Equine Veterinary Journal (EQUINE VET J )

Publisher: British Equine Veterinary Association

Description

This unrivalled international scientific journal was first published in 1968 when there were four issues each year. It now appears bi-monthly with around 88 pages per issue containing articles with original and potentially important findings. Contributions are received from sources worldwide, including North America, Europe and Australia. EVJ has also produced a number of Special Issues, which generally appear as an additional 7th issue devoted to a specific topic, including Immunology, Colic, Evidence-Based Medicine and Laminitis. These extra journals are distributed free to all subscribers, and are available to purchase from the EVJ Online Bookshop. All papers published in the journal are subjected to peer review and once articles have been accepted for publication they should appear in the journal within six to eight months. They present new developments in research being carried out by universities, veterinary schools and institutes devoted to equine and/or comparative physiology, pathology, medicine or surgery and from workers in practice. The journal strives to publish clinically orientated work and categorises articles into General Articles, Clinical Evidence Articles, Short Communications, Case Reports and Review Articles. General Articles are often accompanied by an Editorial Leader which gives the reader a further insight into a particular topic and provides further reference information. The Clinical Evidence category was introduced in 2003, for articles in which the objective is to answer questions of clinical importance in a controlled manner based on data obtainable in practice.

  • Impact factor
    2.29
    Show impact factor history
     
    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    2.19
  • Cited half-life
    0.00
  • Immediacy index
    1.06
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    0.43
  • Website
    Equine Veterinary Journal website
  • ISSN
    0425-1644
  • OCLC
    225017606
  • Material type
    Periodical
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Editorial -- This issue of the Equine Veterinary Journal presents a number of study reports that examined whether a type of medical treatment was better than another one that differed by the timing of drug administration, the administered dose level, or the type of drug administered. This type of information is extremely appealing to practitioners, as it may provide explicit recommendations with respect to the choice of drug or dosing regimen in the clinical setting. However, the research hypothesis being tested in these studies differs from the usual one of a difference between treatments, and is a noninferiority (NI) analysis, which is essentially a one-sided equivalence analysis. The NI analysis could be used to determine if the alternative treatment would be acceptable. The statistical tests in 3 of the studies determined whether 2 treatments did not significantly differ from each other. In contrast, one used the NI approach in compliance with the stated hypothesis. The purpose of this editorial is to introduce the NI analysis, and to present some of the advantages and disadvantages of its use as a statistical tool.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 07/2014; 46(4):399-401.
  • Equine Veterinary Journal 06/2014; 46(S46):48.
  • Equine Veterinary Journal 01/2014; 46(4).
  • Equine Veterinary Journal 01/2014; 46(4).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing the study: Limited data are available on the prevalence of obesity in the general equine population of Great Britain (GB), and associated risk factors. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of owner-reported obesity in veterinary-registered horses and ponies in GB, and identify factors associated with obesity. Study design: A cross-sectional survey of horse/pony owners in Britain was undertaken using a postal questionnaire. Methods: Thirty veterinary practices randomly selected horse/pony owners to complete a self-administered postal questionnaire. Owners estimated body condition score using a modified Carroll and Huntington method (1-6 scale), and animals were classified as obese if they were scored as either 5 (fat) or 6 (very fat). Factors associated with obesity were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results: Prevalence of obesity was 31.2% (n=247/792; 95% CI 27.9-34.2%). Factors associated with increased odds of obesity were breed (P<0.001), ease of maintaining weight (P<0.001) and primary use (P=0.002). Compared to Thoroughbreds, draught-type (odds ratio [OR] 7.3; 95% CI 3.1-17.1), cob-type (OR 5.6; 95% CI 2.5-12.5), native (OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.8-5.78) and Welsh breeds (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.9-6.2) were more likely to be obese. Animals described as “good doers” were more likely to be obese compared to those described as readily maintaining normal weight (OR 3.7; 95% CI 2.6-5.3). Compared to competition animals, animals used for pleasure riding (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.4-4.4) and non-ridden animals (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.5-5.5) were more likely to be obese. Conclusions and potential relevance: Identification of at-risk breeds and other horse- and management-level risk factors for obesity will enable optimal targeting of owner education regarding management strategies to reduce the frequency of obesity among the British horse population.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 01/2014;
  • Equine Veterinary Journal 01/2014; 46(4).
  • Equine Veterinary Journal 01/2014; 46(4).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A recent study suggested that the duration of acid suppression achieved with once‐daily administration of omeprazole is as short as 12 h and that administration of omeprazole prior to exercise may be superior compared with administration at other times of the day in the treatment of equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS).
    Equine Veterinary Journal 01/2014; 46(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress (OS) is most simply defined as an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants. Oxidative stress has been suggested to play roles in various equine respiratory diseases and the significance of OS in the pathogenesis of Rhodococcus equi pneumonia is unknown. The objective of this study was to measure and relate biomarkers of OS to lesions consistent with R. equi pneumonia. Various OS biomarkers were measured from blood and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples collected from 26 foals between 1 and 2 months of age (n = 12 cases and n = 14 controls) on 2 Thoroughbred farms endemically affected by R. equi pneumonia. Foals were defined as cases (positive) or controls (negative) based on ultrasonographic evidence of pulmonary abscessation (>15 mm in diameter). Haematology and biochemistry testing was also performed on blood samples collected from the foals. Comparison of biomarkers and key haematological and biochemical markers of inflammation between the groups was performed using 2 sample t tests. Derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) were significantly greater in case foals than in control foals (P = 0.027) and the oxidative stress index (OSI) was higher in case foals (P = 0.014). Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations in EBC were significantly greater in case foals than in control foals (P = 0.002). Meanwhile, there were no significant differences in traditional measures of inflammation between the 2 groups. Measuring OS in both blood and EBC provided useful information in the early diagnosis of R. equi pneumonia.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing studyEnterocolitis caused by Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a serious, sometimes fatal, disease of neonatal foals and older horses. Toxins A and B (TcdA and B) produced by C. difficile are important virulence factors. Immunisation of mares with receptor binding domains of toxins may prevent or reduce the severity of C. difficile colitis in foals. Objectives To determine whether antibodies generated in the pregnant mare to the binding regions of TcdA and B will neutralise TcdA and B toxicity. Methods Sequences encoding the binding domains of each toxin were isolated by PCR amplification from C. difficile JF09, a foal isolate, and cloned and expressed into pET15b. Thirteen mares were immunised twice 2 weeks apart with 200 μg of each recombinant protein with Quil A 2 months prior to foaling. Antibodies were assayed in the sera and colostrum by ELISA and for ability to block the cytopathic activity of each of toxin for equine endothelial cells. ResultsAll mares produced strong serum antibody responses to the binding domain of each toxin. A high level of toxin‐specific antibodies was also detected in colostrum and in most foal sera 2 days after suckling. Diluted sera and colostrum premixed with either TcdA or B had no effect on the morphology of equine endothelial cells. Application of the same concentration of toxins alone or premixed with nonimmune mare/foal serum or colostrum led to an unambiguous cytopathic effect that ranged from complete degradation to varying degrees of cell rounding. Conclusions Immunisation of pregnant mares with recombinant binding domains of TcdA and B of C. difficile resulted in the production of specific antibodies in serum and colostrum that blocked the cytopathic activity of toxins. Potential relevanceResults of studies support the feasibility of a prepartum vaccine against C. difficile enterocolitis in foals.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 01/2013; 45(4).
  • Equine Veterinary Journal 01/2013; 45(2).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Summary Reasons for performing study A previous systematic review highlighted a lack of good evidence regarding the frequency of equine laminitis in Great Britain (GB). Objectives To estimate the frequency of veterinary-diagnosed active laminitis in the general horse population of GB and to describe the clinical signs present in cases. Study design Prospective cohort study Methods Data on active episodes of equine laminitis were collected from veterinary practitioners. Results The prevalence of veterinary-diagnosed active laminitis was 0.47% (95% CI 0.42-0.52%) for the veterinary-attended population and 0.49% (95% CI 0.43-0.55%) for the veterinary-registered population, suggesting active episodes of laminitis accounted for nearly one in 200 equine visits and occurred in nearly one in 200 horses registered with veterinary practices. The incidence of veterinary-diagnosed active laminitis was 0.5 cases per 100 horse-years at risk (95% CI 0.44-0.57). Laminitis occurred in all limbs, however most commonly affected the forelimbs bilaterally (52.5%, 95% CI 46.5-57.5%) and was most severe in the front feet. The most common clinical signs were increased digital pulses, difficulty turning and a short, stilted gait at walk. Conclusions and Potential Relevance The frequency of veterinary-diagnosed active laminitis was considerably lower than previously published estimates, which is likely due to differences in geographical setting, study period, case definition, study design and study populations.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Aims To estimate prevalence of owner-reported obesity in British veterinary-registered horses and ponies, and identify risk factors associated with obesity. Methods Thirty veterinary practices randomly selected horse owners to complete an ethically approved, self-administered postal questionnaire. Owners estimated body condition score using a modified Carroll and Huntington method (1–6) and animals were classified as obese if they were scored as 5 (fat) or 6 (very fat). Factors associated with obesity were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results Owner-reported prevalence of obesity was 31.2% (n = 247/792, 95% CI 27.9–34.2). A greater proportion of obese animals (n = 47/225, 20.9%) had a history of laminitis compared with normal/underweight animals (n = 69/511, 13.5%, P = 0.01). Univariable logistic regression analysis identified several management and horse-level risk factors. Data from 785 horses were included in the final multivariable logistic regression model, and factors associated with an increased risk of obesity were breed (P<0.001), ease of maintaining weight (P<0.001) and primary use (P = 0.002). Compared with Thoroughbreds, draught-type (odds ratio [OR] 7.3; 95% CI 3.5–17.1), cob-type (OR 5.8; 95% CI 2.6–12.8), native (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.7–5.7), and Welsh breeds (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.9–6.2) were more likely to be obese. Animals described as ‘good doers’ were more likely to be obese compared those described as readily maintaining normal weight (OR 3.7; 95% CI 2.6–5.3). Compared with animals whose primary use was competition, animals predominantly used for pleasure riding were more likely to be obese (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.4–4.3), and risk increased in non-ridden horses compared with competition horses (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.5–5.5, P = 0.002). Conclusion and practical significance Identification of breed and other horse characteristics as risk factors for obesity will enable optimal targeting of owner education regarding preventive management to reduce the risk of obesity among the British horse population. Ethical animal research Owner informed consent was obtained for the questionnaire. Sources of funding: This project was funded by World Horse Welfare. Competing interests: None.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 01/2013; 45(S44):12.
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing studyCryptorchidism affects 2–8% of male horses and the affected testis undergoes a disruption of normal spermatogenesis. The underlying molecular changes are poorly understood in the cryptorchid equine testis. Objectives Compare the expression of anti‐Müllerian hormone (AMH), anti‐Müllerian hormone receptor (AMHR2), androgen receptor (AR), cyclin kinase inhibitor (CDKN1B), connexin 43 (Cx43), 3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5‐Δ4‐ isomerase (3βHSD), P450c17 hydroxylase/lyase (P450c17) and cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) in the undescended testis of cryptorchid stallions with that of normal stallions. Methods Undescended, abdominal testes from four cryptorchid stallions between 2 and 3 years of age were collected during routine castrations along with normally descended testes from normal stallions between 2 and 3 years of age (n = 7). Samples were analysed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real‐time PCR. ResultsCryptorchid testes had increased AMH and AMHR2 immunolabelling when compared with normal testes, which indicates failure of maturation of Sertoli cells and/or lack of testosterone suppression. Failure of Sertoli cell maturation in the cryptorchid testis may also be attributed to AR abnormalities and/or a consequence of lack of testosterone suppression due to decreased 3βHSD. Cyclin‐dependent kinase (CDKN1B) was not expressed in Sertoli cells of cryptorchid testes suggesting that Sertoli cells are still proliferating, which is also a characteristic of the immature testis. In addition, Cx43 expression is decreased in the cryptorchid testis, indicating a disruption in intercellular communication. Conclusions Undescended testes of cryptorchid horses present characteristics of immaturity suggesting that the failure of Sertoli cell maturation may be a consequence of cryptorchidism. Potential relevanceThis study provides a better understanding of the effect of cryptorchidism on testicular function in stallions.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 01/2013; 45(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Reason for performing studyTwo forms of dynamic upper respiratory tract obstruction affecting racehorses that involve the soft palate have been described: palatal instability (PI) and dorsal displacement of the soft palate (DDSP). Observation of DDSP is straightforward in that it is an all or nothing event, whereas observation of PI is subjective and interpretation may vary between clinicians. Objectives The aim of this study was to attempt to characterise PI and to investigate endoscopic features that precede DDSP. MethodsA retrospective study on the endoscopic observations of Thoroughbred racehorses referred for high‐speed treadmill endoscopy was performed. Endoscopic observations were reviewed during the last 10 s of the exercise test or the last 10 s prior to DDSP. The degree of axial deviation of the aryepiglottic folds (ADAF), the conformation of the epiglottis, the conformation of the soft palate and the amount of obstruction of the rima glottidis by the soft palate (i.e. soft palate stability) were assessed. ResultsA total of 72 horses were included in this study, of which 7 showed no evidence of PI. Of the 65 horses with PI, 30 (46%) developed DDSP. There were significant associations between the stability of the soft palate, epiglottic conformation and ADAF. Furthermore, development of DDSP was associated with increased severity of PI and ADAF and with changes in epiglottic conformation. Conclusions This study has characterised the endoscopic features associated with PI and identified certain characteristics that precede DDSP. Potential relevanceThese observations may assist veterinary surgeons in recognising PI and the prodromal signs of DDSP.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 01/2013; 45(4).

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