International Journal of Anthropology (Int J Anthropol )

Publisher: European Anthropological Association, Springer Verlag

Description

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  • 5-year impact
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  • Other titles
    International journal of anthropology
  • ISSN
    0393-9383
  • OCLC
    15161412
  • Material type
    Periodical
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

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    • Author can archive a pre-print version
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    • Author can archive a post-print version
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    • Author's pre-print on pre-print servers such as arXiv.org
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    • Author's post-print on any open access repository after 12 months after publication
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set phrase to accompany link to published version (see policy)
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • International Journal of Anthropology 01/2013; 28(2-3):171-185.
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    ABSTRACT: This article, part of a wider study on fertility dynamics in Kenya, attempts to synthetically reconstruct the evolution of the Kenyan population structure over the past 60 years, following the development of population policies adopted by the Kenyan government. It emphasizes the importance and the necessity of political participation in order to restrain the population growth that, in a country such as Kenya, aggravates the existing deficiencies in the field of nutrition and hygiene. The article also takes a brief look at the future prospects of Kenya.
    International Journal of Anthropology 11/2006; 21(3):165-182.
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    ABSTRACT: While a large number of studies on secular trends have been performed on measures of stature, weight, trunk and limb dimensions, subcutaneous fatness and body composition, etc., less attention has been paid to cephalo-facial traits. This study reports on secular trends in five cephalo-facial traits (head length, head breadth, head circumference, bizygomatic breadth and morphological facial height) and two indices (cephalic index and facial index) in Bengalee Hindu boys between ages 7.0 and 16.0years. The data set comes from two cross-sectional growth surveys carried out among the students of one particular Kolkata (formerly Calcutta) boys school with an interval of about 20years (1982–1983 and 1999–2001). Identical protocol with respect to sampling, data collection, measuring technique and data analysis has been followed in both surveys. Except for morphological facial height (which showed negative secular trends), the other four cephalo-facial traits showed positive secular trends with varying magnitudes over the two decades. Cephalic index did not reveal any consistent pattern of change, while facial index showed a declining trend in the later survey.
    International Journal of Anthropology 10/2006; 21(1):33-43.
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    ABSTRACT: Puberty represents the final stage of sexual differentiation when the individual acquires reproductive capacity. Puberty is not only characterized by maturation of sexual organs and the formation of oocytes and mature spermatozoa, but also by the development of secondary sexual dimorphism. In industrialized countries, the age of puberty has decreased steadily over the last 150years in association with improved socio-economic conditions. However, the decreased onset of puberty, especially in females, is associated with problematic changes in behaviour such as early onset of sexual activity resulting in high-risk teenage pregnancies. In our study, we analysed the association between body composition (fat tissue and fat-free body mass, estimated by BIA analyses), height, body mass index and fat distribution and signs of puberty such as the timing of menarche in 228 girls and voice breaking and facial hair growth in 191 boys ageing between 10 and 15years. In both sexes, signs of puberty were associated, highly significantly, with body composition parameters. Nevertheless, marked differences between the two sexes were observed: Female puberty was positively associated with weight status and the absolute and relative amount of body fat, while in males, puberty was positively related with a higher amount of fat-free body mass and a decreased fat mass. Male voice breaking was significantly associated with increased stature, body weight, waist and hip circumference, lean body mass and total body water. In contrast, voice breaking was significantly negatively associated with the fat percentage, the total fat mass and the waist-to-hip ratio. Female menarche was significantly positively associated with increased body weight, weight status, waist and hip circumference and also with increased absolute and relative fat mass, relative hip circumference, lean body mass and total body water. Only the waist-to-hip ratio was significantly negatively associated with the onset of menarche.
    International Journal of Anthropology 09/2006; 21(1):45-54.
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    ABSTRACT: Many previous attempts to quantify the contribution of genetic factors to human dental variation using the classical twin design have been based on untested assumptions that lead to unreliable estimates of heritability. We have applied structural equation modelling to several different dental phenotypes in a sample of over 600 pairs of Australian twins, enabling the goodness-of-fit of the data to be tested against genetic models incorporating different components of genetic and environmental variance. Our results indicate that the contribution of additive genetic effects to phenotypic variation differs considerably between different dental traits. Heritability estimates for intercuspal distances of molar teeth and for incisal overbite and overjet are low to moderate in magnitude, whereas heritabilities for overall molar crown size and arch dimensions are moderate to high. We propose that after formation of the enamel knots during odontogenesis, the emerging pattern of molar cusps results from a cascade of local epigenetic events, rather than being under direct genetic control. Variation in molar crown size is explained best by a model incorporating additive genetic effects, as well as environmental influences that are both unique and common to co-twins. These environmental influences presumably operate in utero during the early stages of molar odontogenesis prior to crown calcification. The relatively low heritabilities noted for occlusal traits are consistent with the importance of masticatory activity and muscle function in determining the interrelationships between teeth in opposing dental arches. We believe that well-designed studies of twins, coupled with modern genome-scanning approaches, offer great potential to identify key “dental” genes and to clarify how these genes interact with the environment during development.
    International Journal of Anthropology 09/2006; 21(1):67-74.
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    ABSTRACT: Heritability in growth patterns of children is estimated to be between 72% and 88%. Environmental factors influence the manifestation of growth processes during the maturation process of children. Starting from the well-studied and generally accepted conclusion that growth and maturation of children mirrors the nutritional status of the population, the author provides a general overview on this problem and demonstrates that the anthropometric traits studied in growing children react quickly and sensitively to irreproducible social changes.
    International Journal of Anthropology 09/2006; 21(1):5-23.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of contributions on secular change in the growth pattern of Hungarian children and youth over the past 100years. We note how some absolute body dimensions have changed and what modifications are discernible in the rate of growth and comment on the effects these had on body shape. We also touch upon the inferences about the timing of the secondary sex characteristics and the age at menarche and oigarche. Under the assumption that growth and maturation patterns depend on the environment, we analyse and compare the growth data of subpopulations living under diverse socio-economic conditions. We also attempt to outline divergent trends in their physical development.
    International Journal of Anthropology 09/2006; 21(1):25-32.
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    ABSTRACT: Anthropometric estimation of midarm muscularity and fatness was employed as a general index of nutritional status in developing countries. The present study attempts to evaluate the sex- and age-related pattern of regional muscle and fat area characteristics in Turkish children. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 1,068 10- to 14-year-old children (583 boys and 485 girls) from junior high schools in Ankara, the capital city of Turkey. According to general anthropometric protocols, weight, height, triceps skinfold thickness, and midarm circumference measurements were taken and socioeconomic data were collected. Arm muscle area (AMA) and arm fat area (AFA) were calculated and centile curves were evaluated using least median squares method. Results showed significant sexual dimorphism in muscle and fat patterning. AFA was found to be higher among girls and AMA among boys. The present findings suggest that the different levels of socioeconomic status (SES) appeared to be more prevalent on muscularity among boys (p < 0.05) and adiposity among girls (p < 0.001).
    International Journal of Anthropology 01/2006; 21(3):231-239.
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    ABSTRACT: Morocco’s fertility pattern evolved in the 20th century from a traditional model close to ‘natural fertility’ to a modern pattern incorporating contraception. The very high fertility rate of nearly 7 offspring per woman observed in the 1960s was still at a level of 5.5 offspring per woman in the early 1980s. The total fertility rate subsequently declined to 2.5 by 2003. This decline was apparently, principally, the result of two factors in the urban context: the relative increase in women’s age at marriage and the use of contraception to regulate and to close reproduction. This research studied a group of Berber agriculturists in the region of Marrakech to better understand the extension and modalities of fertility changes in a rural environment. Though delayed, the changes observed in rural Berbers paralleled the general trends seen at the national level. As in the urban environment, the changes affecting reproductive patterns resulted from an increase in the age at marriage of women and the introduction of contraception. However, these changes were apparently minor adaptations to the traditional pattern, in that the progressive increase in mean age at marriage was obtained by the decrease in the frequency of pre-nubile unions (<15 years old) and not from the upward shift of the modal age. On the other hand, contraception apparently was employed to stop childbearing after the expected family size was already attained.
    International Journal of Anthropology 01/2006; 21(2):141-149.
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    ABSTRACT: The Y chromosome of 523 Italian male subjects was examined for the 49a,f TaqI haplotype XII and for two microsatellites, YCAIIa and YCAIIb. Results were then compared to other populations living in the western Mediterranean basin whom we had previously studied: 419 French (including 328 Corsicans), 46 Italians from Milan, and 73 Tunisians. Haplotype XII is present in 127 out of the 1061 examined samples (11.9%), and most of the haplotype XII subjects are of the compound haplotype YCAIIa-21 and YCAIIb-11. Two peaks of haplotype XII frequencies occur in the north of Sardinia (35%) and in the central area of Corsica (17.4%).
    International Journal of Anthropology 01/2006; 21(2):117-121.
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    ABSTRACT: Due to forced population movements from southeastern Europe to the neighboring countries, for many refugees or displaced persons there have been problems in various domains of life, including health problems. The aim of this study is to focus on the general health and psychological stress of youths and to investigate the elements producing the health problems linked to the mental and psychological disorders of youths in six countries. The target population is composed of adolescents who were between 15 and 18years of age in 2003 and who immigrated into a new country between 1990 and 2000. From this analysis, a profile emerges of an adolescent who, independently of immigrant or native status, reveals an unexpected fragility. This is manifested through a nonoptimal perception of his/her state of health that is not confirmed by recognized pathologies. This discrepancy between perceived and objective state of health is a psychological state that is produced by a wide variety of factors, and results in reduced self-esteem and dissatisfaction with life. It is manifested in a difficulty in accepting one’s self-image. This produces the difficulty the youths experience in accepting a self-image that has been deformed by reality, with consequent pathologies involving the alimentary disorders which have become a phenomenon of the new forms of society.
    International Journal of Anthropology 01/2006; 21(3):217-229.
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    ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional study of 191 adult (>18years) Bengalee male slum dwellers of Kolkata, India, was undertaken to study the relationships of family income with body mass index (BMI) and chronic energy deficiency (CED). Results revealed that the mean height, weight, and BMI of the subjects were 162.2cm, 54.0kg, and 20.5kg/m2, respectively. The overall frequency of CED (BMI < 18.5kg/m2) was 33.5%. Based on the World Health Organization classification, the prevalence of CED among this population was high (20–39%) and thus the situation is serious. Overall, monthly family income (MFI) was significantly positively correlated (r = 0.18, p < 0.05) with BMI. Linear regression analyses showed that MFI had significant impact (p < 0.05) on BMI. The percent variation in BMI explained by MFI was 2.6%. Subjects belonging to the lowest family income group (FIG) had the lowest mean BMI (19.5kg/m2) and the highest rate of CED (46.6%) while those in the highest FIG had the largest mean BMI (21.4kg/m2) and lowest rate of CED (23.1%). There was a significant FIG difference (F = 2.965, p < 0.05) in mean BMI. Moreover, there existed FIG differences (χ 2 = 7.54, p < 0.06) in CED rates. In conclusion, this study provided strong evidence that FIG was significantly associated with BMI and the presence of CED. The rate of CED was high, indicating a serious situation. These findings may have severe public health implications. It is recommended that immediate nutritional intervention programs be initiated among this population along with serious efforts to increase their family income.
    International Journal of Anthropology 01/2006; 21(3):209-215.
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    ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional study of 410 (210 men and 200 women) older (≥55years) Bengalee Hindus of Kolkata, India, was undertaken to determine which measure of abdominal adiposity best relates with body mass index (BMI), an indicator of overall adiposity. Three measures of abdominal adiposity were studied: waist circumference (WC), waist–hip ratio (WHR), and conicity index (CI). Results revealed that, in both sexes, WC had the strongest partial (age controlled) correlations with BMI (men = 0.56, women = 0.80). Linear regression analyses demonstrated that BMI had the strongest significant impact on WC in both sexes. BMI alone accounted for 28.2 and 61.8% variation in WC in men and women, respectively. This strongest significant impact remained even after controlling for age. In conclusion, this study provides strong evidence that WC can be preferred over WHR and CI in studies dealing with BMI among older Bengalee Hindus. In particular, BMI and WC can be useful in studies dealing with aging and anthropometric characteristics among older Bengalees.
    International Journal of Anthropology 01/2006; 21(3):247-252.