Equine Veterinary Journal (EQUINE VET J)

Publisher: British Equine Veterinary Association, Wiley

Journal description

This unrivalled international scientific journal was first published in 1968 when there were four issues each year. It now appears bi-monthly with around 88 pages per issue containing articles with original and potentially important findings. Contributions are received from sources worldwide, including North America, Europe and Australia. EVJ has also produced a number of Special Issues, which generally appear as an additional 7th issue devoted to a specific topic, including Immunology, Colic, Evidence-Based Medicine and Laminitis. These extra journals are distributed free to all subscribers, and are available to purchase from the EVJ Online Bookshop. All papers published in the journal are subjected to peer review and once articles have been accepted for publication they should appear in the journal within six to eight months. They present new developments in research being carried out by universities, veterinary schools and institutes devoted to equine and/or comparative physiology, pathology, medicine or surgery and from workers in practice. The journal strives to publish clinically orientated work and categorises articles into General Articles, Clinical Evidence Articles, Short Communications, Case Reports and Review Articles. General Articles are often accompanied by an Editorial Leader which gives the reader a further insight into a particular topic and provides further reference information. The Clinical Evidence category was introduced in 2003, for articles in which the objective is to answer questions of clinical importance in a controlled manner based on data obtainable in practice.

Current impact factor: 2.37

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 2.374
2013 Impact Factor 2.369
2012 Impact Factor 2.286
2011 Impact Factor 1.456
2010 Impact Factor 1.799
2009 Impact Factor 1.837
2008 Impact Factor 2.08
2007 Impact Factor 1.607
2006 Impact Factor 1.73
2005 Impact Factor 1.317
2004 Impact Factor 1.44
2003 Impact Factor 1.496
2002 Impact Factor 1.256
2001 Impact Factor 1.816
2000 Impact Factor 1.479
1999 Impact Factor 1.411
1998 Impact Factor 1.329
1997 Impact Factor 1.58

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.20
Cited half-life >10.0
Immediacy index 0.88
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.51
Website Equine Veterinary Journal website
ISSN 0425-1644
OCLC 225017606
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
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    • 12 months embargo
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    • On author's personal website, institutional repositories, arXiv, AgEcon, PhilPapers, PubMed Central, RePEc or Social Science Research Network
    • Author's pre-print may not be updated with Publisher's Version/PDF
    • Author's pre-print must acknowledge acceptance for publication
    • Non-Commercial
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    • Must link to publisher version with set statement (see policy)
    • If OnlineOpen is available, BBSRC, EPSRC, MRC, NERC and STFC authors, may self-archive after 12 months
    • If OnlineOpen is available, AHRC and ESRC authors, may self-archive after 24 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 07/08/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Wiley'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing study: Andalusian horses have been proposed as a breed predisposed to equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) phenotype [1] because they are prone to exhibiting regional, generalised adiposity and tendency to laminitis [2]. Insulin dysregulation represents the main pathophysiological cause for all the features of EMS, however there are no epidemiological studies in this breed. Objective: To assess insulin dysregulation through insulin proxies in Andalusian horses with different levels of obesity. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: One hundred and sixty-four Andalusians (78 stallions and 86 mares, 2–15 years)were scored for overall (body condition score, BCS) and neck (cresty neck score, CNS) adiposity. Grain concentratewas withheld for 12 h before sampling. Blood samples were collected between 06.00–10.00 h for basal glucose, insulin concentrations, RISQI and MIRG proxies calculation. Conditions were defined as: obese horses (Ob), BCS ≥ 7; cresty neck horses (CN), CNS ≥ 3; hyperinsulinaemia, insulin ≥20 μu/ml; low insulin sensitivity, RISQI<0.32[mu/l]−0.5 and increased insulin secretory response, MIRG>5.6muinsulin 2/[10.l.mgglucose]. Regarding BCS 2 groups were created: Ob and non-Ob. These groups were subdivided depending on CNS: with CN and without it (nonCN). Ob-nonCN group (n = 2) was excluded for the statistics due to the low number of horses. Results: Of the horses studied, 26.8% were Ob-CN, 42.1% were nonOb-CN and 31.1% were nonOb-nonCN. Ob horses presented higher insulin levels (P = 0.034) and lower RISQI values (P = 0.019) than all nonOb horses. When CN was considered, only RISQI was lower (P = 0.015) in Ob-CN group respect to nonOb-nonCN, however nonOb-CN group does not differ from the other 2 groups. Furthermore, the percentage of Ob-CN horses with hyperinsulinaemia (2.3%), abnormal RISQI (4.5%) and MIRG (9.1%) was very low. Conclusions: These results suggest that in Andalusians, increased adiposity was not clearly associated to insulin dysregulation and, similar to human beings, may coexist as a metabolically healthy but obese phenotype
    Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2015; 47(S48):23. DOI:10.1111/evj.12486_53
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    ABSTRACT: Medial patellar ligament splitting (MPLS) has been shown to be a highly effective and minimally invasive treatment for upward fixation of the patella (UFP) in horses. However, long-term follow-up results of this procedure have not been reported. To evaluate the long-term resolution of UFP following MPLS, and provide information on complications and recurrence. Retrospective case series. Data were collected from horses that underwent MPLS between 1999 and 2013. All cases had a confirmed diagnosis of UFP that had not responded to conservative therapy. Data were collected from medical records, including follow-up visits, and through telephone conversations with the owner, trainer or referring veterinarian. A total of 85 horses were included. Fifty-eight horses (68%) had surgery under general anaesthesia in dorsal recumbency, whilst 27 horses (32%) underwent standing surgery and 97.6% had complete resolution of the UFP immediately after surgery or within the 2-week rehabilitation period. Two cases (2.4%) had only unilateral resolution after bilateral surgery, even after the procedure was repeated. The majority of cases (90.5%) were followed up at least 3 years and up to 14 years after surgery. No short-term or long-term complications were reported. No recurrence of UFP was observed in the horses that resumed exercise after surgery. MPLS is a highly effective and minimally invasive surgical procedure to treat UFP when conservative treatment is unsuccessful. In addition, it allows for a very rapid return to sports activity. No short term or long-term complications were observed, and no recurrence of this condition was noted. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 03/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12435
  • Equine Veterinary Journal 03/2015; 47(2):142-4. DOI:10.1111/evj.12416
  • Equine Veterinary Journal 03/2015; 47(2):133-4. DOI:10.1111/evj.12395
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    ABSTRACT: The in-feed oral glucose test (OGT) and oral sugar test (OST) are advocated as field tests of insulin sensitivity in horses and ponies but have not been directly compared previously. To compare the insulin response to OGT and OST in 8 ponies and 5 horses of unknown insulin sensitivity. Experimental, randomised cross-over study. Animals were fasted for 8 h overnight before and throughout testing. Subjects were fed 1 g/kg glucose powder with chaff (OGT) or 0.15 ml/kg corn syrup (Karo™ Light Syrup, OST) was administered orally in a randomised crossover study with 48 h between tests. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 30, 60, 75, 90, 120 and 180 min. Maximum insulin concentration (Cmaxi ), time to maximum insulin concentration (Tmaxi ) and area under the curve of insulin concentration over time (AUCi ) for the tests were compared using a paired t-test. The effect of individual subject, horse or pony and test were analysed using a linear mixed model. OGT Cmaxi (mean ± s.d.; 154 ± 116 mU/l), Tmaxi (136 ± 52 min) and AUCi (15308 ± 9886) were significantly (p<0.05) greater compared to OST Cmaxi (72 ± 55 mU/l), Tmaxi (63 ± 25 min) and AUCi (5980 ± 4151). Cmaxi , Tmaxi and AUCi varied significantly between individual subjects. Tmaxi was significantly different between horses and ponies during OGT and OST. Using previously defined criteria of insulin dysregulation OGT identified 7/13 animals as insulin resistant whereas OST identified 5/13 animals as insulin resistant. OGT and OST showed agreement in identification of insulin dysregulation in 85% of equine subjects. Results of the OGT and OST are not comparable in all cases. Further work is required to establish which test more accurately diagnoses insulin dysregulation in horses and ponies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 01/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12413
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing studyDigital hypothermia may be effective for laminitis prophylaxis and therapy, but the efficacy of cooling methods used in clinical practice requires evaluation.Objectives To use hoof wall surface temperature (HWST) to compare several cooling methods used in clinical practice.Study designExperimental crossover design with a minimum washout period of 72 h.Methods Seven cooling methods (commercially available ice packs, wraps and boots) and one prototypical dry-sleeve device were applied to a single forelimb in 4 horses for 8 h, during which HWST of the cooled forelimb and the uncooled (control) forelimb was recorded hourly. Results were analysed descriptively.ResultsThe median (range) HWST from 2-8 h was lowest for the ice and water immersion methods that included the foot and extended proximally to at least include the pastern: 5.2°C (range: 4.8-7.8°C) for the fluid bag and 2.7°C (2.4-3.4°C) for the ice boot. An ice boot that included the distal limb but not the foot resulted in a median HWST of 25.7°C (20.6-27.2°C). Dry interface applications (ice packs) confined to the foot only resulted in a median HWST of 21.5°C (19.5-25.5°C) for the coronet sleeve and 19.8°C (17.6-23°C) for a commercial ice pack. For the dry interface applications that included the foot and distal limb, the median HWST was much higher for the ice pack device, 19.9°C (18.7-23.1°C), compared with the perfused cuff prototype of 5.4°C (4.2-7°C).Conclusions Immersion of the foot and at least the pastern region in ice and water achieved sustained HWST <10°C as did a prototype perfused cuff device with a dry interface. Variation between cooling methods may have a profound effect on HWST and therefore efficacy in clinical cases where laminitis prophylaxis or therapy is the goal.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 11/2014; DOI:10.1111/evj.12384
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing study Treatment of colic can be expensive and may exceed the owners’ financial limitations. This may result in premature euthanasia prior to treatment on rectifiable financial grounds rather than for welfare reasons. It is therefore important to ensure appropriate business model auditing to identify where costs may limit expected treatment options. Objectives This study investigated how the costs of treatment for equine colic at a single university referral hospital have changed over a 10-year period between 2003 and 2013. The aim was to analyse which costs have changed excessively or disproportionately between different treating services, consumables and professional fees, which may render treatment of colic financially prohibitive. Study design Retrospective study. Methods All charges billed against cases undergoing treatment for colic between 2003 and 2013 were accessed from hospital records. Horses were identified as having surgery or purely medical management. Charges were categorised by service (medicine, surgery, anaesthesia), type (consumable, livery, professional fee), and consumable type (e.g. NSAID, opiate, antibiotic, fluid therapy, lab fee, surgery consumables). Results There was a significant association between year and the frequency of medically and surgically treated colic (Chi-square test, P<0.001). Between 2003 and 2012, median total treatment costs increased in both medically (42%) and surgically treated (46%) cases. Costs attributable to consumables increased (surgical cases 28%, medical cases 14%), while those attributable to livery (surgical -19%, medical -21%) and professional fees decreased (surgical -22%, medical -8%). The greatest increase in consumable cost was attributable to fluids (surgical 94%, medical 182%). Conclusions This study demonstrates areas where the cost of colic treatment are disproportionately changing and thus highlights potential targets where business models may be optimised in the interest of patient survival. The substantial increase in costs attributable to fluids correlates with increasing emphasis on fluid therapy in the management of colic. Ethical animal research: Ethical committee oversight not currently required by this congress: retrospective study of clinical records. Explicit owner informed consent for participation in this study was not stated. Sources of funding: Not stated. Competing interests: None.
    British Equine Veterinary Association Congress 2014, Birmingham; 09/2014
  • Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2014; 46:15-16. DOI:10.1111/evj.12323_33
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    ABSTRACT: There are approximately 100 million working equids in developing countries worldwide. These animals’ role in impoverished communities is generally unrecognised by national and international policy makers and their needs are overlooked in national animal health systems. Additionally, despite increased international development attention on women and livestock, the specific contributions of equids to poor womens’ lives are also unquantified and overlooked. This study aimed to document the relationship between working equids and women in equine owning communities in Ethiopia, India, Kenya and Pakistan. Qualitative semi-structured focus group discussions elicited opinions from small groups of women (up to 12/group) in selected rural and peri-urban areas in each country. An experienced local language-speaking community facilitator guided each discussion using a standardised questionnaire based on UK Department for International Development sustainable livelihoods framework asset categories. Women's experiences of working equids’ roles in their lives were audio-recorded, transcribed in local language and key themes summarised in English. Twenty-two discussions (7 in India, 5 each in Ethiopia, Kenya and Pakistan) comprising 259 women took place between February and October 2013. When asked to rank their livestock, all 12 groups in India and Kenya and 17 out of 22 groups overall ranked equids most important, due to their income generation and contribution to household chores, including transporting feedstuffs and water for other livestock species. Whilst specific responsibilities varied between communities, women reported undertaking many equine husbandry activities but lacked access to equine-specific knowledge and skills training. The study findings can inform development of targeted training interventions for female working equid owners and users. Further work is required to quantify the contribution to livelihoods of working equids in developing countries to underpin engagement with government stakeholders on the benefit of providing for their needs in animal health and welfare systems. Ethical animal research: Not applicable, no animals were involved in this study. Sources of funding: The Brooke UK. Competing interests: None.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2014; 46(S47):20-20. DOI:10.1111/evj.12323_46
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    ABSTRACT: The pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of different formulations of omeprazole have not been published. To compare the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of 4 commercially available formulations of omeprazole to an existing reference formulation. A single dose cross-over bioequivalence study. Six adult Thoroughbred horses were used. Two generic buffered formulations (OG and AG), one commercial enteric coated formulation (GZ) and one compounded enteric coated formulation (BO) were compared to the reference buffered formulation (GG). Each formulation was administered at a total dose of 2 g (equivalent to 4 mg/kg bwt for a 500 kg horse) in a cross-over design. Blood samples were collected at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 300 and 360 min, the plasma was separated and frozen. Plasma omeprazole concentrations were determined by UPLC-MS. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analyses were performed using PK Solver. The mean (± s.d.) area-under-the-curve (AUC0-t/0-inf_obs) (μg/ml*min), Cmax (μg) and Tmax (min) for each formulation was; OG – 59.4 ± 20.1, 0.37 ± 0.12, 87.5 ± 38.4; AG – 77.3 ± 53.7, 0.34 ± 0.24, 170.0 ± 62.0; GZ – 102.9 ± 51.1, 0.86 ± 0.68, 67.5 ± 29.6; BO – 88.0 ± 37.4, 0.59 ± 0.39, 95.0 ± 47.1; GG – 57.5 ± 35.3, 0.41 ± 0.22, 57.5 ± 19.9. The results of this study suggest that differences are present between commercially available formulations of omeprazole. Caution should be exercised in extrapolating results of clinical studies from one formulation to another. Ethical animal research: This study was performed under an ethics permit issued by the NSW Department of Primary Industries and in accordance with relevant state laws and legislation. Explicit owner informed consent for participation in this study was not stated. Sources of funding: This study was funded by a grant from the Grayson-Jockey Club Research Foundation. Competing interests: The manufacturers of Gastrozol (GZ), Abgard (AG) and BOVA (BO) have previously funded research by B.W. Sykes. None of the companies contributed to the present study.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2014; 46(S47):22-22. DOI:10.1111/evj.12323_50
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    ABSTRACT: Little exists in the literature regarding the outcome of endoscopically-guided desmotomy of the palmar/plantar annular ligament (PAL) where injury to the PAL was the only diagnosis. To report the return to previous level of exercise in horses treated with endoscopically guided PAL resection in which PAL injury was considered to be the primary condition. Retrospective case series. Medical records of surgical cases at Donnington Grove Veterinary Surgery between 2005 and 2013 were reviewed. The inclusion criteria were cases that had undergone surgical transection of the palmar/plantar annular ligament under general anaesthesia and endoscopic guidance using a No. 12 scalpel blade where annular ligament injury was the only notable finding at surgery. Follow-up was obtained by a telephone questionnaire. Twenty-three horses were included in the study. Twenty horses were noted to have restriction to passage of the arthroscope within the digital flexor tendon sheath at the time of surgery. Following the initial 3-month post operative rest period 21 horses were sound. Three horses did not return to their previous level of activity due to unrelated lameness issues and 2 returned to a lower level of competition due to owner preference. Of the remaining 18 horses, 16 returned to their previous level of athletic performance. Two horses had recurrent or persistent lameness associated with the residual PAL desmopathy. In this case series surgical treatment of primary PAL injury carries a good prognosis (89% return to previous level of exercise) in contrast to a previously reported study (<50% of horses were able to return to athletic function) [1]. Ethical animal research: Ethical committee approval not currently required by this congress: retrospective study of clinical records. Explicit owner informed consent for participation in this study was not stated. Sources of funding: None. Competing interests: None.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2014; 46(S47):5-5. DOI:10.1111/evj.12323_9
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    ABSTRACT: The relationships between hind foot conformation, placement and motion symmetry in the equine hindlimb are poorly defined. Little research has been carried out into the potential interactions between these variables despite the commonality of hindlimb lameness in sports and leisure horses. To determine hind foot placement and describe the relationships between hind foot conformation, placement and motion symmetry. Observational study. Overall foot placement of 43 horses was determined from simultaneous orthogonal filming at walk and trot, foot conformation was measured from digital photographs and motion symmetry data was collected using horse mounted inertial sensors. Left and right hind foot conformation differed significantly (P = 0.001–0.036). Foot placement was not significantly different between left and right feet, despite these conformational differences. Foot placement was significantly different between walk and trot (P<0.001). Lateral heel landing was the most common landing pattern observed at walk (55.81%) and trot (43.12%). Lateral and lateral toe landings were more common at trot, though relatively uncommon at both gaits. Foot conformation was significantly associated with motion symmetry (P<0.001–0.007) and with placement at trot (P = 0.002–0.005) but not walk. Hind feet land preferentially laterally and heel first at both the walk and trot. Foot conformation appeared to be associated with landing patterns at the trot but not walk. Foot conformation was also associated with motion symmetry, although it is difficult to say whether conformation affects symmetry or vice versa. Multiple factors contribute to equine locomotion, foot conformation, landing patterns and the maintenance of orthopaedic health. Ethical animal research: This study was granted approval by the Royal Veterinary College Ethics Committee. Informed consent was obtained from all owners involved. Sources of funding: None. Competing interests: None.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2014; 46(S47):19-20. DOI:10.1111/evj.12323_44
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    ABSTRACT: Anthelmintic resistance is a global problem and constitutes a major threat to the welfare of equids worldwide. The cyathostomins are the most numerous and pathogenic gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) of equids in the developed world. Cyathostomins show widespread resistance to 2 out of 3 of the major classes of anthelmintic and recently there are reports of reduced efficacy to the potent macrocyclic lactones (MLs). None of the 3 novel classes of anthelmintic that have emerged in the last decade are licensed for use in equids. The cysteine proteases (CPs) are plant proteins that have shown potent activity against GINs in vivo in sheep and pigs. This study aimed to evaluate the anthelmintic effect of the CP papain on cyathostomins in vitro using the egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval migration inhibition test (LMIT). Samples of cyathostomin eggs and third stage larvae were collected and cultured from a population of equids that have recently shown reduced ML efficacy in vivo. The EHA and LMIT were performed on repeated samples with increasing concentrations of papain. Dose–response curves were plotted and PROBIT analysis performed on the data to give EC-50 values (concentration that gives 50% of the maximal response). Papain caused a dose dependent inhibition of both egg hatch and larval migration. The EC-50 values were 2 μmol/l and 100 μmol/l in the EHA and LMIT respectively, indicating a more potent effect on egg hatch. The CP papain shows potent anthelmintic activity against cyathostomins in vitro. Good evidence of anthelmintic effect against GINs in other host species is supportive of its potential use in equids. Further work is indicated to evaluate safety and in vivo efficacy. Ethical animal research: The study was approved by the University of Liverpool and Donkey Sanctuary Ethics Committee. Explicit owner informed consent for participation in this study was not stated. Sources of funding: The Donkey Sanctuary, University of Liverpool – Institute of Infection and Global Health. Competing interests: None.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2014; 46(S47):23-23. DOI:10.1111/evj.12323_52
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    ABSTRACT: Hypotension is the most common cardiovascular complication encountered during equine inhalational anaesthesia, for which a dobutamine intravenous constant rate infusion (DCRI) is often the sole treatment. There is limited literature available on the combined use of crystalloid boluses and inotropic agents during equine hypotensive episodes. To determine the cardiovascular effects of DCRI, alone and in combination with a crystalloid bolus (CB) during controlled ventilation in hypotensive, isoflurane anaesthetised horses. Prospective, randomised, cross-over experimental design of 6 healthy Standardbred horses aged 5–13 years weighing 464–578 kg. Horses were premedicated with intravenous acepromazine and xylazine. Anaesthesia was induced with intravenous ketamine and diazepam. Isofluorane was used to maintain anaesthesia and achieve a target mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 60 mmHg ± 5%. Sixty minutes post induction (T0) when a stable end tidal isoflurane percentage and target MAP had been achieved for ≥15 min one of 2 treatments was given. Treatment A (TA) was a DCRI, commencing at 0.5 μg/kg bwt/min and increasing in increments of 0.5 ug/kg bwt every 10 min as required to achieve a MAP of 80 mmHg ± 5% by 30 min following initiation of the DCRI. Treatment B (TB) was as for TA plus a 20 ml/kg bwt CB. Cardiac output, haemoglobin concentration, PaO2 and SaO2 were obtained at baseline (T0) and 30 min following initiation of the DCRI (T1). Data were analysed with a Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test (P<0.05 considered significant), with data presented as median ± interquartile ranges. Treatment A was associated with a significant (P = 0.03) increase in oxygen delivery index (DO2I) from baseline (T0 707.78 ± 159.73 ml/ min/m2; T1 1260.26 ± 184.56 ml/min/m2), while TB was not (P = 0.09). In an experimental model of isoflurane induced hypotension, DCRI results in increased DO2I, while the use of DCRI in combination with CB does not. Ethical animal research: The use of animals in this study was approved by Murdoch University Ethics Committee (AEC Permit No: 2526/12). Sources of funding: Murdoch University Masters Research Fund. Competing interests: None.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2014; 46(S47):3-3. DOI:10.1111/evj.12323_3
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    ABSTRACT: Horseshoe studs are commonly used to increase traction between the foot and the ground in competition horses. Here we investigate the question of how hindlimb studs alter limb function by quantifying upper body kinematics during circular motion (lungeing). This study quantified the effects of studs placed in the hind shoes on head and pelvic movement symmetry parameters commonly used for objective assessment of lameness. Prospective longitudinal interventional study. 15 horses were trotted on the straight and lunged on left and right circles on turf with/without a pair of studs in both hind shoes. Movement symmetry was assessed using inertial sensors mounted on poll, os sacrum and left and right tuber coxae. To eliminate the influence of the number of left/right asymmetrical horses in the sample, symmetry values were standardised to show left fore and/or right hind asymmetry on the straight. Differences in standardised head and pelvic symmetry index (SI) with and without studs were calculated and paired t tests were used to compare SI values with and without studs on the straight and on both reins. Use of studs resulted in a significant difference (P = 0.02) in pelvic SI on the right lunge only but no difference for straight line and left lunge (both P>0.05). No significant difference was found for head movement symmetry (all P>0.05). Pelvic movement was altered with the ‘weaker’ right hindlimb (based on the calculation of standardised SI values) on the inside of the circle creating an increased ‘hip hike’. In general, horses show increased limb angles and lower peak vertical force with the inside limb; our kinematic results show that this effect is exacerbated with studs. Future studies should investigate whether this ‘intervention’ is of diagnostic potential in sub-clinically hindlimb lame horses. Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank the owners and trainers whose horses were used in this study. Ethical animal research: The Royal Veterinary College Ethics and Welfare Committee approved this study and all procedures were performed with informed owner consent. Sources of funding: Funding was provided by The Royal Veterinary College for Harriet Sharp and Sophie Hopkins’ research projects. Competing interests: None.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2014; 46(S47):20-20. DOI:10.1111/evj.12323_45
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    ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue deposited along the crest of the neck has been associated with altered metabolic states and with an increased risk of laminitis in equids. Thickness of the neck is a phenotipic characteristic in Andalusians; however, there are no studies evaluating this condition in this breed. To evaluate morphometric and ultrasonographic measurements in the neck area for assessment of neck adiposity and its associations with adiposity scores and biochemical variables. A sample of 115 Andalusian horses (46 barren mares and 69 stallions, 2–15 years old) was evaluated in a cross-sectional study. Cresty neck score (CNS) was determined. Two groups were created: cresty neck (CNS ≥ 3) and noncresty neck (CNS<3) horses. Neck circumference (NC) (cm) and ultrasonography (US) of subcutaneous fat (mm) at 25% (NC0.25–US0.25), 50% (NC0.50–US0.50) and 75% (NC0.75–US0.75) of neck length were measured. Middle neck circumference (NC), neck length and height at the withers were taken to calculate neck ratios (NC0.50:height, NC0.50:neck length). Plasma was analysed for insulin and leptin. Hyperinsulinemia was defined as insulin ≥20 μiu/ml. Correlations using Pearson and Spearman coefficients were evaluated. Mean comparisons were carried out with Student's t or Mann-Whitney tests. Cresty neck condition was present in 73.9% (n = 85) of the horses and 2.6% (n = 3) were hyperinsulinaemic. Cresty neck horses had significantly higher plasma leptin, morphometric and ultrasonographic measurements. NC0.50:height was the most correlated parameter with CNS. Insulin was correlated with leptin levels and all morphometric measurements. Insulin and leptin were correlated only with US0.75. Andalusian horses’ neck score, despite their thick necks in the majority of individuals, does not have a good correlation with plasma insulin and leptin levels. Since in Andalusian horses, neck scores may be overestimating obesity, further studies on ultrasonographic fat measurements are needed. Ethical animal research: The university committee for the ethical use of animals approved all procedures. Owners gave informed consent for their horses’ inclusion in the study. Sources of funding: None. Competing interests: None.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2014; 46(S47):8-8. DOI:10.1111/evj.12323_16