Ontogenez (Ontogenez )

Publisher: Akademii︠a︡ nauk SSSR


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    Ontogenez, Ontogenesis
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Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: Analysis of individual variation in diagnostic characters of the axial skeleton has been performed in all offspring (1633 ind.) from the same spawn of one pair of common toads under conditions of laboratory rearing, with natural elimination being reduced to a minimum. More than 50 skeletal anomalies have been recorded. Factual data are presented that characterize deviations from the species norm in the frequency of "background anomalies" (Kovalenko, 2003). Correlations between manifestations of different variants of character states are considered. The problem of norm and anomaly in individual variation is discussed.
    Ontogenez 07/2013; 44(4):249-64.
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    ABSTRACT: We showed that the percentage of oocytes of acipenserids ovulating in vitro in Ringer solution modified for sturgeons (RMS) considerably depends on the concentration of sodium bicarbonate and the concentration of progesterone. Under optimal conditions (0.5 g/L of sodium bicarbonate and 30 ng/mL of progesterone), it can be higher than 80. Oocytes that matured and ovulated under such conditions are capable of normal development. In the best case, approximately 70% of developing embryos (of the number of ovulated oocytes) reach the stage of hatching (dead-line of observation). This method of producing offspring based on the insemination of oocytes that have matured and ovulated in vitro can be used in work with single females of rare and disappearing species of acipenserids.
    Ontogenez 09/2012; 43(3):185-92.
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    ABSTRACT: 1H magnetic resonance microtomography imaging was applied to study vascular systems in developing bean (Phaseolus limensis L.) seeds. Using the gradient echo method, we recorded 2D tomographic sections in the sagittal and axial planes of the fruits sampled from a vegetating plant on days 10, 17, 24, and 31 after fertilization. Any vascular connection between the tissues of maternal plant (bean pod and seed coat) and the embryo were undetectable. The embryo has an autonomous branched network of procambial strands in the cotyledons, converging to the embryonic axis. The bean pods are covered with a network of vascular bundles; large vascular strands run along the dorsal and ventral sutures. The seed coat vascular bundles are formed in the process of seed ripening and are represented by a developed vascular system multiply branching in the middle part of the ground parenchyma at the stage of physiological maturity. They are connected with the source of assimilates via the lateral pod veins and a large vascular bundle, entering the seed below the hilum via the placenta. Assimilates enter the external part of the seed coat, which contains no vascular bundles, via the funiculus vascular bundles and hilum tissue.
    Ontogenez 01/2012; 43(1):28-38.
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    ABSTRACT: Changes in chromatin structure at different stages of differentiation of human spermatids were studied. It was shown that, in nuclei of early spermatids, chromatin is loosely packed and its structural element is an 8-nm fiber. This "elementary" fiber is predominant at the initial stages of differentiation; in the course of maturation, it is replaced by globular elements approximately 60 nm in diameter. In intermediate spermatids, these globules start to condense into fibrillar aggregates and reduce their diameter to 30-40 nm. At all stages of spermatid maturation, except the final stages, these globules are convergence centers for elementary fibers. This remodelling process is vectored and directed from the apical (acrosomal) to the basal pole of the nucleus. In mature spermatids, the elementary 8-nm fibers are almost absent and the major components are 40-nm fibrillar aggregates. The nuclei of mature spermatids are structurally identical with the nuclei of spermatozoa with the so-called "immature chromatin," which are commonly found in a low proportion in sperm samples from healthy donors and may prevail over the normal cells in spermiogenetic disorders. The cause of this differentiation blockade remains unknown. Possibly, the formation of intermolecular bonds between protamines, which are required for the final stages of chromatin condensation, is blocked in a part of spermatids. The results of this study are discussed in comparison with the known models of nucleoprotamine chromatin organization in human spermatozoa.
    Ontogenez 01/2012; 43(2):143-53.
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    ABSTRACT: Analysis of the dynamics of variation in developing head structures of moor frog (R. arvalis) tadpoles has made it possible to reveal periods in which the limits of variation in relevant traits are narrowed. In the course of individual development, these so-called crucial periods for certain traits are followed by such periods for other traits. However, crucial stages for some head structures have not been revealed, which can be explained by a relatively short period of development considered in the study. Analysis of individual variation at later stages may provide the possibility to identify crucial periods for these structures.
    Ontogenez 01/2012; 43(3):193-201.
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    ABSTRACT: Based on our own and literature data on peculiarities of caryotypical variability, we concluded that gametophytic apomixis is naturally accompanied with phenomena of poly-, aneu-, and mixoploidy and that apomicts have genome instability manifesting at the level of meristematic somatic cells. In this connection, a hypothesis is substantiated that realization of this mode of seed reproduction in flowering plants is caused by modification of systems of cell cycle control, following after acts of hybridogenesis and/or polyploidization. It is concluded that instability of the seed reproduction system by gametophytic apomixis manifests not only at the stage of choice of a seed reproduction pathway (apomeiosis-euspory; apozygosis-zygosis) but also in all the cycles of reproduction of the cells of a germ line in plant ontogenesis.
    Ontogenez 01/2012; 43(2):121-35.
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    ABSTRACT: Dynamics of fatty acid composition of total lipids was studied for freshwater salmon Salmo salar L. during its embryonic development from blastula (3 hours) up to hatching (108 days) as well as in unfertilized eggs. Stable amount of total and some saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of total lipids was observed during embryonic development. Considerable changes in fatty acid composition were observed at the stage of prelarvae hatching, i.e., significant decrease of (n-6) PUFA (18:2(n-6) and 20:4(n-6)) and (n-3) PUFA and increase of total and some saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids was registered. Change in saturation ratio of membrane lipids justifies the presence of the biochemical mechanism forwarded on regulation of cell membrane enzymes in accordance with the changes of internal physiological processes taking place in the organism and fluctuations of external environmental conditions or the preparation period (as reproduction). Data on peculiarities of transformation and utilization of fatty acids during salmon embryonic development may be used for understanding of their functional role in the developing organism as well as for assessing the quality of the caviar.
    Ontogenez 01/2012; 43(2):154-60.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to find the quantitative relationship of postnatal changes in the glomeruli anatomic structure with the blood flow in kidneys. Kidney development was studied in 4-, 12-, 30-, and 65-day-old Wistar rats. Diameters of glomerulus (Dgl, microm), afferent and efferent arterioles (Daf and Def), and the glomeruli density (Ngl, mm(-3)) were measured posthumously. Volumes of one ((see text of symbol))V gl, microm3) and all glomeruli (see text for symbol)(sigma(see text for symbol)Vgl, mm3/cm3) and the glomeruli arterioles lumen (Saf and Sef, microm2) were calculated. The renal specific blood flow (SBF per unit of kidney weight, KW) was measured by the laser-Doppler flowmeter (in perfusion units, p.u.) under sodium barbamyl narcosis. We have found that, during postnatal growth, glomeruli morphological parameters vary according to the equations: Dgl = 7.1 (see text for symbol) KW0.41, (see text for symbol)V gl = 187 (see text for symbol) KW1.23, Ngl = 5309 (see text for symbol) KW-0.63 (KW, mg and for one kidney), Saf = 1.1 (see text for symbol)V gl 0.35, and Sef = 6.3 (see text for symbol) V gl 0.14. The renal SBF in 4-, 12-, and 65-day-old rats increases according to SBF = 6.7 (see text for symbol) (sigma( see text for symbol)V gl)0.98. The renal SBF calculated per unit of glomeruli volume varies a little with age.
    Ontogenez 01/2012; 43(1):14-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Epimorphic regeneration of fins was studied in different ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii), but species representing the phylogenetically basal lineages of the taxon have remained outside the attention of researchers. Information on the regenerative abilities of these groups is important both for understanding the evolutionary origins of the epimorphic regeneration phenomenon and for assessing the universality of regenerative potencies in Actinopterygii. Addressing this problem, we studied for the first time fin regeneration in two members of the archaic family Polypteridae: the ropefish (Erpetoichthys calabaricus) and the Senegal bichir (Polypterus senegalus). Along with the ability to regenerate the bony rays of fins, widespread among Actinopterygii, polypterids show the ability to effectively regenerate the endoskeleton and musculature of their fins. This unusual feature allows us to suggest polypterids as new model organisms for the study of the mechanisms of vertebrate limb regeneration.
    Ontogenez 01/2012; 43(2):136-42.
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    ABSTRACT: Under the leadership of Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences L.I. Korochkin, the Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Developmental Genetics (Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences) for many years has been conducting studies of nervous system development, neural cell differentiation, and application of gene and cell technology to cure neurodegenerative diseases. The results of the study initiated by L.I. Korochkin and continued by his scientific successors support the direction of allocation of transgenic neurotrofic factors and heat-shock proteins as neuroprotectors for cell therapy. Potential for usage of promoter of HSP70 heat-shock gene of Drosophila to create transgenic constructs for therapy has been shown. Further improvement of technology of nonvirus transfer for therapeutic genes, as well as production of multicomponent genetic constructs coding several therapeutic factors with synergy effect, would stimulate creation of efficient cell medicals to cure neurodegenerative diseases.
    Ontogenez 01/2012; 43(1):66-72.
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    ABSTRACT: Neurotransmitters (including serotonin and acetylcholine) perform a number of prenervous functions in early sea urchin development. To detect the particular receptor components involved in these processes, we carried out a database search and nucleotide sequences homologous to serotonin receptor type 4, and the alpha6- and alpha10-subunits of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor were found among EST-clones from early Paracentrotus lividus embryos. Expression of these transcripts during early development was demonstrated using RT-PCR. These results are the first molecular biology evidence ofserotonin and acetylcholine receptor expression in sea urchin early embryogenesis.
    Ontogenez 01/2012; 43(3):212-6.
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    ABSTRACT: This review presents recent data on the structure, synthesis, and secretion of cardiac natriuretic peptides. It is known that these hormones have a broad spectrum of activity, but they remain the least studied and poorly understood link in the regulation of the water-salt homeostasis. Emphasis is placed on the problem of ontogenetic formation of the heart secretory activity during embryogenesis. We discuss the available scarce and scattered information on the paracrine and autocrine effects of the peptides on intercellular interactions, and on the division, growth and differentiation of the heart cells. These issues are hardly addressed in Russian literature.
    Ontogenez 01/2012; 43(3):217-28.