# European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics (EUR J DRUG METAB PH )

## Description

The European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics addresses all aspects of pre-clinical and clinical pharmacokinetics, including drug disposition, drug metabolism, drug transport, drug interactions, bioavailability and biopharmacy. The journal welcomes publications in the field of pharmacokinetic modeling. Analytical methods validation and bioequivalence studies will not be considered for publication. The journal publishes original articles, short preliminary communications, review articles on special topics, and conference proceedings. The European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics publishes four issues a year.

• Impact factor
1.31
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Impact factor
.
Year
• 5-year impact
0.84
• Cited half-life
0.00
• Immediacy index
0.30
• Eigenfactor
0.00
• Article influence
0.19
• Website
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics website
• Other titles
European journal of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics
• ISSN
0378-7966
• OCLC
2181264
• Material type
Periodical
• Document type
Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

## Publications in this journal

• ##### Article: Metabolism profiling of amino-noscapine
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ABSTRACT: Amino-noscapine is a promising noscapine derivative undergoing R&D as an efficient anti-tumor drug. In vitro phase I metabolism incubation system was employed. In vitro samples were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In vitro recombinant CYP isoforms screening was used to identify the drug-metabolizing enzymes involved in the metabolism of amino-noscapine. Multiple metabolics were formed, including the formation of metabolite undergoing cleavage of methylenedioxy group, hydroxylated metabolites, demethylated metabolites, and metabolites undergoing C–C cleavage. Nearly, all the CYP isoforms were involved in the metabolism of metabolites II, III, VII, IX, and X. CYP1A1 was demonstrated to be the major CYP isoform for the formation of metabolites IV and V. CYP1A1 and CYP3A4 mainly catalyzed the formation of metabolite VI. The metabolic formation of VIII was mainly catalyzed by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. CYP3A4 was the main enzyme for the formation of XI. CYP2C9 mainly catalyzed the generation of metabolite XII. In conclusion, the metabolic pathway of amino-noscapine was elucidated in the present study using in vitro phase I incubation experiment, including the structural elucidation of metabolites and involved phase I drug-metabolizing enzymes. This information was helpful for the R&D of amino-noscapine.
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 12/2014;
• ##### Article: Evaluation of clinical bradycardiac effect and respiratory adverse effect of β-blocking agents in coronary computed tomography angiography based on theoretical analysis.
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ABSTRACT: β-blocking agents are used for patients with tachycardia to improve the image quality of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). In this study, we analyzed the clinical bradycardiac effects and the adverse respiratory effects of five β-blocking agents (landiolol, esmolol, propranolol, metoprolol and atenolol) used for CCTA. The changes of the occupancy binding to β1 or β2 receptor of these drugs were calculated based on the receptor occupancy theory. Thereafter, we predicted both the rate of heart rate decline ([Symbol: see text]HR) as a clinical effect and the rate of decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s ([Symbol: see text]FEV1) as an adverse effect, by using the ternary complex model. The results showed that the drugs with [Symbol: see text]HR greater than 10 %, necessary for CCTA, were as follows: landiolol at 13.5 %, propranolol at 11.0 %, and atenolol at 22.6 %. The [Symbol: see text]HR values at the end of CCTA for those three drugs were 0.3, 6.7, and 22.9 %, respectively. It is desirable for the bradycardiac effect to disappear at the end of CCTA. Therefore, landiolol is thought to be a preferable drug. On the other hand, [Symbol: see text]FEV1 at start and end of CCTA for those three drugs was 0.04-2.5, 34.9-40.3, and 6.0-6.1 %, respectively. Our results suggested that landiolol has the most appropriate effect and safety for patients with tachycardia who are undergoing a CCTA procedure.
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 12/2014;
• ##### Article: Initial dosing regimen of vancomycin to achieve early therapeutic plasma concentration in critically ill patients with MRSA infection based on APACHE II score
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ABSTRACT: It is essential to assure the efficacy of antimicrobials at the initial phase of therapy. However, increasing the volume of distribution (Vd) of hydrophilic antimicrobials in critically ill patients leads to reduced antimicrobial concentration in plasma and tissue, which may adversely affect the efficacy of that therapy. The aim of the present study was to establish a theoretical methodology for setting an appropriate level for initial vancomycin therapy in individual patients based on Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score. We obtained data from patients who received intravenous vancomycin for a suspected or definitively diagnosed Gram-positive bacterial infection within 72 h after admission to the intensive care unit. The Vd and elimination half-life (t 1/2) of vancomycin values were calculated using the Bayesian method, and we investigated the relationship between them and APACHE II score. There were significant correlations between APACHE II scores and Vd/actual body weight (ABW), as well as t 1/2 (r = 0.58, p r = 0.74, p t 1/2 of vancomycin could be estimated using the following regression equations using APACHE II score. $${\text{Vd/ABW}}\;{ = }\;0.018\; \times \;{\text{APACHE}}\;{\text{II}}\;{\text{score}}\; + \;0.63$$ $$t_{1/2} = \, 0.70 \, \times {\text{ APACHE}}\;{\text{II}}\;{\text{score }} + \, 4.58$$ We found that APACHE II score was a useful index for predicting the Vd and t 1/2 of vancomycin, and used that to establish an initial vancomycin dosing regimen comprised of initial dose and administration interval for individual patients.
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 12/2014;
• ##### Article: Frequencies of UGT1A4*2 (P24T) and *3 (L48V) and their effects on serum concentrations of lamotrigine
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ABSTRACT: The gene encoding uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A4 shows considerable polymorphism. Several common drugs are metabolised by UGT1A4, among them lamotrigine (LTG). Experimental and clinical studies suggest that certain variants of UGT1A4 are associated with altered enzyme activity. However, results are conflicting. This clinical study aimed to investigate the frequencies of two common UGT1A4 variants, *2 (P24T) and *3 (L48V), and their potential effects on serum concentrations of LTG. The *2 variant was associated with a trend towards higher serum concentrations, while the *3 variant was associated with significantly lower serum concentrations of LTG. The calculated allele frequencies were in the same range as in earlier studies on Caucasian populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study suggesting a clinical effect of UGT1A4*2. Further study is needed to confirm this finding.
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 12/2014;
• ##### Article: The optimal oral dose selection of ibandronate in Japanese patients with osteoporosis based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties.
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European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 12/2014;
• ##### Article: The role of CYP2C9 genetic polymorphism in carvedilol O-desmethylation in vitro.
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ABSTRACT: We aimed at investigating the role of CYP2C9 in carvedilol O-desmethylation and identifying the effect of 35 CYP2C9 allelic variants we found in Chinese Han population on the in vitro metabolism of carvedilol. Recombinant CYP2C9 and CYP2D6 microsomes of the wild type were used to test and verify the enzymes involved in carvedilol O-desmethylation. Recombinant CYP2C9 microsomes of distinguished genotypes were used to characterize the corresponding enzyme activity toward carvedilol. 2-100 μM carvedilol was incubated for 30 min at 37 °C. The products were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography. CYP2C9 plays a certain role in carvedilol metabolism. Compared with wild-type CYP2C9*1, the intrinsic clearance (V max/K m) values of all variants toward carvedilol O-desmethylation were significantly altered. The variants exhibited significantly decreased values (from 30 to 99.8 %) due to increased K m and/or decreased V max values. We conclude that recombinant system could be used to investigate the enzymes involved in drug metabolism and these findings complement the database where CYP2C9 polymorphism interacts with biotransformation of exogenous substances like drugs and toxins.
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 12/2014;
• ##### Article: Placental profiling of UGT1A enzyme expression and activity and interactions with preeclampsia at term.
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ABSTRACT: Placental UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes have critical roles in hormone, nutrient, chemical balance and fetal exposure during pregnancy. Placental UGT1A isoforms were profiled and differences between preeclamptic (PE) and non-PE placental UGT expression determined. In third trimester villous placenta, UGT1A1, 1A4, 1A6 and 1A9 were expressed and active in all specimens (n = 10), but UGT1A3, 1A5, 1A7, 1A8 and 1A10 were absent. The UGT1A activities were comparable to human liver microsomes per milligram, but placental microsome yields were only 2 % of liver (1 mg/g of tissue vs. 45 mg/g of tissue). For successful PCR, placental collection and processing within 60 min from delivery, including DNAse and ≥300 ng of RNA in reverse transcription were essential and snap freezing in liquid nitrogen immediately was the best preservation method. Although UGT1A6 mRNA was lower in PE (P < 0.001), there were no other significant effects on UGT mRNA, protein or activities. A more comprehensive tissue sample set is required for confirmation of PE interactions with UGT. Placental UGT1A enzyme expression patterns are similar to the liver and a detoxicative role for placental UGT1A is inferred.
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 12/2014;
• ##### Article: Safety and pharmacokinetics of the CIME combination of drugs and their metabolites after a single oral dosing in healthy volunteers.
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ABSTRACT: This phase I, pilot clinical study was designed to evaluate the safety and the pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of the CIME (Metabolic Identity Card) combination of ten drugs, with a view to its use as a phenotyping cocktail. Ten healthy Caucasian subjects were orally dosed with the CIME combination (caffeine-CYP1A2, repaglinide-CYP2C8, tolbutamide-CYP2C9, omeprazole-CYP2C19, dextromethorphan-CYP2D6, midazolam-CYP3A, acetaminophen-UGT1A1, 6&9 and 2B15, digoxin-P-gp, rosuvastatin-OATP1B1&3 and memantine-active renal transport). Blood was collected over 3 days and on day 7. CIME probes and relevant metabolites were assayed by LC-MS/MS and PK parameters were calculated. Main results were: (1) good safety with reversible mild or moderate adverse effects, (2) an analytical method able to quantify simultaneously the 10 probes and the major metabolites, (3) calculation of PK parameters for all probes in general agreed with published values, and (4) identification of the low CYP2D6 metabolizer. This pilot study showed that the CIME combination was well tolerated and that its pharmacokinetics could be accurately measured in healthy volunteers. This combination can now confidently be checked for sensitivity and specificity and for lack of interaction to be validated as a phenotyping cocktail.
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 12/2014;
• ##### Article: CYP3A5*3 and MDR1 C3435T are influencing factors of inter-subject variability in rupatadine pharmacokinetics in healthy Chinese volunteers.
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ABSTRACT: Rupatadine (RUP) is an oral antihistamine and platelet-activating factor antagonist and is shown as the substrate of CYP3A5 and P-gp. The significant interindividual differences of CYP3A5 and P-gp often cause bioavailability differences of some clinical drugs. The present study is aimed to evaluate the effect of genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A5 and MDR1 on RUP pharmacokinetics in healthy male Chinese volunteer subjects. Blood samples were collected from 36 subjects before and after a single, oral RUP 10 mg dose. A PCR-RFLP assay was used to genotype CYP3A5*3 and assess MDR1 C3435T variation. A validated LC-MS/MS method quantified plasma RUP concentration. The relationship between RUP plasma concentration, pharmacokinetic parameters, and polymorphic alleles (CYP3A5 and MDR1) were assessed. Plasma RUP concentrations were lower for CYP3A5*1/*1 carriers than for CYP3A5*3/*3 and CYP3A5*1/*3 carriers. Mean C max, AUC(0-t) and AUC(0-∞) were significantly lower, and the CLz and Vd were significantly higher in the CYP3A5 wild-type group, than in the CYP3A5 mutated group. MDR1 CT and MDR1 TT carriers had lower plasma RUP concentrations than MDR1 CC carriers. The mean C max, AUC0-t, AUC0-∞ and T max were significantly lower in the TT group than in the CC and CT groups. The mean CLz was higher in the TT group than in the CC and CT groups, but not significantly. These results suggest that CYP3A5 and MDR1 may play a key role in the variability of RUP metabolism and transport, respectively. CYP3A5 and MDR1 polymorphisms may be the main explanation for the differences observed in RUP pharmacokinetics, and therefore may provide a rationale for safe and effective clinical use of RUP. Our research lays down a solid theory foundation to guide the safe and effective clinical use of RUP and a route to achieve individualized therapy.
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 11/2014;
• ##### Article: In vitro metabolism of bencycloquidium bromide and its inhibitory effects on human P450 isoenzymes: implication of CYP2D6, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4/5.
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ABSTRACT: Bencycloquidium bromide (BCQB) is a novel selective muscarinic M1/M3 receptor antagonist with potent therapeutic effects on rhinitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The metabolism of BCQB has been investigated in human liver microsomes and human recombinant P450 to elucidate the P450 isozymes responsible for its metabolism in human. Also, the metabolism pathway and the potency of BCQB in inhibiting CYP's various isozymes in humans were investigated. The main biotransformation route of BCQB was NADPH-dependent oxidation. BCQB was metabolized oxidatively to four metabolites that were identified as monohydroxylated derivatives of BCQB at the phenyl and pentyl moieties of the molecule. The results from in vitro inhibition studies indicated that quinidine inhibited 86 % of metabolism of BCQB, while ticlopidine and ketoconazole inhibited 39 and 29 %, respectively. Inhibition studies with selective chemical inhibitors and incubations with human recombinant P450 isoforms demonstrated that the oxidative metabolism of BCQB is mediated by CYP2D6, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4/5, whereas BCQB had no inhibitory effect on any other P450 isoenzyme in humans.
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 11/2014;
• ##### Article: Inhibitory action of Epilobium hirsutum extract and its constituent ellagic acid on drug-metabolizing enzymes.
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ABSTRACT: Epilobium hirsutum (EH) is a medicinal plant for treating various diseases. Despite its wide usage, there is no available information about its potential influences on drug metabolism. The present study was undertaken to determine the in vivo effects of EH on hepatic CYP2B, CYP2C, CYP2D, and CYP3A enzymes that are primarily involved in drug metabolism. Male Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with EH water extract (EHWE) and ellagic acid (EA) at a daily dose of 37.5 and 20 mg/kg, respectively, for 9 days and hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes were assessed at activity, protein and mRNA levels. Erythromycin N-demethylase activity was inhibited by 53 and 21 % in EHWE- and EA-treated rats, respectively. Benzphetamine N-demethylase and 7-benzyloxyresorufin-O-debenzylase activities were decreased by 53 and 43 %, and 57 and 57 % in EHWE-and EA-treated rats, respectively. Moreover, protein levels of CYP2B1, CYP2C6, CYP2D2, and CYP3A1 also decreased by 55, 15, 33, and 82 % as a result of EHWE treatment of rats, respectively. Similarly, CYP2B1, CYP2C6, CYP2D2, and CYP3A1 protein levels decreased by 62, 63, 49, and 37 % with EA treatment, respectively. qRT-PCR analyses also showed that mRNA levels of these enzymes were significantly inhibited with bothEHWE and EA treatments. In conclusion, inhibition of drug clearances leading to drug toxicity because of the lowered activity and expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes might be observed in the people who used EH as complementary herbal remedy that might be contributed by its EA content.
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 11/2014;
• ##### Article: Pharmacokinetic analysis of the FAK scaffold inhibitor C4 in dogs.
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ABSTRACT: Inhibition of focal adhesion kinase-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 complex by C4 was previously shown to reduce tumor growth alone and synergistically with other chemotherapeutic agents in animal tumor models. Single and multiple dose IV and oral dosing studies were performed in dogs to determine C4 pharmacokinetics. C4 was administered to 4 dogs at 1.25 or 2.50 mg/kg IV, or 7.50 mg/kg oral gavage. Single- (IV and oral) and multiple- (IV) dose pharmacokinetic samples were collected on days 1 and 3 at pre-dose and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 120, 144, and 168 h post-dose. C4 concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectral detection with a limit of quantitation of 2.50 pg/mL. Pharmacokinetics of C4 was characterized by a 3-compartment model with linear distributional and elimination clearances using Phoenix 64 WinNonlin 6.3. Mean C4 plasma concentration-time profiles revealed a triexponential decline following either IV or oral administration, independent of dose with no accumulation. For the 2.5 mg/kg dose, the median half-life was ~21 h. Median C max and area under the curve (AUC0-24) were similar for days 1 and 3. Oral bioavailability for formulations of PBS, TPGS, Maalox(®), and Pepcid(®) was greatest with TPGS (45 %), followed by Maalox(®) (42 %), Pepcid(®) (37 %), and PBS (30 %). The pharmacokinetic study revealed that C4 has linear pharmacokinetics and does not accumulate following multiple-dose administration. Characterization of C4 pharmacokinetics provides a better understanding of the novel targeted agent, which will help facilitate further development of C4.
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 11/2014;
• ##### Article: CYP3A4-based drug-drug interaction: CYP3A4 substrates' pharmacokinetic properties and ketoconazole dose regimen effect.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to assess the magnitude of the CYP3A4 inhibitory effect of 2 dosing regimens of ketoconazole and the influence of the pharmacokinetic properties of the CYP3A4 substrate on the extent of the substrate exposure increase. For this purpose, a clinical study was conducted and PBPK modeling simulations were performed. A crossover study was conducted in healthy subjects. The study was designed to compare the effects of different regimens of reversible CYP3A4 inhibitors, i.e., ketoconazole 400 mg OD, ketoconazole 200 mg BID, on two CYP3A4 substrates, alprazolam and midazolam, reflecting different pharmacokinetic properties in terms of first-pass effect and elimination. In parallel, time-based simulations were performed using the Simcyp population-based Simulator to address the usefulness of modeling to assess interaction clinical study design with CYP3A4 substrates. Comparison of the OD versus BID regimens for ketoconazole showed an opposite trend for the 2 substrates: BID (200 mg) dosing regimen provided the maximal clearance inhibition for alprazolam, while it was OD (400 mg) dosing regimen for midazolam. However, these effects are moderate despite the well-known pharmacokinetic differences between these substrates, suggesting that these differences are not enough. In the other way round, these investigations show how two CYP3A4 substrates can be different without leading to a major impact of the ketoconazole dosing regimen. The clinical findings are consistent with the Simcyp predictions, in particular the opposite trend observed with midazolam and alprazolam and the ketoconazole dosing regimen. These clinical investigations showed the influence of the CYP3A4 substrates' pharmacokinetic properties and the relevance of ketoconazole dose regimen on the magnitude of the interaction ratios. In addition, PBPK Simcyp simulations demonstrated how they can be used to help clinical study design assessment to capture the maximum effect.
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 11/2014;
• ##### Article: Correlation of elimination fraction area under the curve with total body clearance.
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ABSTRACT: This study attempted to determine the area under the curve ([Formula: see text]), which corresponds to the sum of all elimination processes correlated with the total clearance value. The study attempted to determine the [Formula: see text] based on the coordinates known from classic non-compartmental pharmacokinetics for a single administration of the drug. 318 pharmacokinetics profiles were used for the analysis, obtained from 220 healthy subjects over ten studies. Pharmacokinetic calculations were performed with the use of Phoenix™ WinNonlin(®) 6.3. The leave-one-out (LOO) method was used for model cross-validation. Squared cross-validated correlation coefficient (Q (2)) parameter and the difference between Q (2) and R (2) were calculated as a measure of the internal performance and model predictive ability. A high correlation between the clearance value and [Formula: see text] was demonstrated (R (2) > 0.65). However, only in the case of four studies was it possible to validate the linear model using the leave-one-out validation procedure (R (2) > 0.86). The present study proposed a method of graphical and mathematical determination of the area under the curve for the drug elimination process after a single dose of the drug. Furthermore, the concept of calculating the statistical moments and mean elimination time (MET) only for elimination processes based on [Formula: see text] was presented. The result of this work is also a new method of determining the half-life of elimination phase based on the MET value.
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 10/2014;
• ##### Article: Preclinical assessment of Orteronel(®), a CYP17A1 enzyme inhibitor in rats.
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ABSTRACT: Orteronel (TAK-700) is a novel and selective inhibitor of CYP17A1, which is expressed in testicular, adrenal and prostate tumor tissues. Orteronel is currently in Phase-III clinical development for metastatic castration-resistant prostate patients. The objective of the study is to assess the permeability, metabolic stability (in various preclinical and human liver microsomes), identify the major CYPs involved in the metabolism of Orteronel. We have also studied the pharmacokinetics and excretion of Orteronel in Sprague-Dawley rats. Orteronel was found to be stable in various liver microsomes tested. The half-life (t ½) of Orteronel with intravenous (i.v.) route was found to be 1.65 ± 0.22 h. The clearance and volume of distribution by i.v. route for Orteronel were found to be 27.5 ± 3.09 mL/min/kg and 3.94 ± 0.85 L/kg, respectively. The absorption of Orteronel was rapid, with maximum concentrations of drug in plasma of 614 ± 76.4, 1,764 ± 166, 4,652 ± 300 and 17,518 ± 3,178 ng/mL attained at 0.38, 0.75, 0.50 and 0.83 h, respectively, after oral administration of Orteronel at 5, 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg as a suspension. In the dose proportional oral pharmacokinetic study, the mean t ½ by oral route was found to be ~3.5 h and bioavailability ranged between 69 and 89 %. The primary route of elimination for Orteronel is urine.
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 10/2014;
• ##### Article: Pharmacokinetics of the antiepileptic drug levetiracetam in healthy Japanese and Caucasian volunteers following intravenous administration.
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ABSTRACT: The intravenous (iv) formulation of levetiracetam has been available in clinical practice worldwide for several years, but not in Japan. Two open-label studies were conducted: Study A evaluated the bioequivalence of iv and oral tablet formulations in healthy Japanese volunteers; and Study B subsequently compared the pharmacokinetics of iv levetiracetam in healthy Japanese and Caucasian volunteers. Study A had a randomised, two-way crossover design; a single 1,500 mg levetiracetam dose was administered as a 15-min iv infusion and as 3 × 500 mg oral tablets to Japanese volunteers. In Study B, 1,500 mg levetiracetam was administered as single and repeated 15-min iv infusions to Japanese and Caucasian volunteers. Overall, 26/27 volunteers completed Study A and 32/32 (16 Japanese; 16 Caucasian) completed Study B. In Study A, the point estimate and 90 % confidence interval (CI) for the geometric least squares mean (LSM) ratio (iv vs oral) were fully included within the acceptance range for bioequivalence (0.85-1.25) for the area under plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to last quantifiable observation (AUClast 0.97 [0.95, 0.99]), but not for the maximum plasma concentration (C max 1.64 [1.47, 1.83]). In Study B, after a single iv infusion, the point estimates (90 % CI) for the geometric LSM ratio (Japanese vs Caucasian) for body weight-normalised C max and AUClast were 1.21 (1.07, 1.36) and 0.97 (0.90, 1.04), respectively. Corresponding values after repeated iv infusions were C max,ss 1.01 (0.91, 1.12) and AUCτ,ss 0.89 (0.83, 0.96). Levetiracetam was well tolerated in both studies. Study A did not demonstrate the bioequivalence of single doses of levetiracetam 1,500 mg administered as an iv infusion and as oral tablets in healthy Japanese adults. Study B, however, showed that pharmacokinetic profiles were generally similar between Japanese and Caucasian adults after single and repeated iv infusions of levetiracetam 1,500 mg.
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 10/2014;
• ##### Article: Tissue distribution and ontogeny of multidrug resistance protein 2, a phosphatidylcholine translocator, in rats.
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ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mdr2), encoded by ATP-binding cassette b4 (Abcb4), serves as a phospholipid flippase that is indispensable for phosphatidylcholine translocation. However, little was known about the regulation of Mdr2 in Sprague-Dawley rats, although they are commonly used for pre-clinical investigation as well as mechanistic study. Present study aims at determining the tissue distribution, gender difference and ontogeny of Mdr2 in rats on both gene and protein levels. Results showed that Mdr2 was highly expressed in liver, modestly enriched in brain and testis, and less distributed in gastrointestinal tracts. Gender-divergent and male-dominated distribution was observed in the Mdr2 mRNA expression of liver and generative organs. Developmental pattern of rat Mdr2 on protein level was not exactly consistent with that on mRNA level. In conclusion, there was a considerable distribution of rat Mdr2 in the brain, testis and intestine besides liver, and the ontogeny of Mdr2 performed in an age-dependent pattern with the post-transcriptional regulation.
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 10/2014;
• ##### Article: Comparative pharmacokinetics and bile transformation of R-enantiomer and racemic bambuterol after single-dose intravenous, oral administration in rats and beagle dogs.
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ABSTRACT: This study was to compare pharmacokinetics and bile transformation of R-enantiomer bambuterol with its racemate. Pharmacokinetics of R-enantiomer was investigated after single-dose intravenous and three doses of oral administration to rats and beagle dogs. To compare the pharmacokinetics with racemic bambuterol, the same oral doses of racemic bambuterol were also administrated; the blood and bile samples were collected by cannulation. A validated LC-MS/MS method was used to assess the level of bambuterol in plasma and bile. After single intravenous administration, no significant differences were observed between the two drugs in pharmacokinetic data. After oral dosing of R-bambuterol, the AUCs of R-enantiomer presented linear correlation. After same oral dosing of R-enantiomer and its racemate, all the pharmacokinetic parameters were equivalent. However, the clearance and apparent distribution had different results due to species and administration route difference. The bile transformation of these two compounds was similar and implicated that liver transformation accounted for the major metabolism of them. The bioavailability of R-enantiomer and racemate were comparative and relatively high in beagle dogs. Thus, R-enantiomer had a comparative pharmacokinetic profile and bile transformation with racemic bambuterol in rats and beagle dogs. These findings provided references for further clinical study.
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 10/2014;
• ##### Article: Herb-drug interaction between irinotecan and psoralidin-containing herbs.
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ABSTRACT: Herb-drug interaction strongly limits the clinical utilization of herbs and drugs. Irinotecan-induced diarrhea is closely related with the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1-catalyzed glucuronidation of SN-38 which has been widely regarded to be the toxic substance basis of irinotecan. The present study aims to determine the influence of herbal component psoralidin toward the toxicity of irinotecan. In vitro inhibition potential of psoralidin toward the glucuronidation of SN-38 was firstly investigated using human intestinal microsomes incubation system. Dose-dependent inhibition of psoralidin toward SN-38 glucuronidation was observed. Furthermore, Dixon plot showed that the intersection point was located in the second quadrant, indicating the competitive inhibition of psoralidin toward the glucuronidation of SN-38. Through the data fitting using competitive inhibition fitting equation, the inhibition kinetic parameter (K i) was calculated to be 5.8 μM. The translation of these in vitro data into the in vivo situation showed that pre-treatment with psoralidin significantly increased the toxicity of irinotecan, as indicated by the increased body weight loss and more severe colon histology damage. All these data indicated the herb-drug interaction between irinotecan and psoralidin-containing herbs.
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 09/2014;
• ##### Article: Tolerability and pharmacokinetics of disodium folinate following single intravenous doses in healthy Chinese subjects: an open-label, randomized, single-center study.
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ABSTRACT: The tolerability and pharmacokinetics of disodium folinate may vary with different races, and these variations might result in different outcomes. This study assessed the tolerability and pharmacokinetics of disodium folinate following single intravenous doses in healthy Chinese subjects, with gender factor also taken into account. Subjects were randomized to receive a single dose of disodium folinate at 20, 200, or 300 mg/m(2) administered intravenously over a time period of 10 min. Sequential blood samples were collected at regular intervals over 24 h after dosing and were analyzed using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Pharmacokinetic parameters, including C max, AUC0-t, t 1/2, V d, and CL, were calculated using non-compartmental models. Tolerability was assessed by collecting adverse events (AEs) and monitoring vital signs, physical examinations, laboratory tests, and electrocardiograms. Following a single intravenous administration of disodium folinate 20, 200, and 300 mg/m(2), the mean (standard deviation) pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows: C max = 5.18 (0.58), 47.80 (10.10), and 69.93 (9.72) µg/mL; AUC0-t = 25.85 (3.36), 194.53 (30.18), and 355.26 (35.31) µg h/mL; AUC0-∞ = 30.24 (6.19), 215.43 (27.34), and 417.88 (54.81) µg h/mL; t 1/2 = 8.77 (2.57), 7.64 (1.81), and 9.08 (1.64) h; CL = 1.12 (0.18), 1.55(0.25), and 0.78 (0.09) L/h; V d = 13.75 (2.61), 17.38 (6.44), and 10.05 (1.49) L, respectively. The mean C max, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ increased in a dose-proportional manner. No significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters were noted by gender. The most common AEs reported were mild redness at the injection site and neurological symptoms (headache, dizziness, and fatigue).
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 08/2014;