Zoomorphology (ZOOMORPHOLOGY )

Publisher: Springer Verlag


The journal will accept original papers based on morphological investigation of invertebrates and vertebrates at the macroscopic microscopic and ultrastructural levels including embryologcial studies. Special emphasis will be placed on: Comparative anatomical studies that correlate structure with function including morphometric analysis Analysis of interrelationship between structural-functional systems of animals and their general biology including environmental adaptations and behavior Analysis of interdependency among complex structural functional systems in adult organisms as well as during embryological and phylogenetical development Studies of developmental phenomena and homologies as the basis for phylogenetic relationships.

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    Zoomorphology website
  • Other titles
    Zeitschrift für Morphologie der Tiere
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    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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Springer Verlag

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The organization of knee articular cartilage of the bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) differs in relation to morphofunctional adaptation in many aspects from similar structures in mammals. Thus, we investigated the structural organization and distribution of the extracellular matrix components in three articular cartilage regions in the distal epiphysis of the femur and proximal epiphysis of the tibia in male bullfrogs at 7, 540 and 1,080 days after metamorphosis. Cartilage thickness and cell density decreased in all regions with age. The basophilia differed among cartilage sites during aging. Calcium deposits were detected in growth cartilage of the femur and tibia in older animals. Immunohistochemical staining for chondroitin-6-sulfate was positive in the pericellular and territorial matrix in all samples. Positive immunostaining for type I collagen was observed in the superficial layer at all ages and in ossification centers of older animals. Reactivity to type II collagen was intense and was found throughout the stroma at all ages. Ultrastructural analysis of the epiphyseal region, in young animals, showed that the cytoplasm of chondrocytes was rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex and mitochondria. In old animals, were observed a reduction in the size and number of mitochondria, disintegration of rough endoplasmic reticulum, and vacuolization of the Golgi complex. The bullfrog articular cartilage presented structural and organizational changes during aging which may contribute to the functional cartilage deterioration in old animals.
    Zoomorphology 06/2014; 133(2).
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    ABSTRACT: In the past, micro-arthropod taxonomists have mainly relied on qualitative characters to identify species, and relatively little attention has been paid to quantitative analysis. However, several taxonomic groups have high morphological variability, which creates problems in identification. Quantitative analysis of morphometrical data of specific characters could aid in understanding differences in the morphology of oribatid species. In this respect, confocal laser scanning microscopy and quantitative analysis were used to describe morphological traits of four oribatid mite species belonging to the genus Carabodes Koch, 1835—C. femoralis (Nicolet, 1855), C. labyrinthicus (Michael, 1879), C. ornatus Storkan, 1925 and C. subarcticus Trägårdh, 1902. All specimens were collected in Latvia. Thirteen morphological traits were measured for 838 adult individuals. The same traits were also measured with transmitted light microscopy, and results were compared. The impact of a number of environmental factors on traits was also assessed. High interspecific variability in size of most morphological features was observed. In many cases, sizes of the measured features correlated between different species. The ranges in length of notogastral setae p3 and h3 of C. femoralis did not overlap with those of C. labyrinthicus or C. ornatus. Significant correlations between body length and size of setal structures, as well as between setal structures, were detected. Size of morphological features was directly affected by the cover of lichens, a main food resource for Carabodes, and indirectly by the effect of soil moisture on lichen communities.
    Zoomorphology 01/2014; 133(2):227-236.
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    ABSTRACT: The structure of the epidermis of Travisia forbesii was described using light and electron microscopy. The epidermis is a highly modified variant of the normal one-layer polychaete epithelium. It consists of basal epidermal cells and an external layer of closely sited papillae consisting of glandular and supportive epidermal cells, and extensive electron-transparent intercellular spaces. The papillae are embedded in the thick cuticle. Each papilla has a peduncle, which is formed by one cell that penetrates the inner cuticle layer to the basal epidermal cells. A fold of basement membrane forms the core of the peduncle and ends in the base of a papilla. All epidermal cells are connected to each other with apical cell junctions and to the basement membrane with hemidesmosomes, so the epithelium is continuous and uninterrupted. The epidermis has an intra-epidermal neuron plexus. The structure of the papillae is compared with papillae and tubercles of other polychaetes, and the possible functional significance and phylogenetic implications of these structures are discussed.
    Zoomorphology 01/2014; 133(1).
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    ABSTRACT: The systematic position of Polygordiidae is still under debate. They have been assigned to various positions among the polychaetes. Recent molecular analyses indicate that they might well be part of a basal radiation in Annelida, suggesting that certain morphological characters could represent primitive character traits adopted from the annelid stem species. To test this hypothesis, an investigation of the muscular and nervous systems by means of immunological staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy was conducted. With the exception of the brain, the nervous system is entirely basiepidermal and consists of the brain, the esophageal connectives, the subesophageal region, the ventral nerve cord and several smaller longitudinal nerves. These are connected by a considerable number of ring nerves in each segment. The ventral nerve cord is made up of closely apposed longitudinal neurite bundles, a median and two larger lateral ones. Since distinct ganglia are lacking, it represents a medullary cord. The muscular system mainly consists of longitudinal fibers, regularly distributed oblique muscles and strong septa. The longitudinal fibers form a right and a left unit separated along the dorsal midline, each divided into a dorsal and ventral part by the oblique muscles. Anteriorly, the longitudinal musculature passes the brain and terminates in the prostomium. There is no musculature in the palps. In contrast to earlier observations, regularly arranged minute circular muscle fibers are present. Very likely, a basiepithelial and non-ganglionic organization of the ventral nerve cord as well as an orthogonal nervous system represent plesiomorphic characters. The same applies for the predominance of longitudinal muscle fibers.
    Zoomorphology 01/2014; 133(1).
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    ABSTRACT: During spiralian development, the first pair of nephridia forms anterior to the mouth. Each organ consists of a few cells, which is characteristic for spiralian larvae. In nemerteans, one of the unambiguously spiralian taxa, so far protonephridia, has been reported only in advanced pilidium larvae, where they likely persist as juvenile and adult nephridia. These organs have not been recorded in larvae of the basally branching nemertean taxa. In search for these organs, we examined the ultrastructure of pelagic planuliform larvae of the palaeonemerteans Carinoma mutabilis and Cephalothrix (Procephalothrix) filiformis. In both species, a pair of protonephridia is located at the level of the stomodaeum. Each protonephridium of C. mutabilis consists of two terminal cells, two duct cells and one nephropore cell, while that of C. filiformis consists of three terminal cells, three duct cells and one nephropore cell. In C. mutabilis and in C. filiformis, all terminal cells contribute to forming a compound filtration structure. In both species, the protonephridia seem to develop subepidermally, since in C. filiformis, the nephropore cells pierce the larval epidermis and in C. mutabilis, the nephropores are initially covered by the binucleated multiciliated trophoblast cells. On the fifth day, these cells degenerate, so that the protonephridium becomes functional. The occurrence of protonephridia in the larvae of both paleonemertean species is in accordance with the hypothesis that a common ancestor of Nemertea and Trochozoa had a larval stage with a pair of protonephridia. This does not contradict previous hypotheses on placing the Nemertea as an ingroup of the Trochozoa or Spiralia (= Lophotrochozoa). Whether these protonephridia are restricted to the larval phase or whether they are transformed into the adult protonephridia, like those of the pilidium larva, remains to be answered.
    Zoomorphology 01/2014; 133(1).
  • Zoomorphology 01/2014; 133(1).
  • Zoomorphology 01/2014; 133(1).
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    ABSTRACT: The present investigation provides information on gross morphology and ultrastructure of salivary glands of species in Cicadidae in detail. The structure of the salivary glands of 11 representative species from 10 genera belonging to three subfamilies of Cicadidae was studied using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In the examined species, the salivary glands are paired structures, and each of which is comprised of a principal gland (pg) and an accessory gland (ag). The pg is divided into anterior and posterior lobes, and both of which consist of numerous long digitate lobules. The lobules at the base of the long digitate lobules of posterior lobe are greatly short; here, we named as “short lobules.” All the lobules vary in size, disposition, length, and shape. The anterior lobe and posterior lobes are connected by an anterior–posterior duct (apd). Two efferent salivary ducts (esd), derived from corresponding posterior lobes, fuse to form a short common duct which enters into the saliva syringe. The ag is composed of a greatly tortuous and folded accessory salivary tube, a gular gland (gg) constituting of several acini, and an accessory salivary duct (asd). The asd joins the esd at the place where the latter emergences. Constituents and arrangement of the salivary glands, the number and shape of the long digitate lobules in the anterior and posterior lobes, and the visibility of the apd were promising characters for the taxonomic and phylogenetic analysis of Cicadoidea. The variations of secretory granules in size, shape, and electron density in lobule cells of pg of Platypleura kaempferi probably indicating different materials are synthesized. The absence of the infoldings of basal plasma membrane in the basal area of the cells and the presence of electron-lucent vesicles in the cytoplasm of the gg cells of P. kaempferi might suggest that the secretions of gg are more watery.
    Zoomorphology 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The mammalian Carpus is a complex of several small bones with multiple interactions during walking. Therefore, it is highly probable that different mammalian families developed distinctive constellations in their Carpi, which could be useful for biometric identification of phylogenetic groupings. The carpal bones of nineteen extant ruminant species (nine bovid, nine cervid, and one moschid) have been investigated to search for biometric traits which are diagnostic for the three families. Additionally, we searched for diverging functional adaptations in the carpal constellations. Therefore, measurements have been taken from the five main carpals, which are carrying the body weight. As a sesamoid bone, Os carpi accessorium was excluded. After transformation of the data into their natural logarithms, multivariate methods of factor analyses and discriminant analyses were performed for each bone. Bivariate plots of the factor scores allowed a clear separation of bovids and cervids. The only one species of the Moschidae (Moschus moschiferus) lies closer to the cervids than to the bovids. The grouping is due to phylogenetic relationships and not due to functional differences in the groups or differing habitat preferences. Generally, the carpals of cervids are more slender and higher in contrast to the bulky and flat carpals in bovids. This approach could be used to assign isolated carpal bones found in fossil sites to their ruminant family.
    Zoomorphology 11/2013; 133(2):139-149.