Zoomorphology (ZOOMORPHOLOGY)

Publisher: Springer Verlag

Journal description

The journal will accept original papers based on morphological investigation of invertebrates and vertebrates at the macroscopic microscopic and ultrastructural levels including embryologcial studies. Special emphasis will be placed on: Comparative anatomical studies that correlate structure with function including morphometric analysis Analysis of interrelationship between structural-functional systems of animals and their general biology including environmental adaptations and behavior Analysis of interdependency among complex structural functional systems in adult organisms as well as during embryological and phylogenetical development Studies of developmental phenomena and homologies as the basis for phylogenetic relationships.

Current impact factor: 1.70

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 1.702
2013 Impact Factor 1.277
2012 Impact Factor 1.133
2011 Impact Factor 1.283
2010 Impact Factor 1.8
2009 Impact Factor 1.786
2008 Impact Factor 1
2007 Impact Factor 1.405
2006 Impact Factor 1.211
2005 Impact Factor 1.561
2004 Impact Factor 1.059
2003 Impact Factor 1.156
2002 Impact Factor 1.118
2001 Impact Factor 1.429
2000 Impact Factor 1
1999 Impact Factor 0.784
1998 Impact Factor 1.122
1997 Impact Factor 0.821
1996 Impact Factor 0.976
1995 Impact Factor 0.932
1994 Impact Factor 0.625
1993 Impact Factor 0.909
1992 Impact Factor 0.484

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.37
Cited half-life >10.0
Immediacy index 0.24
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.47
Website Zoomorphology website
Other titles Zeitschrift für Morphologie der Tiere
ISSN 0720-213X
OCLC 43497915
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Author's pre-print on pre-print servers such as arXiv.org
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website immediately
    • Author's post-print on any open access repository after 12 months after publication
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set phrase to accompany link to published version (see policy)
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • Zoomorphology 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00435-015-0282-7
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    ABSTRACT: The structural morphology of the first pereiopod (P1) in crangonoid shrimps is investigated here for the first time using scanning electron microscopy, with particular emphasis on morphological variation in the distal margin (PDM) of the occluding margin of the propodus. Results indicate that there is a high level of morphological variation in the surface ultrastructure of the PDM across the 20 studied genera, assigned to three major types; lamellar, tuberculate and simple. It is postulated that variation in PDM morphology may be explained by its function as a friction-mediated adhesion device that facilitates prey capture, such that the more intricate PDM morphologies may have evolved in response to a selective requirement for a more efficient prey capture device in certain crangonid lineages. Further, comparison with Glyphocrangon indicates that there is no fine-scale structural evidence of homology between the prehensile P1 of Glyphocrangon and the subchelate P1 of Crangonidae.
    Zoomorphology 09/2015; 134(3). DOI:10.1007/s00435-015-0270-y
  • Raoul Van Damme · Katrien Wijnrocx · Jeroen Boeye · Katleen Huyghe · Stefan Van Dongen
    Zoomorphology 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00435-015-0275-6
  • Zoomorphology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00435-015-0274-7
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    ABSTRACT: Coexistence is thought to be based mainly on interspecific differences in the use of limiting resources and habitat choice, both being associated with specific traits. We studied morphological parameters within an assemblage of large wandering spider species in Costa Rica subdivided into three subguilds: (1) semi-aquatic species, (2) forestground dwellers and (3) vegetation dwellers. We hypothesized that the observed differences between the spider species in microhabitat preferences and abilities to adhere to smooth surfaces should be associated with corresponding morphological traits. The leg scopulation patterns were surprisingly complex and reflected the ecological preferences of the spiders. We found that the scopulation patterns and the ratio of tarsus to leg length (T/L) appeared to be most important: the poor adhesion abilities of the semi-aquatic species were reflected by the absence of tarsal claw tufts, and these species also showed the highest T/L ratio. The forest-ground dwellers had smaller claw tufts relative to body mass than the vegetation dwellers that consistently showed the best adhesion performance. This study presents the first family-spanning ecomorphological analysis of an assemblage of large tropical wandering spiders.
    Zoomorphology 06/2015; 134(2). DOI:10.1007/s00435-015-0257-8
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between tooth roots and diet is largely unexplored, although a logical relationship between harder diets and increased root surface area is suggested. Existing studies of primates, carnivorans and phyllostomid bats have indicated a relationship between diet hardness, bite force and tooth root surface area. The goal of this study was to determine whether root surface area can act as a potential surrogate for bite force and diet in cricetid rodents. Using microcomputed tomography (microCT), tooth root morphology from six species of rodents, two grass eaters (Calomys callosus and Reithrodon auritus), two seed eaters (Phyllotis darwini and Ochrotomys nuttalli) and two insect eaters (Akodon azarae and Oxymycterus hispidus) were compared. Similar to other studies, these rodents did exhibit differences in tooth root surface area based on diet classification, but food hardness did not seem to be a factor. Grass-eating species showed significantly larger roots relative to the other diet groups (p = 0.001). Bite force was estimated using skull measurements. Seed eaters were found to have a larger bite force, followed by grass and insect eaters, though the trend did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.058). No strong relationship was found between estimated bite force and tooth root surface area. In this study, the mechanics of grass eating seem to have a stronger effect on tooth root surface area than bite force. microCT allows the nondestructive quantification of previously difficult-to-access tooth morphology; this method shows the potential for tooth roots to provide valuable dietary, behavioral and ecological information in rodents.
    Zoomorphology 06/2015; 134(2). DOI:10.1007/s00435-015-0262-y
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    ABSTRACT: Among reptiles, morphological events involving differentiation of the gonads are similar, and their development is closely related to development of the Wolffian and Müllerian reproductive ducts and adrenal tissue. These structures have been described for some Squamata during their embryonic development. This study shows morphological characteristics of gonadal, adrenal tissue, and reproductive ducts development, during the embryonic development of oviparous lizard Sceloporus aeneus. The morphology of the urogenital complexes was examined using light microscopy, and ultrastructure of gonads was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The undifferentiated gonad was apparent from stage (st) 30 to st33; ovaries and testes became morphologically distinct from st34. In ovaries, the formation of the cortical and medullary region is evident, and germinal beds can be observed from st34 and synaptonemal complexes as evidence of meiosis was detected at st36. In testes, formation of testicular cords containing germ cells is observed; immature Leydig and Sertoli cells were identified from st38. Females showed evident Müllerian duct development, whereas in males, the Müllerian duct degenerated and the Wolffian duct remained. The adrenal tissue was observed as a cord of compact cells associated with the dorsal region of developing gonad from st31. In general, gonadal development of S. aeneus is similar to that observed in Sceloporus undulatus. Particularly, the presence of immature Leydig cells containing lipid droplets in testes and structures similar to germinal beds in ovaries is specific characteristics of S. aeneus.
    Zoomorphology 06/2015; 134(2). DOI:10.1007/s00435-015-0259-6
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    ABSTRACT: The structural and morphometric traits of spermatozoa reflect species-specific evolutionary and functional characters. The shrew, Crocidura shantungensis, which is an indigenous species of Ulleung-do, is dominant on this island and is suspected to have unique traits different from other shrews. Based on a previous sperm ultrastructural analysis, the structural and morphometric traits of caudal epididymal spermatozoa were evaluated by light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Total length was 110.0 μm. The head was paddle shaped with a globular nucleus and was 16.0 μm in length. The acrosomal cap covered four-fifths of the nucleus, and the subacrosomal space had sawtooth-shaped edges. The number of mitochondrial gyres was 84–86. Nine segmented columns in the neck consisted of 12 knobs, and each column was fused with outer dense fiber. The outer dense fibers 1, 5, and 6 were thicker than the others. Outer fiber 1 was shaped like a horseshoe, whereas 5 and 6 were fused with each other. Numerous satellite fibers were scattered on the mid-piece between outer fibers 4 and 5, and 6 and 7. Two specific strong electron-dense fibers were found uniquely near the satellite fibers. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the caudal sperm of Ulleung-do C. shantungensis has unique ultrastructural and morphometric traits based on common sperm characters of the subfamilies, suggesting unique physiological roles in reproduction.
    Zoomorphology 06/2015; 134(2). DOI:10.1007/s00435-014-0249-0
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    ABSTRACT: The ocular morphology, morphological characteristics and topography of ganglion cell distribution were studied in four eyes of Globicephala melas to estimate the retinal resolution. The ganglion cell layer was composed of a single row of ganglion cells with a primarily round shape and a cell size which varied from 10 to 75 µm (mean 33.5 µm) in diameter. The typical feature was that 65 % of ganglion cells had a diameter larger than 25 µm, with a similar average size in all regions of the retina. The total number of ganglion cells (183,000-218,000; mean 203,000) was distributed in several isodensity lines with two definite areas of high cell density: one area was located in the temporal retinal area, and the other one in the nasal retina, at 65° ± 5° from the optic disk. A surprising result was the presence of a third cell density peak in the dorsal region of one retina. The mean peak cell densities of three retinas were 268 and 267 cells/mm2 in the nasal and temporal areas, respectively, and 287 cells/mm2 in the third peak of the dorsal region. Finally, the underwater retinal resolution, calculated from posterior nodal distance and the peak cell density, was 10.9′ (2.8 cycles/degree) in both nasal and temporal retinal areas, whereas the aerial resolution was 14.5′ (2.1 cycles/degree). These data suggest that G. melas has a visual acuity similar to other cetaceans investigated so far.
    Zoomorphology 06/2015; 134(2). DOI:10.1007/s00435-015-0258-7
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    ABSTRACT: Histochemical properties of the mucus cells in oesophagus and stomach in a teleost, black tetra (Gymnocorymbus ternetzi), are described and compared. These cells were sac-shaped, very numerous, and embraced by ordinary epithelial cells with highly variable shape, throughout the entire length of oesophagus. The stomach luminal epithelial cells were filled with mucin apically, whereas the gastric gland cells lacked mucin. When treated with alcian blue (pH 2.5) before periodic acid-Schiff, the oesophagus mucin displayed a colour between blue and magenta, whereas it was strongly magenta in stomach. After high iron diamine followed by alcian blue (pH 2.5), the oesophagus mucin displayed a clean blue colour, whereas the stomach mucin was uncoloured. The present results for the lectin affinities in mucus cells in oesophagus of black tetra were similar to those of stomach and together suggest that these mucins contain significant amounts of N-acetylglucosamines, galactose-N-acetylgalactosamines sequences, and probably some sialic acid in terminal positions attached to the N-acetylglucosamine, but the mucin seems nearly or entirely to lack glucose and mannose. In addition, all its N-acetylgalactosamines in oesophagus, unlike in stomach, seem to be attached to galactose, as these amines were not coloured by DBA in oesophagus, but intensely coloured by PNA. Together the present results suggest that the oesophagus mucin in black tetra contains both neutral and carboxylated glycoproteins, but lacks sulphated glycoproteins, whereas the stomach mucin contains neutral glycoproteins only. The present results for black tetra suggest that the large amounts of oesophageal mucus and its increased toughness caused by anions may largely compensate for the lack of salivary glands. The stomach mucin lacks anions, a feature which may enhance the flow of the mucus and therefore also its ability to clean and protect the stomach wall against the gastric juice.
    Zoomorphology 06/2015; 134(2). DOI:10.1007/s00435-015-0256-9
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    ABSTRACT: There are relatively few published illustrations of ovipositors for harvestmen belonging to the suborder Laniatores. As a result, the ovipositor of these harvestmen has largely been ignored as a source of informative characters. We used scanning electron microscopy to examine the ovipositor of eight species representing several major lineages (Gonyleptoidea, Phalangodoidea, Samooidea, and Zalmoxoidea). We observed interspecific variation with respect to the number of external lobes on the distal tip, the surface texture of the distal tip, and the morphology of the peripheral setae. The ovipositors of Bishopella (Phalangodoidea) and Stygnomma (Samooidea) were similar in appearance and differed with respect to the number and position of peripheral setae. We observed significant interspecific variation among the gonyleptoidean species, especially with respect to the peripheral setae. The ovipositors of Zalmoxoidea harvestmen had smooth, spatulate peripheral setae but differed with respect to the surface texture of the distal tip. The unusual morphology of these setae has not been observed previously and may represent a new synapomorphy for the family. Characters based upon ovipositor morphology have the potential to illuminate phylogenetic relationships within and between families and genera in these harvestmen.
    Zoomorphology 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00435-015-0269-4
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    ABSTRACT: This study, facilitated by the use of immunohistochemistry, indicated the presence of taste buds in Dromaius novaehollandiae but not in Struthio camelus. Seen at the light microscope level, the taste buds consisted of follicular cells and receptor cells. The follicular cells were located at the periphery of the taste bud, essentially encapsulating the receptor cells. Two morphologically distinct receptor cells were identified. Immunohistochemical labelling for neurofilament identified gustatory nerves within the taste bud. The distribution of taste buds in D. novaehollandiae matched strategic locations in the oropharynx along which food could be sampled, according to the feeding method described for these birds. Future feeding studies would be necessary in D. novaehollandiae to determine the importance of taste discrimination in their diet. This study represents the first confirmed report of a sense of taste in any ratite species.
    Zoomorphology 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00435-015-0268-5
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    ABSTRACT: Our investigations on different developmental stages of the jellyfish Cassiopea andromeda (Forskål, 1775) provide updated descriptions of nematocyst types and asexual reproduction modes, which were documented by drawings and high-resolution photographs. In contrast to previous studies that only described three types of nematocysts, we revealed five types: a-isorhizas, O-isorhizas, euryteles, large oval birhopaloids, and small lemon-shaped birhopaloids. Comparisons of undischarged and discharged capsules revealed significantly smaller capsule volumes (48-51 %) in the latter. We provide capsule lengths and widths ranges for each capsule type (undischarged) and developmental stage. We demonstrate that for most capsule types the calculated capsule volumes were positively correlated with the progressing development and increasing size of the five developmental stages, namely bud, polyp, strobila, ephyra, and medusa. O-isorhizas were only present in the latter three stages probably due to a change in diet related to a changing life style. Besides asexual reproduction by swimming buds and monodisc strobilation common in rhizostome Kolpophorae, we documented lateral polyp budding for the first time in this taxon. Our results demonstrate that cultivating living specimens facilitate detailed descriptions of nematocysts and reproductive modes in metagenetic cnidarians, which cannot be achieved by studies on preserved material.
    Zoomorphology 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00435-015-0263-x
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    ABSTRACT: Scallop pallial eyes have been the most studied optical system in bivalve mollusks. Despite recent advances in our understanding of the function and evolution of scallop eyes, little attention has been focused on eye development and early visual performance. Here, the anatomy and development of pallial eyes were investigated in the scallop Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758) by means of integrative microscopy techniques (i.e., light, electron, and confocal microscopy). After metamorphosis, juvenile scallops bear small papillae that rapidly transform into minute ocular organs on the middle mantle fold. The distal epithelium gradually becomes pigmented, except for the cornea formed at the distal center of the eye. Internally, the optic vesicle comprises undifferentiated cells in the distal region, while mirror plates are secreted at the base of the eye, next to pigmented cells. Within the undifferentiated cell mass, the proximal retina is the first to be formed, followed by the distal retina and then by the lens. In this respect, the late development of the scallop lens from retina precursor cells may represent a unique condition among animal eyes. Adult eyes are characterized by large pigment distribution in the epithelium, tall columnar cornea, and lens above a slightly curved double retina. Whereas the pallial eyes from adult scallops are a complex visual system based on a mirror mechanism to form a focused image on the retina, early eye condition suggests a simple degree of directional photoreception, with no spatial vision.
    Zoomorphology 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00435-015-0265-8