IATSS Research

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  • ISSN
    0386-1112

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: School bus crashes are rare in comparison to other crash types, but considering all crashes that occur in and around school buses, they begin to become a noticeable problem and one that tends to attract national attention. As defined by the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), a school bus related crash is a crash that either involves a school bus or a crash where the presence of a school bus is considered as a major contributing factor. Ten years of data indicate that the number of fatal school bus related crashes has remained nearly stagnant despite an increase in the number vehicle safety systems available on the market. The findings also highlight the importance of protecting the non-bus occupants since they are the most likely to incur a serious or fatal injury in the event of a crash. As the most vulnerable user group, pedestrians (typically school-aged children) are especially at risk when crossing the road while boarding or exiting a school bus. Until new technologies for reducing school bus related crashes are designed and implemented, school transportation safety can be improved by increasing awareness of school bus stop laws and by implementing existing transportation safety initiatives at school bus stop locations.
    IATSS Research 01/2015; 118.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper investigates the possible causes of low fatalities in three-wheelers (autorickshaw) carrying school children in India. The data was collected in the form of First Information Report (FIRs) from local police stations from 2007 to 2012 and video-graphic surveys were done on four arterial roads running through Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Surveys were also done on one subarterial road near school zone which was used by three-wheelers carrying school children. The objective of the study was to investigate the hypothesis that drivers behave differently while following or overtaking three-wheelers carrying children. Many researchers have investigated the effect of passengers on driver of the same vehicle, but there was no evidence of any study which investigated the effect of child passengers on nearby vehicles. It was found that heavy vehicles maintain more gaps while following or overtaking three-wheelers carrying children as compared to those not carrying children. It was also found that this effect is more prominent at speeds higher than 40 km/h. On the other hand lighter vehicles keep highest lateral and longitudinal gaps to heavy vehicles and threewheelers without children respectively.
    IATSS Research 01/2015; 5.
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    ABSTRACT: We developed a cross-country database of motorized two-wheeler (MTW) injuries.•Young children (< 10 years) are rarely injured even in high motorcycle use settings.•More studies are needed to explain underlying risk mechanisms.
    IATSS Research 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper introduces a method of factor decomposition analysis for analyzing the importance of the factors that affect the volume of transportation energy consumption. In choosing the influencing factors from the many possibilities, the paper introduces an indicator analysis to evaluate and select the most important affecting factors. Based on the decomposition results, the paper helps interpret the underlying causes of transportation energy consumption. At the same time, the paper also suggests corresponding policy implications for the improvement of transportation energy efficiency.
    IATSS Research 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The protection of children in motor vehicle crashes has improved since the introduction of child restraint systems. However, motor vehicle crashes remain one of the top leading causes of death for children. Today, computer-aided engineering is an essential part of vehicle development and it is anticipated that safety assessments will increasingly rely on simulations. Therefore, this study presents a review of important biomechanical aspects for the safety of children in cars, including child human body models, for scenarios ranging from on-road driving, emergency maneuvers, and pre-crash events to crash loading. The review is divided into four parts: Crash safety, On-road driving for forward facing children, Numerical whole body models, and Discussion and future outlook. The first two parts provide ample references and a state-of-the-art description of important biomechanical aspects for the safety of children in cars. That children are not small adults has been known for decades and has been considered during the development of current restraints that protect the child in the crash phase. The head, neck, thorax, and pelvis are body areas where development with age changes the biomechanics and the interaction with restraint systems. The rear facing child seat distributes the crash load over a large area of the body and has proved to be a very efficient means of reducing child injuries and fatalities. Children up to age 4 years need to be seated rearward facing for optimal protection, mainly because of the proportionally large head, neck anthropometry and cartilaginous pelvis. Children aged 4 up to 12 years should use a belt positioning booster together with the vehicle seat belt to ensure good protection, as the pelvis is not fully developed and because of the smaller size of these children compared to adults. On-road driving studies have illustrated that children frequently change seated posture and may choose slouched positions that are poor for lap belt interaction if seated directly on the rear seat. Emergency maneuvers with volunteers illustrate that pre-crash loading forces forward-facing children into involuntary postures with large head displacements, having potential influence on the risk of head impact. Children, similar to adults, benefit from the safety systems offered in the vehicle. By providing child adaptability of the vehicle, such as integrated booster cushions, the child-restraint interaction can be further optimized. An example of this is the significant reduction of lap belt misuse when using integrated boosters, due to the simplified and natural positioning of the lap belt in close contact with the pelvis. The research presented in this review illustrates that there is a need for enhanced tools, such as child human body models, to take into account the requirements of children of different ages and sizes in the development of countermeasures. To study how children interact with restraints during on-road driving and during pre- and in-crash events, numerical child models implementing age-specific anthropometric features will be essential. The review of human whole body models covers multi body models (age 1.5 to 15 years) and finite element models (ages 3, 6, and 10 years). All reviewed child models are developed for crash scenarios. The only finite element models to implement age dependent anthropometry details for the spine and pelvis were a 3 year-old model and an upcoming 10 year-old model. One ongoing project is implementing active muscles response in a 6 year-old multi body model to study pre-crash scenarios. These active models are suitable for the next important step in providing the automotive industry with adequate tools for development and assessment of future restraint systems in the full sequence of events from pre- to in-crash.
    IATSS Research 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study uses Swedish accident data for the years 2004-2008 to analyze the relationship between injury severity for pedestrians struck by a vehicle and the speed environment at accident locations. It also makes use of a Multinomial Logit Model and other statistical methods. Speed measurements have been performed at accident sites, and the results show that there was a relationship between the (1) mean travel speed and (2) the age of the pedestrian struck and the injury severity and risk of fatality. The data also shows that even though fatal accidents (excluding run-over accidents) are rare in speed environments where the mean travel speed is below 40 km/h and severe injuries are rare below 25 km/h, over 30% of severe injury accidents occur in speed environments below 35 km/h. This indicates that 30 km/h speed limits might not be as safe as previously believed. The current speed policy needs to address this issue. To the author’s best knowledge this is the first study that analyzes the relation between mean travel speed and injury severity for pedestrians struck by vehicles.
    IATSS Research 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In the event of a traffic accident fatality, the death is reported as an “unusual death,” an inquest is conducted, and, if necessary, a forensic autopsy is performed to prove any causal relationship between the accident and the death, identify the vehicle at fault, and determine the cause of the accident. A forensic autopsy of a traffic accident fatality needs to both determine the cause of death and identify the mechanism of injury, an analytical task that requires observation of three major traffic accident factors: the body, the vehicles involved, and the scene of the accident. Also crucial to determining the cause of death is the process of looking into whether the people involved in the accident had any diseases that might affect their driving performance or were under the influence of alcohol or drugs. In order to reduce the number of people killed in traffic accidents, it will be important to promote joint research uniting forensic medicine, clinical medicine, automotive engineering, and road engineering, take measures to limit the impact of inebriated pedestrians and pedestrians suffering from dementia, and ensure proper screening of alcohol and illegal drug consumption in drivers.
    IATSS Research 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the concept of mobility in twenty-first-century cities. Although the issues with which cities now grapple are vastly different from the problems that they confronted in the twentieth century, we continue to live on a foundation that was laid over the years of the past. From that perspective, we need to understand that the destructive reform—“innovation”—so crucial to the mobility on which urban activity depends cannot necessarily ignore the cumulative knowledge we have heretofore amassed. The author defined the idea of “mobility design” in the scope of urban transportation and explored the concept of connected mobility through case studies that the author has been involved in or researched. Although many important connections in and approaches to urban transportation have come to light, the process of actually working on such projects has uncovered many issues to address such as sharing and social capital. The ability to design mobility as a connected entity and pursue our research topics from that perspective will be vital to overcoming the issues highlighted above and helping the concept of connected mobility flourish.
    IATSS Research 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Approximately 300 million powered two-wheeler vehicles (PTWs) are currently in possession around the world, and PTWs bear the role in personal mobility especially in regions of Southeast Asia, where motorization is rapidly expanding, while they are also coming into focus as a type of vehicle better for the environment. This paper presents past efforts to utilize PTWs and their current situation. In addition, the possibility of realizing a safe mobility by equipping PTWs with probes is examined.
    IATSS Research 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Many countries have developed policies and measures to deal with the external impact of aviation on the wider community. There is, however, often controversy and lack of acceptance of some measures, such as compensation, in the communities affected by aviation. Such measures are often felt to be ineffective and perceived as unfair. A clear and objective model for determining compensation would be helpful to reduce controversy. The objective of this study is therefore to examine the relationship between aviation impacts and property values in the case of Thailand’s Suvarnabhumi Airport for application to the possible improvement of compensation packages. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between five common impacts of aviation (safety, noise, scenery, air pollution, and traffic) and property value change, with data from a survey of sample communities around the airport. The results, both for the overall neighborhood and for separate land used types, show that only noise and air pollution demonstrate significant negative relations with property value. The effect of noise drives a higher impact on property price than the effect of air pollution. The main contribution of this research is to improve developing country compensation models by applied measurement from regression analysis to identify factors with significant impacts, using property value change as proxy to measure the impact of the airport. For Example, in the case of Thailand, a compensation model should consider noise and air pollution as the main factors rather than consider only noise contour area. The higher weight on noise should be designed to reflect land use types. Furthermore the market value of property loss should be taken into account when designing a compensation package. The survey and regression method used in this study can be adapted for finding relevant factors and suggesting appropriate compensation for other environmental and infrastructure development projects.
    IATSS Research 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Sustainability science aims to solve pressing global challenges by integrating the natural sciences with the social sciences and the humanities. This also reflects the aims of IATSS. An interdisciplinary approach removes barriers, but a transdisciplinary approach additionally seeks to create a new, unified direction with a focus on solving problems, engaging a broad range of stakeholders outside academia. IATSS has been successful in removing barriers between specializations, but it must consider shifting from the interdisciplinary towards the transdisciplinary, and how to connect with a wider community of stakeholders. Scientific knowledge must be combined with other knowledge systems such as traditional and local knowledge, leading to a more effective interface between science, policy and society. Advanced methods and technology must be tailored to reflect local conditions and values—each transportation society is supported not only by technology and institutions but also by culture and patterns of behaviour. Population decline and ageing are among the greatest challenges facing Japan, and addressing them in the context of a transportation society will be an important issue on the agenda of IATSS. It will be critical to look not only at the physical, economic and social issues, but also to focus on people themselves. In Japan the development of renewable energy has accelerated since the Fukushima nuclear accident, but it needs to be linked to the broader rebuilding of resilient local communities. For IATSS the challenge is to consider transportation frameworks suitable for such compact cities and rural communities. Considering the future development of IATSS, I suggest promoting strategic participation at related international events, and building institutional links with existing networks. Rather than serving as a specialist journal, IATSS Research should look at traffic safety in a broad sense, and discuss visions for transportation societies as well as concrete research findings.
    IATSS Research 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Japan is now heading toward a population decrease and a highly aging society. The nationwide automobile dependency established over the past 50 years has affected the country’s road building policy and the formation of urban structure based on automobile usage. Now, Japan is facing serious mobility problems, especially among the elderly. This tendency is more prominent in local cities throughout the country. The solutions to improve mobility are found in three areas: the promotion of public transportation, bicycles, and compact cities. Utsunomiya City, a regional capital heavily dependent on automobile transportation, suffers from severe traffic congestion, a high traffic accident rate, high carbon dioxide emissions, and urban sprawl. In order to achieve the long-term objectives of becoming a sustainable city, it launched an ambitious mobility strategy. Utsunomiya City has been one of the front-runners in introducing a new light rail transit (LRT) system. The prospect of building the first modern LRT system in Japan is very promising at present. This paper attempts to look back at the history of LRT planning efforts and analyze the circumstances and background of various stakeholders and the perceptions of citizens. It also attempts to sort out the various issues and challenges that the city needs to solve in order to achieve the objective of becoming the first city to build a new LRT in Japan. Another solution to excessive automobile dependency is bicycles, which are a convenient and inexpensive transportation mode all over the world. In Japan, however, automobile-oriented transportation and urban policies have prevailed, leaving the bicycle long neglected. Still, recent years have seen the bicycle gain recognition as a healthy, environmentally friendly alternative to the automobile, especially after the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. Utsunomiya City has been actively pursuing a mobility policy of bicycle utilization since 2003 and is regarded as one of the leaders in its promotion. The potential success in Utsunomiya to overcome automobile dependency will make it a model for many local cities in Japan that suffer from similar problems.
    IATSS Research 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The year 2014 marks the 40th anniversary of IATSS. Therefore, the president expressed his view on the future direction of IATSS activities as the IATSS VISION in 2012. This paper aims to present the results of a survey conducted by the special advisory committee, which was organized to actualize the IATSS VISION, and consider next-generation mobility, society and IATSS activities. The current direction discussed in the committee is as outlined below. (1)The goal of IATSS activities should be “Global Safety on Traffic.”(2)The methodology should go beyond the existing “Interdisciplinary” approach.(3)The new viewpoint needs to transcend “Hardware and Software.”(4)The conventional “International Cooperation” process is no longer sufficient. The advisory committee plans to present the final report in the spring of 2015. Highlight The goal of IATSS activities should be “Global Safety on Traffic.” The methodology should go beyond the existing “Interdisciplinary” approach. The new viewpoint needs to transcend “Hardware and Software.” The conventional “International Cooperation” process is no longer sufficient. The advisory committee plans to present the final report in the spring of 2015.
    IATSS Research 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: •Urban transport policy develops over time, as cities evolve and priorities change•Early focus on major investment for cars, in roads and parking•Advanced cities promote sustainable modes & high quality streets: car use declines•There are ‘legacy’ issues in modelling and appraisal, linking back to car policies•Need to pay more attention to the wider socio-technical context of travel
    IATSS Research 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Currently, Japan is confronting several major socioeconomic changes, which in turn are the primary causes behind transportation issues surfacing in Japan. These changes in socioeconomics can be identified in the four categories of declining birthrate in an aging population, globalization, technological innovation, and improvements in standard of living. In private and public transportation, technological innovation may impact maintenance of the transportation infrastructure by complicating user behavior. Further, improvements in standard of living foster expectations of profit from demand for tourism even though these expectations are fraught with issues created by globalization. In terms of traffic safety, strategic measures against accidents are expected, with flags raised regarding changes in human behavior due to technological innovation, and suggestions to aim measures toward bicycle transportation through improved standards of living. By sufficiently investigating these socioeconomic factors that color Japan today and the transportation issues that they cause, other countries that may witness similar experiences may learn important lessons.
    IATSS Research 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper studies modes of safety education, that is, education required for the development of a safe and secure society (i.e., a resilient and sustainable society), particularly in the context of Japan. In addition, this paper aims to verify what kind of safety education should be provided through the new educational concept of "Education for Sustainable Development" (ESD). In recent years, Japan has suffered a number of serious incidents in school zones, cases of children being kidnapped or killed, as well as the damage caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake & Tsunami of March 11, 2011, and other natural disasters. Consequently, the safety and security of children has become the responsibility of society as a whole, not just of educators. Based on this awareness, this paper will discuss a new mode of safety education that can contribute to the design of mobility for the coming age. There are two main findings from this study. First, the paper identifies the need to provide multiple software support for existing safety education. Few safety education programs have sufficiently incorporated the perspective of understanding safety in a comprehensive manner, instead focusing on a particular area of traffic, disasters, or daily life. In light of this issue, this paper recognizes the importance of incorporating the perspective of problem-solving and participation-oriented ESD into a holistic understanding of safety education. Second, awareness surveys conducted by the author on parents and teachers revealed that the respondents demonstrated a high interest traffic safety relative to other safety education areas. It would thus appear to be possible to make "traffic" the starting point for safety education and then broaden the scope to daily life and disasters. The survey also clarified that related parties considered raising children's awareness to be the most important aspect in safety education. This paper concludes that it is imperative to make continued research efforts to present a new mode of safety education, an initiative that represents one of the important efforts in designing mobility for the future.
    IATSS Research 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The demand for improving the quality and efficiency of transportation service has been growing, and new technologies have been entering the market at a rapid pace. Creative thinking and approaches are increasingly important for governments in shaping their transportation policy and actions. This paper aims to discuss several challenges pertaining to the topic, including instant transportation, sharing transportation, fast transportation, resilient transportation, affordable transportation, and seamless transportation, and the lessons of several good practices taking place in Taiwan.
    IATSS Research 05/2014;