Voprosy onkologii (Vopr Onkol)

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Other titles Voprosy onkologij
ISSN 0507-3758
OCLC 5692988
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: М.V. Fridman, S.V. Mankovskaya, O.V. Krasko, Yu.E. Demidchik Clinical and morphological features of papillary thyroid cancer in children and adolescents in the Republic of Belarus: analysis of 936 post Chernobyl carcinomas There is presented clinical and morphological characteristics of post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid cancer in 936 children and adolescents. In general, carcinoma of these patients featured by locally advanced growth - 57.4% (387 of 674 patients with this sign could be assessed), metastases in regional lymph nodes - 73,7% (N1b in 40.7 %) and internal organs - 11.1%. The mean duration of follow-up was 12,4 ± 3,5 years (range 4.3 to 19.6 years) including children 14,6 ± 2,7 years (range 8.8 to 19.6 years) and adolescents - 10,1 ± 3,1 years (range 4.3 to 18.8 years). Overall survival for the 20-year period was 96,6% ± 1,2%. The causes of death were suicide (7), injuries and accidents (5), secondary malignancies (1), somatic diseases (2). Only in two patients the death was related to the main disease - lung metastases. Free-recurrence survival for the cohort of post-Chernobyl carcinomas was 92,7% ± 1,0%. Key words: papillary cancer, thyroid gland, children and adolescents, Chernobyl disaster
    Voprosy onkologii 01/2014; 60(2):43-46.
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    ABSTRACT: Mammographic breast density (MBD) value is currently one of the strong predictors for mammary carcinoma development. There are also other conditions predisposing to MBD increase with hormone-related markers different from those used in breast cancer, while pharmacological methods for MBD reduction are few and still considered experimental. In the current study 25 postmenopausal women received daily for a median 10.5 months 1-1.5 g of antidiabetic biguanide metformin (siofor) (n = 14) or 400-600 mg of antigenotoxic drug N-acetylcysteine (n = 11). In both groups MBD was measured before and after treatment. The effects of both drugs were quite similar. Metformin use lead to lower MBD in 4 of 14 (28.5%) women with mean MBD decrease of -1,24% (absolute dynamics) and -5.03% (relative value). In N-acetylcysteine group this effect was observed in 27.3% of cases, with -2.0% absolute dynamics and -6.1% relative dynamics. In metformin group the most evident absolute and relative dynamics was observed in patients with no signs of metabolic syndrome, -10.86% compared to -2.45%. In 7 women the metformin use also lead to decrease of dense and increase of non-dense areas on digital scans, leading to decrease in dense to non-dense area volume ratio. Therefore, the similar effects of metformin and N-acetylcysteine are probably explained mostly not by insulin resistance elimination by metformin, but by altered cell proliferation, apoptosis and DNA repair.
    Voprosy onkologii 01/2012; 58(1):45-9.
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    ABSTRACT: This is an analysis of the use of sonoelastography as part of complex instrumental diagnostic procedure (mammography, gray-scale and Doppler ultrasonography) for small breast tumors. A total of 126 patients with breast lesions below 20 mm in diameter were divided into two groups depending on lesion size. The first group consisted of women with 5-10 mm lesions (21 patients with carcinoma and 20 patients with benign tumors), the second group was characterized by 11-20 mm lesions (69 carcinoma patients and 16 patients with benign lesions). According to analysis results the diagnostic complex of gray-scale ultrasonography and sonoelastography is most sensitive, the sensitivity is higher in the second group (89.1% and 97.7% respectively). The complex ultrasonography procedure yielded better overall results than mammography in both patients' groups.
    Voprosy onkologii 01/2012; 58(3):359-62.
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    ABSTRACT: An analyzed cohort consists of 50 pediatric patients with osteosarcoma receiving combined therapy in N. N. Petrov Research Institute for Oncology (1999-2010). Thirty nine of them had localized disease, 11 patients had distant metastases. The treatment scheme included neoadjuvant therapy with cisplatin and doxorubicin, surgical treatment and adjuvant therapy depended on initial response and could include cisplatin, doxorubicin, high-dose methotrexate, ifosfamide, etoposide. Four-year overall and relapse-free survival in children with localized disease was 74.3% and 69.2% accordingly. In 62% of patients were performed organ-preserving surgical interventions, in 22 patients was performed endoprosthetics, in 4 patients the defect was replaced by a bone autograft on a vascular bundle. The effectiveness of initial treatment and secondary endoprosthetics were analyzed. Six patients with lung metastases received normotermic lung chemoperfusion, 4 of them are alive and disease-free for 8 to 24 months.
    Voprosy onkologii 01/2012; 58(2):275-81.
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    ABSTRACT: The loss of hormonal dependency in breast tumor cells is often accompanied by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) features and an increase in cell metastasizing and invasiveness. Here we studied the role of transcription factors Snail1--the central mediator of EMT, in the progression of hormonal resistance of breast cancer cells. The experiments were performed on the estrogen receptor(ER)-positive estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells, ER-positive estrogen-resistant MCF-7/LS subline generated through long-term cultivation of the parental cells in steroid-free medium, and ER-negative estrogen-resistant HBL-100 breast cancer cells. We found that decrease in the estrogen dependency of breast cancer cells is accompanied by an increase in Snail1 expression and activity, and demonstrated the Snail1 involvement in the negative regulation of ER. NF-kappaB was found to serve as a positive regulator of Snail1 in breast cancer cells, and simultaneous inhibition of NF-kappaB and Snail1 by RNA interference resulted in marked increase of cell response to antiestrogen tamoxifen. In general, the results obtained demonstrate that direct inhibition of NF-kappaB and Snail1 partially restores the estrogen receptor machinery, and show that Snail1 and NF-kappaB may serve as an important targets in the treatment of breast cancer.
    Voprosy onkologii 01/2012; 58(1):71-6.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the current study was to improve the bone metastases irradiation parameters in patients with life expectancy more than 3 months. The current randomized study included a total of 333 patients with bone metastases (breast cancer metastases in 71% of cases) receiving 488 courses of photon irradiation. Irradiation effect was observed in 95.8-100% of cases regardless of fraction number and irradiation regimen. The rate of complete effect was the same for all irradiation regimens, but raised gradually from 33.3% to 50.4% and 65.9% respectively when irradiation was given by 2, 3 and 4 fractions, 6,5 Gy each (p < 0.03); 78.4% (p < 0.01) cases of complete effect were observed in patients receiving irradiation by multiple small fraction compared to the groups receiving irradiation by 2 or 3 fractions of 6.5 Gy. The complete effect was more often observed in breast cancer (67%) and prostate cancer (63%) patients in comparison to lung cancer (47%) and renal cancer (30%) patients (p < 0,05) independent of metastases localization. The mean frequency of pain recurrence in irradiated area was 8.2% in all primary tumor and metastases localizations, irrespective of irradiation dose and regimen. Based on above results we recommend for breast cancer and prostate cancer patients with bone metastases and life expectancy more than 3 months the irradiation with 19.5 Gy given by 3 fractions. The patients with metastasizing lung and renal cancer should receive 26 Gy irradiation by 4 fractions 6.5 Gy each given once every 5.
    Voprosy onkologii 01/2012; 58(3):380-6.
  • Voprosy onkologii 01/2012; 58(3):312-9.
  • Voprosy onkologii 01/2012; 58(1):19-25.
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    ABSTRACT: The paper describes the general experience of modern lung cancer treatment methods application. Neoadjuvant therapy was shown to improve the long-term results of stage III patients increasing the 5-year overall survival by 7,8% (p=0,012). The special diagnostic algorithm for treatment results evaluation including autofluorescence spectrometry with 97,1% sensitivity and 88,3% specificity was developed. The adjuvant external-beam radiotherapy in patients with mediastinal lymph nodes metastases was shown to increase the 5-year overall survival (14,7% versus 19,7%) (p=0,01). The combination of endotracheobronchial surgery with chemoradiotherapy allowed to increase the median survival time of patients with inoperable lung cancer to 17 months. Isolated lung chemoperfusion was shown to increase the overall (p=0,019) and relapse-free (p=0,005) survival in patients with lung metastases.
    Voprosy onkologii 01/2012; 58(2):253-9.
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    ABSTRACT: We performed a treatment efficacy analysis for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients' population with EGFR mutation aimed at optimization of pharmacoeconomic factors. The employment of gefitinib leads to an increase in patients' life expectancy for a median of 1.05 years. The average cost-effectiveness of this therapy is 934.8 thousand rubles per additional year (903.9-1100.5 thousand rubles for each year). If gefitinib therapy is given only to patients with proved EGFR mutation it can decrease the average expenses by 211.6-251.8 thousand rubles per patient in comparison to undiagnosed patients's population receiving gefitinib without a decrease in clinical effect. Comparison of selective gefitinib administration with isolated chemotherapy (CT) yields an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 960.7 to 1010.0 thousand rubles per additional year. Therefore, the strategy of EGFR gene mutations testing in patients with inoperable NSCLC with consequent gefitinib therapy administration in patients positive for mutation lead to an increase in life expectancy and is characterized by acceptable cost-effectiveness.
    Voprosy onkologii 01/2012; 58(3):352-8.
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    ABSTRACT: There are currently no conventional guidelines for radiotherapy in gliomas. The treatment program is mainly formed in accordance with tumor morphology and the "golden standard" of irradiation is still the traditional mode of fractionation with a single focal dose of 2 Gy and total focal dose (TFD) of 60 Gy. In this report the treatment results of 396 patients with morphologically verified grade 3-4 malignant brain tumors receiving conventional irradiation regimen and irradiation by medium-sized fractions were analyzed to form institutional guidelines. The standard fractionation mode with a single focal dose of 2 Gy is preferable in patients with grade 3 glioma or elderly patients (over 60 years). TFD increase to 60-62 Gy in grade 4 gliomas and 54-56 Gy in grade 3 gliomas grants a significant improve in overall survival. An increase of a single irradiation fraction to 3 Gy may be used for patients younger than 60 years. In these cases it is advisable to use the TFD of 45 Gy or more (TFD of equivalent regimen with a dose greater than 54 Gy). The mentioned fractionation regimens could be recommended for the use in clinical practice to improve the results of high-grade gliomas treatment.
    Voprosy onkologii 01/2012; 58(3):374-9.
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    ABSTRACT: This is an analysis of treatment results data for conservative (endosurgical and radiation therapy) treatment of patients with inoperable locally advanced esophageal cancer receiving therapy in 1990-2011. The original treatment tactics including recanalization of tumor-compressed esophageal lumen (argon plasma coagulation +/- high-frequency surgery or chemical tumor necrolysis) with consequent combined radiotherapy resulted in clinical response in 79,5% of cases, 89,3% of patients retained the possibility of enteral nutrition. One-year overall survival (OS) was 68,9% (58,8% in patients receiving combined radiotherapy), 2-year OS was 22,7% and 21,2% respectively.
    Voprosy onkologii 01/2012; 58(2):199-202.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes the clinical results and immunologic changes in cutaneous melanoma patients receiving active specific immunotherapy with autologous dendritic cell vaccine (DCV) in combination with cyclophosphamide used as immunologic adjuvant. Twenty eight patients with morphologically verified stage III-IV cutaneous melanoma receiving therapy in N. N. Petrov Research Institute of Oncology between 2008 and 2011 were included in the study. All patients signed an informed consent form. Nineteen patients (67,9%) received DCV in therapeutic setting, 9 (32,1%) received it in adjuvant setting. DCV therapy was well tolerated. No serious adverse events were registered. Frequent adverse events included Grade 1-2 unspecific symptoms (fever, fatigue, flu-like symptoms) observed in 22% patients after 3,5% of vaccinations. In therapeutic settings the use DCV lead to clinical effect (PR+SD) in 36,6% of patients. PR was observed in 5% of (95% CI 0-15%) patients, SD in 31,6% (95% CI 13-56%). Duration of the objective responses was 168-965+days. Addition of immunologic adjuvant (cyclophosphamide 300 mg/m2 IV 2 hours) 3 days before vaccination increased its efficacy. In this patients group (n=12) the therapy lead to clinical benefit in 42% (95% CI 17-69%) of cases, median time to progression was 91 (95% CI 55-126) days. This regimen was selected for adjuvant therapy. In the adjuvant therapy group (n=9) the median time to progression was 112 (95% CI 58-166) days. Immunologic monitoring showed correlation ofT- and B-cell immune response with DCV clinical efficacy (p<0,05), no correlation with delayed hypersensivity reaction was observed (p>0,1). DCV is well tolerated and shows immunological and clinical response in stage III-IV skin melanoma patients.
    Voprosy onkologii 01/2012; 58(2):212-21.
  • Voprosy onkologii 01/2012; 58(3):425-8.
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    ABSTRACT: The total of 186 metastatic skin melanoma patients with regional lymph nodes involvement (locoregional stage) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and irradiation followed by extended lymphodissection. This therapy allowed obtaining favorable overall survival in most patients. Social aspect of the problem should also be noted - the tenacity in treatment of unfavorable prognosis patients using all treatment modalities available allows giving back the hope and extending the lifespan of many patients.
    Voprosy onkologii 01/2012; 58(3):402-5.