Agricultural Water Management Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Elsevier Masson

Journal description

The journal is concerned with the publication of scientific papers of international significance to the management of agricultural water. The scope includes such diverse aspects as irrigation and drainage of cultivated areas, collection and storage of precipitation water in relation to soil properties and vegetation cover; the role of ground and surface water in nutrient cycling, water balance problems, exploitation and protection of water resources, control of flooding, erosion and desert creep, water quality and pollution both by, and of, agricultural water, effects of land uses on water resources, water for recreation in rural areas, and economic and legal aspects of water use. Basic soil-water-plant relationships will be considered only as far as is relevant to agricultural water management.

Current impact factor: 2.33

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 2.333
2012 Impact Factor 2.203
2011 Impact Factor 1.998
2010 Impact Factor 1.782
2009 Impact Factor 2.016
2008 Impact Factor 1.646
2007 Impact Factor 1.388
2006 Impact Factor 1.122
2005 Impact Factor 0.841
2004 Impact Factor 0.835
2003 Impact Factor 0.865
2002 Impact Factor 0.672
2001 Impact Factor 0.526
2000 Impact Factor 0.309
1999 Impact Factor 0.333
1998 Impact Factor 0.273
1997 Impact Factor 0.32
1996 Impact Factor 0.343
1995 Impact Factor 0.341
1994 Impact Factor 0.258
1993 Impact Factor 0.122
1992 Impact Factor 0.291

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 2.55
Cited half-life 6.30
Immediacy index 0.41
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.68
Website Agricultural Water Management website
Other titles Agricultural water management (Online)
ISSN 0378-3774
OCLC 38523106
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Elsevier Masson

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • On authors personal or authors institutions server
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • 'Elsevier Masson' is an imprint of 'Elsevier'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: High salinity and macronutrient deficiencies are two important limitations of coastal saline soils. The present study focused on the changes in electrical conductivity (EC), and the redistribution of water soluble carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), and absorbable phosphorus (P) during the reclamation of coastal saline soil using different amendments. Eight soil treatments were tested: cotton straw powder (J), domestic sewage sludge (W), sewage sludge + cotton residue (J + W), beach sand (S), cotton straw powder + beach sand (J + S), domestic sewage sludge + beach sand (W + S), domestic sewage sludge + cotton residue + beach sand (J + W + S), and a control treatment (CK). Triplicate soil samples for each treatment were initially treated once with underground saltwater (with or without bacterial manure). After the first month of incubation, irrigation was conducted weekly. EC measurements in different soil layers showed that sewage sludge was the best amendment for reducing soil EC, while cotton straw powder had no significant effect. Concentrations of N and C increased with soil depth, while the highest P concentration was observed in the uppermost soil. Soil amended with organic matter showed the highest P concentrations, and P availability increased with the application of all amendments except sand, which had no significant effect. The compound treatments had more positive impacts on N availability than did single amendments; however, their effects on P concentration were minimal. The results indicated that sewage sludge was the most effective amendment for reclaiming coastal saline soil and improving the availability of macronutrients.
    Agricultural Water Management 09/2015; 159. DOI:10.1016/j.agwat.2015.06.002
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A prescription map is a set of instructions that controls a variable rate irrigation (VRI) system. These maps, which may be based on prior yield, soil texture, topography, or soil electrical conductivity data, are often manually applied at the beginning of an irrigation season and remain static. The problem with static prescription maps is that they ignore spatiotemporal changes in crop water status. In a two-year study (2012 and 2013), a plant feedback system, including a wireless sensor network of infrared thermometers (IRTs), was used to develop dynamic prescription maps to accomplish adaptive irrigation scheduling for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). One-half of a center pivot field was divided into manually and plant feedback-controlled irrigation treatment plots. Irrigation treatments were at three levels, 75, 50 and 25 percent of full as defined by either replenishment of crop water use to field capacity or by the equivalent threshold of the IRT sensed crop water stress. The system accepted user input to control irrigation for the manual treatment plots (I75M, I50M, and I25M), and calculated and compared a thermal stress index for each plant feedback-controlled treatment plot (I75C, I50C and I25C) with a pre-determined threshold for automated irrigation scheduling. The effectiveness of the plant feedback irrigation scheduling system was evaluated by comparing measured lint yield, crop water use (ETc), and water use efficiency (WUE) with the manually scheduled treatment plots. Results for both years indicated that average lint yields were similar between the manual and plant feedback-control plots at the I75 level (181 and 182 g m−2, respectively, in 2012; 115 and 103 g m−2, respectively, in 2013) and I50 level (146 and 164 g m−2, respectively, in 2012; 95 and 117 g m−2, respectively, in 2013). At the I25 level, average lint yield was significantly greater for the plant feedback-compared with the manual-control treatment plots (142 g m−2 and 92 g m−2, respectively), but the mean amount of irrigation was twice that of the manual-control plots. Mean water use efficiencies (WUE) within the same irrigation treatment levels were similar between methods. Importantly, the automatic plant feedback system did not require the time consuming and expensive manual reading of neutron probe access tubes that was required to schedule the manual treatments. These results demonstrate that the integration of a plant feedback system with a commercial VRI system could be used to control site-specific irrigation management for cotton at higher irrigation treatment levels, i.e., I75 percent and I50 percent of full. Such a system can facilitate the use of a VRI system by automating prescription map coding and providing dynamic irrigation control instructions to meet variable crop water needs throughout the irrigation season. As of yet, further research is required to maintain automatic deficit irrigation at a level equivalent to 25 percent replenishment of crop water use relative to field capacity.
    Agricultural Water Management 09/2015; 159. DOI:10.1016/j.agwat.2015.06.001
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The use of irrigation scheduling tools to produce cotton under-surface irrigation in the arid southwestern USA is minimal. In the State of Arizona, where traditional irrigation scheduling is the norm, producers use an average of 1460 mm annually to grow a cotton crop. The purpose of this paper was to determine whether or not the use of ET-based irrigation scheduling methods could improve lint yield and irrigation water use productivity over traditional cotton border irrigation scheduling practices in the region. A field study with four irrigation scheduling treatments replicated in 4 blocks was conducted for two cotton seasons (2009 and 2011) in 16, 12-m × 168-m cotton borders at the Maricopa Agricultural Center (MAC), in Arizona, USA. Remotely-sensed vegetation indices (VI) were used to estimate basal crop coefficients (Kcb) at 40, 4-m × 8-m zones within borders for two treatments, denoted as VI_A and VI_B, whereas a single Kcb curve was applied to all zones in borders for a third treatment (FAO). Daily ETc for these three treatments was estimated using FAO-56 dual crop coefficient procedures with local weather data and irrigation scheduling for the three treatments were based on soil water balance predictions of soil water depletion (SWD). For the VI_A and FAO treatments, irrigations were given when predicted SWD of all 160 zones in the treatment averaged 45% of total available water (TAW). For the VI_B treatment, irrigations were given when 5% of the 160 zones in the treatment were predicted to be at 65% SWD. A fourth treatment (MAC) represented the traditional irrigation scheduling treatment and was scheduled solely by the MAC farm irrigation manager using only experience as a guide. The study showed that the lint yields attained under the MAC farm manager’s irrigation scheduling equaled or exceeded the yields for the three ET-based irrigation scheduling treatments. Although the MAC irrigation scheduling resulted in somewhat higher irrigation input than for the other treatments, the MAC treatment maintained or exceeded the irrigation water productivity attained for other treatments that had lower irrigation inputs. A major conclusion of the study was that present-day irrigation water use for cotton in surface-irrigated fields could be substantially reduced. When compared to Arizona state cotton averages, any of the four treatments presented in the study could potentially offer methods to significantly reduce cotton irrigation water use while maintaining or increasing current lint yields levels.
    Agricultural Water Management 09/2015; 159. DOI:10.1016/j.agwat.2015.06.016
  • José Luis Costa, Virginia Carolina Aparicio
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    ABSTRACT: Supplementary irrigation is one of the proposed management practices to increase the area under grain production mainly in the Humid Pampas (HP). The most common source of irrigation water in the HP comes from groundwater and is characterized by its high sodium bicarbonate content. However, the effect of the combination of irrigation and rain water on the chemical and physical properties of soils, especially when irrigation water comprises water with sodium bicarbonate, is still not well documented. The objective of the present study is to establish irrigation water suitability criteria under conditions of combined rain and irrigation. The trials were carried out on six irrigated plots and another five plots were chosen for validation purposes. Hydraulic conductivity and bulk density were measured in the field. Soil chemical analysis was performed on undisturbed soil samples. Supplementary irrigation using sodium bicarbonated water raises the soil electrical conductivity (ECe), the pH, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), soil sodium adsorption ratio (SARe) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) which produces an increase in bulk density (δb), reducing the overall porosity of the soil. The effect of the soil SAR on the soil hydraulic conductivity (K) was evident when the soil SAR levels were greater than 3.5. The dilution factor proposed in this study allows the classification of water for supplementary irrigation linked to the management of irrigation.
    Agricultural Water Management 09/2015; 159. DOI:10.1016/j.agwat.2015.06.017
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Water scarcity and salinity are two important limitations for agricultural production. Interaction effects of deficit irrigation and shallow groundwater on crop water use could increase water productivity in arid and semi-arid areas. Quinoa is a traditional Andean seed crop that has been introduced all around the world. However, response of quinoa as a salinity and drought tolerant crop to shallow saline groundwater under deficit irrigation has not been studied. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of saline groundwater depths, GD (0.3, 0.55, and 0.80 m) and deficit irrigation, DI (80, 55 and 30% of full irrigation, FI) on growth, yield and water productivity of quinoa and groundwater contribution (GWC) to its water use in lysimeters under greenhouse conditions. Results indicated that 70% reduction of the full irrigation water resulted in only 36% reduction in seed yield (SY) as compared with maximum SY (2.1 Mg ha−1 at 0.80 m GD with 0.80FI), whereas water productivity based on SY (WUEIseed) increased 12%. Shoot dry matter (SDM) is not sensitive to water deficit and reducing the irrigation volume from 0.80FI to 0.30FI resulted in only 8% decrease in SDM in presence of shallow groundwater. It is concluded that at moderate deficit irrigation (0.80FI) shallow groundwater should be maintained at 0.55 m or higher to obtained maximum SY; however, in places with shallow groundwater (0.30 m), deficit irrigation should be applied in order to achieve higher SY. On average, 27% and 41% reduction in GWC was observed by increasing GD from 0.30 to 0.55 m and 0.30 to 0.80 m, respectively. GWC/ET ranged from 0.40 to 0.72 for 0.80FI, 0.46 to 0.75 for 0.55FI and 0.51 to 0.80 for 0.30FI. Finally, contour plot was developed to show the combined effect of DI and GD on GWC/ET. The boundary for groundwater contribution to quinoa ET is (SWD is the soil water depletion fraction of total available water). Results indicated that 210 mm of ET is required to initiate SY production for quinoa in greenhouse conditions and transpiration efficiency (the ratio of SDM to the seasonal transpiration) for quinoa dry matter production is 0.028 Mg ha−1 mm−1. Seed and dry matter yield response factor to water stress indicated that SY is more sensitive to water stress, followed by root dry matter (RDM) and SDM.
    Agricultural Water Management 09/2015; 159. DOI:10.1016/j.agwat.2015.06.005
  • Luis S. Pereira, Paula Paredes, Gonçalo C. Rodrigues, Manuela Neves
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    ABSTRACT: Two contrasting rainfall barley seasons, dry (2012) and wet (2013), were used to parameterize and assess the performance of the SIMDualKc and AquaCrop models. Field data were obtained from malt barley cropped in a farmer’s field in Ribatejo, Portugal. SIMDualKc applies the dual crop coefficient approach for computing and partitioning crop evapotranspiration (ET), while AquaCrop uses an empirical approach to estimate potential crop transpiration (Tc) and soil evaporation (Es) depending upon the canopy cover (CC). The calibration and validation of both models was performed through comparing observed and predicted soil water content (SWC) for both seasons. The goodness-of-fit indicators were very good for SIMDualKc, with low errors of estimate (RMSE < 0.015 cm3 cm−3). AquaCrop was first parameterized for the CC curves of both years using LAI observations. When tested for SWC, indicators have shown less accuracy than SIMDualKc. The analysis focused the partition of ET into Tc and Es by both models through the analysis of the daily basal crop coefficients (Kcb) and evaporation coefficients (Ke), and the actual crop transpiration (Ta) and Es values cumulated to each crop growth stage and the season. Differences between the dry and wet year were evident, also in terms of model behavior when simulating SWC. Differences were also notable relative to the water balance terms, namely Ta and Es. Problems with estimating Kcb and Kewith AquaCrop were identified, which likely cause its less good performance in simulating SWC and impacted yield estimation. Results of assessing both models led to conclude that computation procedures used in AquaCrop for Tc, Ta and Es lead to inaccuracies that make AquaCrop less appropriate to support irrigation scheduling.
    Agricultural Water Management 09/2015; 159. DOI:10.1016/j.agwat.2015.06.006
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The excessive use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer for crop production can cause substantial N losses through surface runoff, generating serious nonpoint pollution. A thorough understanding of N runoff losses is necessary for optimal N management in vegetable production systems. A 3-year field experiment was conducted at a Chinese cabbage field in the Taihu Lake Basin of China to evaluate the characteristics of N runoff losses and the effect of different N fertilizer treatments on N runoff losses during the autumn and winter, 2010–2012. The results demonstrated that surface runoff was significantly and positively related to rainfall. The highest risk of N runoff loss occurred one week after fertilization, and top dressing increased this risk. NO3−-N was the main runoff component, accounting for 49.32–71.82% of the total N losses. The concentration of NO3−-N was significantly and positively related to the concentration of total N in the runoff. Significant differences in N runoff losses were observed between N fertilizer treatments. N runoff losses from conventional fertilizer were 10.43–22.68 kg ha−1, significantly higher than from other treatments, and the total N net runoff loss rates for conventional fertilizer treatment were 3.48–7.56%. The application of organic fertilizer reduced N runoff loss by 15.70–18.14% compared to conventional fertilizer application. Organic–inorganic compound fertilizer reduced N runoff loss by 27.37–36.27% compared with conventional fertilizer. Slow-release fertilizers had very significant positive effects in controlling N runoff loss, with a 58.29–61.01% reduction for sulfur-coated urea, a 49.33–56.05% reduction for biological carbon power urea, and a 59.79–63.59% reduction for bulk-blend controlled-release fertilizer relative to conventional fertilizer. This study provides vital baseline information for fertilizer choice and management practices, which can be used to reduce N runoff losses and encourage the development of new fertilizer strategies for vegetable planting.
    Agricultural Water Management 09/2015; 159. DOI:10.1016/j.agwat.2015.06.008
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present a detailed analysis of the effect of agricultural irrigation water abstraction on surface water, energy state and flux, using a model simulation to predict changes in Bowen Ratio, surface temperature and water resources within the Mekong River Basin. Using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrological model including the infiltration, surface runoff, subsurface runoff, drainage from the soil layer, and irrigation scheme, together with the most recently available and accurate geophysical, geological and meteorological forcing datasets, we carried out the hydrological simulation on three calibration parameters. The multi-objective complex evolution (MOCOM-UA) optimizer was used to calibrate the model, which revealed a significant decrease in Bowen Ratio due to irrigation water withdrawal: this in turn affected surface temperature. We conclude that (1) the performance of the improved model was generally good, with an overall Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency of 0.86 for the validation period 1986–1993; (2) the volume-based total Net Irrigation Water Requirement was about 24 × 109 m3/year for the period 1979–2000; (3) including the irrigation water withdrawals from runoff, river channels and dams decreases the total monthly runoff by 32% compared to the “no irrigation” baseline; (4) the period-averaged Bowen Ratio decreased by 6.8% in the dry season as a result of irrigation effects; (5) this significant decrease in Bowen Ratio resulted in a decrease in average surface temperature of 9.3 × 10−2% and a maximum of 4.8% over irrigated areas during the dry season.
    Agricultural Water Management 09/2015; 159. DOI:10.1016/j.agwat.2015.05.011
  • Duran Yavuz, Musa Seymen, Nurcan Yavuz, Önder Türkmen
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    ABSTRACT: Confectionary pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) is one of the important snacks preferred by consumers in Turkey due to its higher nutrient contents. However, there is no comprehensive study on water management in pumpkin cultivation in many countries including Turkey. Therefore, a 2-year study (2013–2014) was conducted to determine the effects of different irrigation intervals (S) and irrigation levels (I) on the seed yield and yield components of drip-irrigated confectionary pumpkin under the Middle Anatolian climatic conditions in Konya, Turkey. The experimental design was made in randomized blocks, in a 3 × 5 factorial scheme, with three replications. Treatments consisted of three irrigation intervals (S7: 7 days, S14: 14 days, and S21: 21 days) and five irrigation levels (I100: 100% irrigation or full irrigation, I75: 75% of full irrigation, I50: 50% of full irrigation, I25: 25% of full irrigation, and I0: no irrigation).
    Agricultural Water Management 09/2015; 159. DOI:10.1016/j.agwat.2015.06.025
  • J.M. Kirby, M.D. Ahmad, M. Mainuddin, W. Palash, M.E. Quadir, S.M. Shah-Newaz, M.M. Hossain
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    ABSTRACT: There is increasing concern over falling groundwater levels in some areas of Bangladesh, and there is undoubted overuse of groundwater in the Barind Tract in northwest Bangladesh and around Dhaka. However, the volumes of water availability and use, and hence the sustainability of use, are not well known. We developed monthly water balances for the main regions of Bangladesh to investigate historic trends in water use and availability and possible future trends under changed management to lessen groundwater use by using more surface water for irrigation. Our results show that for many areas the fall in pre-monsoon groundwater levels (at the regional average level) over the last few decades may be largely explained by the continual withdrawal of ever greater volumes of water with the three-fold increase in the area of irrigation. Thus, for many areas, if there were no further increase in the area irrigated by groundwater, the rate of decline in groundwater levels would likely reduce and levels could even attain a new equilibrium at a lower level, implying that current pumping rates could be maintained (subject to the lower groundwater levels being acceptable on environmental, economic and social grounds). Post-monsoon groundwater levels are largely influenced by yearly rainfall variability. Thus, groundwater use in some areas may not be as unsustainable as feared, and policies to reduce groundwater use in such areas may not be as necessary or urgent as thought. However, our analysis is approximate and detailed local studies are required to assess the sustainability of use.
    Agricultural Water Management 09/2015; 159. DOI:10.1016/j.agwat.2015.05.026
  • L.E. Christianson, R.D. Harmel
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    ABSTRACT: As agriculture in the 21st century is faced with increasing pressure to reduce negative environmental impacts while continuing to efficiently produce food, fiber, and fuel, it becomes ever more important to reflect upon more than half a century of drainage water quality research to identify paths forward. This work provided a quantitative review of the water quality and crop yield impacts of artificially drained agronomic systems across North America by compiling data from drainage nutrient studies in the “Measured Annual Nutrient loads from AGricultural Environments” (MANAGE) database. Of the nearly 400 studies reviewed, 91 individual journal publications and 1279 site-years were included in the new MANAGE Drain Load table with data spanning 1961–2012. Across site-years, the mean and median percent of precipitation occurring as drainage were 25 and 20%, respectively, with wet years resulting in significantly greater drainage discharge and nutrient loads. Water quality and crop yield impacts due to management factors such as cropping system, tillage, and drainage design were investigated. This work provided an important opportunity to evaluate gaps in drainage nutrient research. In addition to the current analyses, the resulting MANAGE drainage database will facilitate further analyses and improved understanding of the agronomic and environmental impacts of artificial drainage.
    Agricultural Water Management 09/2015; 159. DOI:10.1016/j.agwat.2015.06.021
  • Bingxia Liu, Ming’an Shao
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    ABSTRACT: The conflict between soil desiccation and the sustainable development of revegetation is increasingly important on the Loess Plateau in China. Quantitative guidelines for the selection of plant species, optimal density or biomass, and appropriate management for vegetative restoration are required to address this conflict. The objective of the study is to simulate soil–water dynamics with using the one-dimensional Simultaneous Heat and Water Transfer (SHAW) model to assess consumption process of soil water with growth of caragana and alfalfa and there optimal carrying capacity. Soil and plant parameters required by the SHAW model were calibrated and validated with meteorological and soil–water data from 2004 to 2005 and 2012, respectively. The data from the calibration and verification trials for soil water content were significantly linearly correlated based on a 95% confidence level and had average root mean square errors of 1.06 and 5.71% for caragana and 0.88 and 1.14% for alfalfa, respectively. The SHAW model was thus sufficiently accurate for simulating soil–water dynamics during 2005–2011 in response to plant growing and corresponding changes in biomass. The simulations indicated that soil water decreased within 1.0–4.0 m profiles and that the depth of water depletion deepened with plant growth after vegetative restoration. Dry soil layers (DSLs) began to develop below 1.0 m after five years for caragana and after three years for alfalfa. The optimal ages of the caragana and alfalfa in the study area were thus five and three years, respectively, and the corresponding soil water carrying capacities that were maximum biomasses were 4800 kg/hm2 and 1380 kg/hm2, respectively. These results provide useful information for designing appropriate practices of vegetative restoration to attain sustainable ecological and economic benefits on the Loess Plateau.
    Agricultural Water Management 09/2015; 159. DOI:10.1016/j.agwat.2015.06.019
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    ABSTRACT: Water shortage in karst mountainous areas is a difficult problem faced worldwide. Serious surface water leakage, which is a karst characteristic, has puzzled global scientists for a long time. Local climate and hydrology play important roles in water resources occurrence and behaviour, which in turn affects surface and groundwater management. The objectives of this study were as follows: to conduct in-depth analysis of the major problems in the current utilisation on the surface water resources in karst areas; to reveal the differences in surface hydrogeological structures that grew and formed under the control of different lithological characters, surface water occurrence conditions and its cyclical rules; to propose strategies for development and effective utilisation of water resources. A series of technologies for karst surface water resource use on the basis of karst hydrogeological features and development law is proposed. These technologies include gully section runoff confluence water harvesting technology, surface karst spring directional diversion technology, sunken geomorphology ecotype cistern design technology, road rainwater-harvesting and effective utilisation technology, effective comprehensive and utilisation of rooftop rainwater harvesting technology and other surface water resource optimal allocation technologies. Thus, this study offers research-driven technological solutions to ease water shortage, facilitate modern agriculture and regional economic development in karst mountainous areas.
    Agricultural Water Management 09/2015; 159:55-65. DOI:10.1016/j.agwat.2015.05.024
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    ABSTRACT: Irrigation, fertilization, and cultivation managements play important roles in crop production in the North China Plain (NCP). This study aims to compare crop yields, and water and N use efficiencies (WUE and NUE) in a wheat–maize cropping system under different integrated management practices and recommend the best management practices (BMPs). A two-year experiment involving four integrated management practices was conducted in Tai’an City, Shandong Province in the NCP. These management practices were designed as follows: (1) traditional farming practice (FP); (2) optimized combination of cropping and fertilization (OPT-1); (3) practice for high yield (HY), which does not consider the cost of resource inputs to maximize grain yield; and (4) further optimized combination of cropping and fertilization (OPT-2), which is based on the HY practice. Soil water movement, nitrate transport, and crop growth were all simulated using the soil water, heat, carbon, and N simulation (WHCNS) model. Results indicated that simulated soil water content and nitrate concentration at different depths in soil profiles, leaf area index, dry matter weight, and grain yield were all in good agreement with the field-measured data. Simulation results indicated that the amounts and dates of irrigation and fertilization, planting method, planting density, and sowing date had obvious effects on grain yield, water drainage, total N loss, WUE, and NUE. The annual average total N loss under the OPT-1 practice decreased by about 28.6% compared with the FP practice, whereas the annual average grain yield and NUE increased by 27.7% and 25.7%, respectively. The largest annual average grain yield and total N loss occurred in the HY practice (23,590 kg ha−1 and 240.6 kg N ha−1, respectively). Although the annual average grain yield of the OPT-2 practice was 15.4% lower than that of HY practice, the NUE was 19.2% higher in OPT-2 than in HY. The annual average nitrate leaching under the OPT-2 practice was the lowest and reached 25.5%–60.0% compared with those under other practices. Among the four practices, the OPT-2 practice achieved the most preferable results; the lowest N loss and the highest NUE were obtained at the expense of a slight decrease in grain yield. Therefore, the OPT-2 practice was the BMPs among the four practices and should be recommended to maximize the economic and environmental benefits in the study region.
    Agricultural Water Management 09/2015; 159:19-34. DOI:10.1016/j.agwat.2015.05.010