IATSS Research

Publisher: Elsevier

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ISSN 0386-1112

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  • Conditions
    • Authors pre-print on any website, including arXiv and RePEC
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    • Author's post-print must be released with a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License
    • Publisher last reviewed on 03/06/2015
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Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: In order to respond to new challenges in transportation and traffic problems, it is essential to enhance statistics in this field that provides the basis for policy researches. Many of the statistics in this field in Japan consist of “official statistics” created by the government. This paper gives a review of the current status of transportation and traffic statistics (hereinafter called “transportation statistics” in short) in Japan. Furthermore, the paper discusses challenges in such statistics in the new environment and the direction that statistics that should take in the future. For Japan’s transportation statistics to play vital roles in more sophisticated analyses, it is necessary to improve the environment that facilitates the use of microdata for analysis. It is also necessary to establish an environment where big data can be more easily used for compilation of official statistics and performing policy researches. To achieve this end, close cooperation among the government, academia, and businesses will be essential.
    IATSS Research 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.iatssr.2015.06.002
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    ABSTRACT: This paper aims to discuss the use of city- and transportation-related statistics in the formulation of transportation policies, focusing primarily on ensuring the healthy growth of cities and providing support for smooth economic activity in developing countries. For governments in developing and newly industrialized Asian countries, alleviating road traffic congestion represents one of the most pressing transportation policy needs. In Indonesia, for example, measures aimed at combating road traffic congestion in Jakarta were a key issue in last year's presidential elections. After detailing the close relationship between cities and transportation, this paper uses several case studies to explain the different statistical standards in developed, newly industrialized, and developing countries. The paper then discusses the statistics and analysis methods that play roles in proposing and evaluating policies and looks at the optimal performance indicators and statistics for policies, using case studies to offer concrete examples.
    IATSS Research 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.iatssr.2015.06.001
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    ABSTRACT: In 2013, 346 out of 616 fatal crashes in Louisiana were single vehicle crashes with Run-Off-Road (ROR) crashes being the most common type of single vehicle crash. In order to create effective countermeasures for reducing the number of fatal single vehicle ROR crashes, it is important to identify any associated key factors that can quantitatively assess the performance of roads, vehicles and humans. This research uses Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA), a multidimensional descriptive data analysis method that associates a combination of factors based on their relative distance in a two dimensional plane, to analyze eight years (2004–2011) of fatal ROR crashes in Louisiana. This method measures important contributing factors and their degree of association. The results revealed that drivers of lightweight trucks, drivers on undivided state highways, male drivers in passenger-vehicles at dawn, older female (65–74) drivers in non-passenger vehicles, older drivers facing hardship to yield in partial access control zones, and drivers with poor reaction time due to impaired driving were closely associated with fatal ROR crashes.
    IATSS Research 07/2015; 24. DOI:10.1016/j.iatssr.2015.07.001
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    ABSTRACT: This study focused on the mechanism of attracting funds to finance projects in the field of highway infrastructure construction through Public-Private Partnership (PPP). The basis and principles for development of the financial strategy of a project company were defined in this paper. The proposed financial strategy was developed on the basis of diversification of sources of funds and financing instruments with regard to the stages of the project life cycle. The parameters for development of the financial strategy were defined to improve the mechanisms of attraction of the capital for the project and increase the capacity of the project company to pay debts. The proposed financial strategy can be taken as a basis for development of the financial strategy for any project implemented through PPP. The capital market is not stable; therefore, in addition, an algorithm was proposed for more precise selection of sources of financial resources.
    IATSS Research 05/2015; 33. DOI:10.1016/j.iatssr.2015.05.002
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    ABSTRACT: For this study, we performed a variety of analyses using the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis' Integrated Driver Database with traffic accident and violation records. The database integrates driver management data and road traffic accident statistics data, making it possible to explore the relationships among driver attributes and road traffic accident characteristics in considerable detail.By controlling our compilation conditions and refining our sets of driver attributes, our analysis showed that drivers who experience accidents drive more carefully immediately after an accident, revealed high accident rates among drivers who have experienced certain violations, and produced other findings that could constitute a foundation for developing individual driver-targeted measures. Our analysis of large age groups, meanwhile, showed that drivers with a history of numerous accidents or apprehensions/violations are more likely to cause accidents.The Integrated Driver Database with traffic accident and violation records boasts an expansive scope, covering all of the 81. million licensed drivers in Japan, and features 200 variables pertaining to driver attributes, accidents, and violations. In addition to letting users refine their focuses by driver age, sex, and place of residence, the database also enables analyses that account for lifestyle-related variables like when drivers received their licenses and whether drivers have moved to new addresses. The sheer diversity of driver attributes in the database makes it a promising resource for formulating driver-targeted measures.
    IATSS Research 05/2015; 39(1). DOI:10.1016/j.iatssr.2015.05.001
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    ABSTRACT: With societal changes in recent years, issues related to child safety in public places have become more diverse and more complex. Every age has its hardships, and an environment in which children develop into people who overcome such hardships is necessarily one that is not completely free of danger. Nevertheless, there is tendency toward an excessive emphasis on safety. The children of today have been driven indoors, deprived of spaces for group play and of natural environments that encourage a diversity of experience. The development of IT media has further reinforced this tendency. These conditions can be said to produce bullying, abuse, isolation, and a lack of ambition. It is critical that children's living environments, especially public spaces for playing and learning, have a porous structure with numerous routes of escape.
    IATSS Research 02/2015; 4(2). DOI:10.1016/j.iatssr.2015.02.001
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    ABSTRACT: School bus crashes are rare in comparison to other crash types, but considering all crashes that occur in and around school buses, they begin to become a noticeable problem and one that tends to attract national attention. As defined by the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), a school bus related crash is a crash that either involves a school bus or a crash where the presence of a school bus is considered as a major contributing factor. Ten years of data indicate that the number of fatal school bus related crashes has remained nearly stagnant despite an increase in the number vehicle safety systems available on the market. The findings also highlight the importance of protecting the non-bus occupants since they are the most likely to incur a serious or fatal injury in the event of a crash. As the most vulnerable user group, pedestrians (typically school-aged children) are especially at risk when crossing the road while boarding or exiting a school bus. Until new technologies for reducing school bus related crashes are designed and implemented, school transportation safety can be improved by increasing awareness of school bus stop laws and by implementing existing transportation safety initiatives at school bus stop locations.
    IATSS Research 01/2015; 118(2). DOI:10.1016/j.iatssr.2014.12.003
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    ABSTRACT: This paper introduces a method of factor decomposition analysis for analyzing the importance of the factors that affect the volume of transportation energy consumption. In choosing the influencing factors from the many possibilities, the paper introduces an indicator analysis to evaluate and select the most important affecting factors. Based on the decomposition results, the paper helps interpret the underlying causes of transportation energy consumption. At the same time, the paper also suggests corresponding policy implications for the improvement of transportation energy efficiency.
    IATSS Research 10/2014; 38(2). DOI:10.1016/j.iatssr.2014.10.001
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    ABSTRACT: The protection of children in motor vehicle crashes has improved since the introduction of child restraint systems. However, motor vehicle crashes remain one of the top leading causes of death for children. Today, computer-aided engineering is an essential part of vehicle development and it is anticipated that safety assessments will increasingly rely on simulations. Therefore, this study presents a review of important biomechanical aspects for the safety of children in cars, including child human body models, for scenarios ranging from on-road driving, emergency maneuvers, and pre-crash events to crash loading. The review is divided into four parts: Crash safety, On-road driving for forward facing children, Numerical whole body models, and Discussion and future outlook.
    IATSS Research 09/2014; 38(2). DOI:10.1016/j.iatssr.2014.09.001