transgenic rice. Transgenic lines have been generated from rice constitutively expressing OsiSAP1, an A20/AN1 zinc-finger containing stress-associated protein gene from rice, driven by maize UBIQUITIN gene promoter and evaluated for water-deficit stress tolerance at different stages of growth. Their seeds show early germination and seedlings grow better under water-deficit stress compared to non-transgenic (NT) rice. Leaves from transgenic seedlings showed lesser membrane damage and lipid peroxidation under water-deficit stress. Relatively lower rate of leaf water loss has been observed in detached intact leaves from transgenic plants during late vegetative stage. Delayed leaf rolling and higher relative water content were also observed in transgenic plants under progressive water-deficit stress during reproductive developmental stage. Although reduction in grain yield is observed under unstressed condition, the relative water-deficit stress-induced yield losses are lower in transgenic rice vis-à-vis NT plants thereby resulting in yield loss protection. Transcriptome analysis suggests that overexpression of OsiSAP1 in transgenic rice results in altered expression of several endogenous genes including those coding for transcription factors, membrane transporters, signaling components and genes involved in metabolism, growth and development. A total of 150 genes were found to be more than twofold up-regulated in transgenic rice of which 43 genes are known to be involved in stress response. Our results suggest that OsiSAP1 is a positive regulator of water-deficit stress tolerance in rice.
    Plant Cell Reports 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we identified eight DNA MTase genes in maize and the diversity of expression patterns of them was presented by EST mining, microarray and semi-quantitative expression profile analyses. DNA methylation plays a pivotal role in promoting genomic stability through diverse biological processes including regulation of gene expression during development and chromatin organization. Although this important biological process is mainly regulated by several conserved Cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases encoded by a smaller multigene family in plants, investigation of the plant C5-MTase-encoding gene family will serve to elucidate the epigenetic mechanism diversity in plants. Recently, genome-wide identification and evolutionary analyses of the C5-MTase-encoding gene family have been characterized in multiple plant species including Arabidopsis, rice, carrot and wheat. However, little is known regarding the C5-MTase-encoding genes in the entire maize genome. Here, genome-wide identification and expression profile analyses of maize C5-MTase-encoding genes (ZmMETs) were performed from the latest version of the maize (B73) genome. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the orthologs from the three species (maize, Arabidopsis and rice) were categorized into four classes. Chromosomal location of these genes revealed that they are unevenly distributed on 6 of all 10 chromosomes with three chromosomal/segmental duplication events, suggesting that gene duplication played a key role in expansion of the maize C5-MTase-encoding gene family. Furthermore, EST expression data mining, microarray data and semi-quantitative expression profile analyses detected in the leaves by two different abiotic stress treatments have demonstrated that these genes had temporal and spatial expression pattern and exhibited different expression levels in stress treatments, suggesting that functional diversification of ZmMET genes family. Overall, our study will serve to present signification insights to explore the plant C5-MTase-encoding gene expression and function and also be beneficial for future experimental research to further unravel the mechanisms of epigenetic regulation in plants.
    Plant Cell Reports 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Mutation of the AM1 gene causes an albino midrib phenotype and enhances tolerance to drought in rice K(+) efflux antiporter (KEA) genes encode putative potassium efflux antiporters that are mainly located in plastid-containing organisms, ranging from lower green algae to higher flowering plants. However, little genetic evidence has been provided on the functions of KEA in chloroplast development. In this study, we isolated a rice mutant, albino midrib 1 (am1), with green- and white-variegation in the first few leaves, and albino midrib phenotype in older tissues. We found that AM1 encoded a putative KEA in chloroplast. AM1 was highly expressed in leaves, while lowly in roots. Chloroplast gene expression and proteins accumulation were affected during chlorophyll biosynthesis and photosynthesis in am1 mutants. Interestingly, AM1 was induced by salt and PEG, and am1 showed enhanced sensitivity to salinity in seed germination and increased tolerance to drought. Taken together, we concluded that KEAs were involved in chloroplast development and played important roles in drought tolerance.
    Plant Cell Reports 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Mid-bicellular pollen vegetative cells in tobacco escape from G1 arrest and proceed to the G1/S transition towards androgenesis within 1 day under glutamine starvation conditions in vitro. In the Nicotiana tabacum pollen culture system, immature pollen grains at the mid-bicellular stage can mature in the presence of glutamine; however, if glutamine is absent, they deviate from their native cell fate in a few days. The glutamine-starved pollen grains cannot undergo maturation, even when supplied with glutamine later. Instead, they undergo cell division towards androgenesis slowly within 10 days in a medium containing appropriate nutrients. During the culture period, they ought to escape from G1 arrest to proceed into S phase as the primary step towards androgenesis. However, this event has not been experimentally confirmed. Here, we demonstrated that the pollen vegetative cells proceeded to the G1/S transition within approximately 15-36 h after the start of culture. These results were obtained by analyzing transgenic pollen possessing a fusion gene encoding nuclear-localizing GFP under the control of an E2F motif-containing promoter isolated from a gene encoding one of DNA replication licensing factors. Observations using a 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine DNA labeling and detection technique uncovered that the G1/S transition was soon followed by S phase. These hallmarks of vegetative cells undergoing dedifferentiation give us new insights into upstream events causing the G1/S transition and also provide a novel strategy to increase the frequency of the androgenic response in tobacco and other species, including recalcitrants.
    Plant Cell Reports 06/2014;

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