Chemioterapia: international journal of the Mediterranean Society of Chemotherapy (Chemioterapia )

Publisher: Mediterranean Society of Chemotherapy

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  • Other titles
    Chemioterapia
  • ISSN
    0392-906X
  • OCLC
    10413242
  • Material type
    Periodical
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This work was carried out to study the pattern of use of antimicrobial agents in Egypt. 2034 files were selected from two general hospitals by a systematic random sampling method, and the data concerning the antimicrobials were collected from each file. The results of this study showed that there was misuse of these agents both in therapy and prophylaxis. Antibiotics were prescribed to 80.17% of admitted patients. In most of the cases they were prescribed without documented proof of infection and were prescribed for conditions in which antimicrobial use is not justified for either therapy or prophylaxis. Among patients who received antibiotics, 30.8% received repeated courses, in most of whom there was no reasonable indication.
    Chemioterapia: international journal of the Mediterranean Society of Chemotherapy 01/1989; 7(6):387-92.
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    ABSTRACT: The immunomodulating properties of antimicrobial drugs may have important implications in prescriptive practice. This is particularly so for patients whose immune system has been compromised. In this study, tetracycline, cephalothin, rifampicin, polymyxin B and nitrofurantoin reduced mitogen responsiveness of both B and T lymphocytes of mouse spleen cells and human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro in a dose-dependent fashion. Ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, streptomycin and erythromycin had no effect. In the in vivo study none of the antibiotics affected mouse spleen cell transformation in response to mitogen. The addition of interleukin-2 (IL-2) did not prevent the effect of the antibiotics tested on human lymphocytes in vitro. Cephalothin, chloramphenicol and gentamicin decreased IL-2 production by mouse spleen cells in vitro.
    Chemioterapia: international journal of the Mediterranean Society of Chemotherapy 01/1989; 7(6):369-72.
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    ABSTRACT: Between January, 1974 and July, 1985 66 patients with non-metastatic malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of bone in the estremities were surgically treated with amputation (34 cases) or resection (32 cases) according to the extension of the tumor. With the exception of 3 patients, who had severe medical contraindications to the chemotherapeutic drugs, all the patients were offered, in addition to the surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy (patients treated before 1983) or neoadjuvant chemotherapy (patients treated after 1983). 33 patients accepted, while 30 wanted to be treated with surgery alone. At median follow-up of 7 years (3-14) 25 patients remained continuously disease-free and 41 relapsed (27 with metastatic disease, 1 with local recurrence and 13 with both metastases and local recurrence). The percentage of patients who remained continuously disease-free was 12.1% (4:33) in the group of patients treated with surgery alone and 63.5% (21:33) in the group treated with surgery plus adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Although the two groups of patients were not completely superimposable (the patients treated with surgery alone were older and more often the MFH arose in pre-existing bone lesions) these results seem to suggest the usefulness of adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy for this tumor.
    Chemioterapia: international journal of the Mediterranean Society of Chemotherapy 01/1989; 7(6):406-13.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the prophylactic use of cefamandole versus oxacillin plus gentamicin on hemostasis in patients undergoing hip replacement with heparin prophylaxis. Twenty-four patients with a normal hemostatic profile were randomly allocated to receive either cefamandole or oxacillin plus gentamicin. All the patients received calcium heparin. Platelet count, bleeding time, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), thrombin clotting time (TCT), fibrinogen and serum FDP were assessed before treatment and every day of antibiotic administration. Surgical bleeding was assessed using a four-grade score system. Platelet count, bleeding time, fibrinogen and serum FDP did not show any change with both treatments. PT, aPTT and TCT showed a similar and mild prolongation in the two groups of patients. No difference in the surgical bleeding was observed between the two groups. We conclude that a short-term prophylaxis with cefamandole is a safe regimen in patients undergoing hip replacement with heparin prophylaxis.
    Chemioterapia: international journal of the Mediterranean Society of Chemotherapy 01/1989; 7(6):396-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Non A, non B (NANB) hepatitis is caused by at least three, as yet unidentified, viruses and can occur as a result of blood transfusions, the use of blood products, covert or overt percutaneous exposure and epidemic waterborne outbreaks of infection. The three types of viruses are characterised by their incubation times; a short time of 2-4 weeks, a longer time of 6-12 weeks and a intermediate period for the waterborne NANB hepatitis virus. Acute NANB hepatitis is milder than HBV hepatitis with lower peak transaminase levels. However, some develop into fulminant hepatitis with a lower survival rate of 0.13%. Ten to 100% of acute patients progress to chronic NANB hepatitis. It was found that alpha-lymphoblastoid interferon at levels of 3-5 megaunits (MU) thrice weekly returned transaminase levels to normal within 6-8 weeks. Approximately 80% had normal levels by the eighth week of treatment and this was maintained on 2.5-3 MU thrice weekly; a well tolerated dose. Long term, low-dose therapy is needed to maintain remission.
    Chemioterapia: international journal of the Mediterranean Society of Chemotherapy 01/1989; 7 Suppl 3:30-4.
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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of human lymphoblastoid interferon (Wellferon) was studied in 25 patients with anti-HBe positive, HBV DNA positive chronic hepatitis B. The patients were randomized to receive 5 MU/m2, three times weekly or no treatment for 6 months. The study is ongoing and to date 19 patients have been followed up for more than 3 months and 14 for more than 6 months. At 9 months, serum HBV DNA had become negative and ALT levels normalized in 57% of interferon-treated patients. This compared with 33% becoming serum HBV DNA negative and 16% with ALT normalization in the untreated group. Clearance of HBV DNA in interferon treated patients was not consistently associated with the appearance of transaminase peaks during therapy, in contrast with those seen in HBeAg positive patients. The preliminary results of this trial suggest that interferon reduces HBV replication in anti HBe/HBV DNA positive patients with chronic hepatitis B.
    Chemioterapia: international journal of the Mediterranean Society of Chemotherapy 01/1989; 7 Suppl 3:15-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of human lymphoblastoid interferon (Wellferon) therapy was measured in 20 children with chronic hepatitis B with or without pretreatment with prednisolone. Patients were randomised to receive 0.6 mg/kg/day prednisolone for 3 weeks, then at 0.3 mg/kg for a fourth week or placebo. All patients then received interferon 5 MU/m2 i.m. for 12 weeks; daily for 5 days then three times a week for the remaining 11 weeks. Preliminary results show that 25% of children had a permanent loss of viral markers of replication. However, response to interferon varied widely between individuals and a prolonged follow-up is required in order to determine the influence of prednisolone pretreatment on the efficacy of interferon therapy.
    Chemioterapia: international journal of the Mediterranean Society of Chemotherapy 01/1989; 7 Suppl 3:20-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty-five children (16 females and 9 males) aged from 8 months to 10 years with clinical and laboratory evidence of UTI were treated with sulbactam + ampicillin (SBT/AMP). Twenty-four of them were suffering from cystitis and one from pyelonephritis. Four of them were treated unsuccessfully prior to entry in the trial. The mean final dose of SBT/AMP was 47.69 mg/kg/die (ratio of SBT-AMP was 1:2). The patients were treated for 3 to 8 days (mean: 4.76 days). 84% were treated by i.m. route. No side effects or adverse experience were reported. Clinical cure was achieved in 25 patients (100%).
    Chemioterapia: international journal of the Mediterranean Society of Chemotherapy 01/1989; 7(6):393-5.
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    ABSTRACT: The Authors report microbiological data on the inhibitory activity of cephalothin, cefamandole, FCE 22101, gentamicin, netilmicin, amikacin, rifampicin, clindamycin, josamycin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin and teicoplanin against 165 clinically isolated Staphylococcus aureus strains. 34 of the study strains, i.e. 20.6%, were methicillin- and oxacillin-resistant. The activity of the tested drugs was good; the presence of nosocomial strains resistant to rifampicin (12.13%), clindamycin (13.94%), josamycin (18.2%), ofloxacin (4.85%), ciprofloxacin (12.7%), gentamicin (27.3%), amikacin (9.7%), netilmicin (7.9%) was noted. The Authors emphasize the good inhibitory activity of tested beta-lactam drugs against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococci, but also the limits of these drugs against methicillin-resistant strains. The activity of vancomycin and teicoplanin on all study strains was very good.
    Chemioterapia: international journal of the Mediterranean Society of Chemotherapy 01/1989; 7(6):378-81.
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    ABSTRACT: We treated 21 patients with advanced breast cancer with buserelin, aminoglutethimide and cortisone acetate in an attempt to obtain a complete estrogen blockade both in premenopausal and postmenopausal patients. Ten patients (47%) obtained an objective response without any relevant side-effects. Dealing with hormonal data, it must be outlined that serum testosterone levels decreased significantly in postmenopausal patients, suggesting a possible explanation for the activity of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue in this group of patients.
    Chemioterapia: international journal of the Mediterranean Society of Chemotherapy 01/1989; 7(6):414-9.
  • Chemioterapia: international journal of the Mediterranean Society of Chemotherapy 01/1989; 7 Suppl 3:35-6.
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    ABSTRACT: The cost of antimicrobial chemotherapy is a major part of the total hospital pharmacy cost. Parenteral administration is considerably more expensive than oral and until recently was the only available therapy for nosocomial and resistant bacterial infections. Apart from the cost of the antimicrobial agent itself, many other factors such as the infusion sets, catheters and cannulae, monitoring of blood to avoid toxicity and other laboratory investigations will influence the costs. The introduction of ciprofloxacin, a new quinolone, with a wide range of bacterial activity which can be prescribed orally, will have economic advantages in the treatment of hospital infections.
    Chemioterapia: international journal of the Mediterranean Society of Chemotherapy 01/1989; 7(6):400-5.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of human lymphoblastoid interferon (Wellferon) in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. To date 70 patients have entered the study, 33 randomized to receive interferon at doses of 5 MU/m2 i.m. daily for the first 4 weeks and three times weekly for 5 months thereafter and 31 acted as controls. Seventy-nine per cent of the treated group permanently cleared HBV DNA compared with 48% of the control group (p = 0.01): 69% of the treated patients and 38% of the controls who eliminated HBV DNA cleared HBeAg, HBeAb (p = 0.02). Twenty-four per cent of the treated patients and 3% (p = 0.01) of the control group had clearance of HBsAg and seroconversion to HBsAb. From these results it was concluded that interferon had a therapeutic effect on Italian heterosexual patients with chronic hepatitis B viral replication.
    Chemioterapia: international journal of the Mediterranean Society of Chemotherapy 01/1989; 7 Suppl 3:12-4.
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    ABSTRACT: The in vitro activities of cefixime and seven comparative oral antimicrobials were studied. MIC90S of cefixime were 0.015-1 micrograms/ml for Haemophilus influenzae, Branhamella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Citrobacter diversus, Proteus, Providencia, Aeromonas hydrophila and Streptococcus. MIC90S for other Enterobacteriaceae were greater than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml; 44% of those strains were inhibited by less than or equal 1 microgram/ml. Staphylococcus, Psuedomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis were resistant to cefixime.
    Chemioterapia: international journal of the Mediterranean Society of Chemotherapy 01/1989; 7(6):365-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic orally active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Recent literature indicates that orally administered activated charcoal can alter the bioavailability of many drugs and in vitro studies have demonstrated an interaction with ciprofloxacin. To evaluate in vivo the effects of activated charcoal on ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics, six healthy volunteers received, according to a cross-over design, either ciprofloxacin 500 mg alone or concomitantly 1 g activated charcoal. The coadministration of the latter drug did not influence any of the considered pharmacokinetic parameters. Activated charcoal at a clinically effective dose, therapeutically used in gaseousness, does not alter ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics.
    Chemioterapia: international journal of the Mediterranean Society of Chemotherapy 01/1989; 7(6):382-6.
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    ABSTRACT: alpha-Interferon and beta-interferon have been used therapeutically in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection for more than a decade. It is now clear that alpha-interferons are an effective therapy for a proportion of chronic HBV carriers. A course of at least three, and possibly as long as 4 months is required at a dose of 5-10 MU three times a week. Those responding to therapy usually develop a marked hepatitis in the second and third months of therapy, which precedes permanent loss of markers of viral replication. In a proportion of patients, not only are HBe antigen and HBV DNA cleared from serum, but HBsAg may also be cleared, albeit over a longer time course; anti-HBs develops in a few of these patients. Although close to being an established form of therapy for chronic HBV infection, the responsive subgroups remain to be defined. Studies over the next few years will be directed at identifying those groups responsive, or not responsive, to alpha-interferons and thereafter seeking other antiviral agents that could be used in combination with alpha-interferon to augment the response rate.
    Chemioterapia: international journal of the Mediterranean Society of Chemotherapy 01/1989; 7 Suppl 3:9-11.
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    ABSTRACT: The possible enhancement effect of acyclovir or its prodrug descyclovir in combination with human lymphoblastoid interferon (Wellferon) was studied in three trials with a total of 146 patients with chronic hepatitis B; a pilot study (Study 1; n = 12), two randomized controlled studies, one with a combination of descyclovir and interferon (Study 2; n = 36) and the other using acyclovir and interferon (Study 3; n = 98). The results from Study 1 and 2 showed that combination therapy with interferon and acyclovir or descyclovir (n = 25) was associated with a 40% HBe+ seroconversion rate, compared to 30% with interferon treatment alone (n = 10), 18% with acyclovir alone (n = 11) and 0% with no treatment (n = 18). Preliminary results from Study 3 on rate of HBe-seroconversion are similar to previous studies. Antiviral therapy with interferon and acyclovir or its prodrug, have resulted in significantly enhanced HBe seroconversion. The intravenous acyclovir component of combination therapy is however cumbersome and research should be directed towards finding an oral anti-hepatitis drug.
    Chemioterapia: international journal of the Mediterranean Society of Chemotherapy 01/1989; 7 Suppl 3:26-9.
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    ABSTRACT: In reporting on the activity of cephalothin, cefamandole, FCE 22101, gentamicin, netilmicin, amikacin, rifampicin, clindamycin, josamycin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin and teicoplanin on 72 Staphylococcus epidermidis strains clinically isolated in the hospital, the Authors observed a high percentage of methicillin-resistance (68.05%) as well as resistance to other important drugs such as gentamicin (72.22%), rifampicin (27.7%), clindamycin (36.1%), and josamycin (40.27%). They also recorded good inhibitory activity of the studied beta-lactam drugs. However, this activity was not confirmed against methicillin-resistant strains when the test was performed under particular technical conditions (hypertonic medium, incubation at 30 degrees C, inoculum = 10(6)). The Authors also emphasize the poor bactericidal activity against these strains. The activity of quinolones was good; the activity of vancomycin and teicoplanin was very good on all strains studied.
    Chemioterapia: international journal of the Mediterranean Society of Chemotherapy 01/1989; 7(6):373-7.
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    ABSTRACT: It was previously thought that two distinct types of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection existed. However recent evidence suggests that these are in fact phases in a continuous spectrum which evolves with time. Immediately after infection there is active viral replication. In patients infected in adult life, particularly in Europe and the USA, this is associated with varying degrees of liver damage. In those infected at birth, particularly in the Far East, there is initially much less inflammation with normal liver function. In succeeding years, viral replication decreases and liver damage increases with more deranged liver function test results. Eventually viral replication ceases and liver inflammation decreases, resulting in seroconversion with a loss of HBeAg and appearance of anti-HBe. Unfortunately, cirrhosis has already developed in some adults, with the increased risk of the later development of primary hepatocellular carcinoma. It is likely that there is a favourable window during the natural history of the infection when interferon is effective, probably in the few years immediately before spontaneous seroconversion.
    Chemioterapia: international journal of the Mediterranean Society of Chemotherapy 01/1989; 7 Suppl 3:5-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Thirty-seven patients with advanced head and neck tumors were treated with a polychemotherapy regimen (PEV-B: platinum 30 mg/m2 i.v., epirubicin 30 mg/m2 i.v., etoposide 75 mg/m2 i.v. on days 1 and 2 every 28 days, and bleomycin 15 mg i.m. weekly up to the total dose of 300 mg). All but 7 patients were pretreated with surgery and/or radiotherapy. Thirty-six patients were evaluable for response. Partial response (PR) was observed in 19 cases (53%), no change (NC) in 13 cases (36%) and progression (P) in 4 cases (11%). The median duration of PR was 5 months. The most frequent side-effects were leukopenia (78%), vomiting (57%) and alopecia (46%). The median duration of survival was 8 months for the responders and 5 months for the non-responders.
    Chemioterapia: international journal of the Mediterranean Society of Chemotherapy 11/1988; 7(5):341-4.