Mikrobiyoloji bülteni Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Ankara Mikrobiyoloji Derneği

Current impact factor: 0.65

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 0.654
2013 Impact Factor 0.438
2012 Impact Factor 0.611
2011 Impact Factor 0.402
2010 Impact Factor 0.354
2009 Impact Factor 0.286
2008 Impact Factor 0.301
2007 Impact Factor 0.209

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 0.70
Cited half-life 4.40
Immediacy index 0.09
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.11
Website Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni / Bulletin of Mikrobiyology website
Other titles Mikrobiyoloji bülteni, Bulletin of microbiology
ISSN 0374-9096
OCLC 1262126
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • Mikrobiyoloji bülteni 10/2015;

  • Mikrobiyoloji bülteni 10/2015; 49(4):525-531. DOI:10.5578/mb.10040
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    ABSTRACT: M-protein and pyrogenic toxins are the most important virulence factors of Streptococcus pyogenes, and they play significant role in the pathophysiology of acute rheumatoid fever and scarlet fever, respectively. In this study, the pharyngeal carriage of S.pyogenes of the primary school children, clonal relationship of the strains, M-protein types, and the presence of pyrogenic toxin genes were aimed to be investigated. A total of 668 throat cultures obtained from children (age range: 6-16 years) in two primary schools in our region, were included in the study. The clonal relationships of the isolated group A streptococci (GAS) strains were investigated by DiversiLab assay (BioMérieux, France), and the clonal relatedness was confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method. M-protein (emm) typing was performed by DNA sequencing as suggested by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The genes encoding pyrogenic toxins, speA and speC, were investigated by an in-house multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. S.pyogenes was isolated from 134 (20.05%) of the throat samples. The GAS carriage rate of the students aged ≥10 was statistically higher than those 7-9 years age group (%22 vs %16.4, p< 0.05). The M protein gene could be characterized only among 123 isolates by DNA sequencing, and 20 different emm types were detected. The most frequent emm type was emm1 (n= 38, 30.9%) followed by emm12 (n= 18, 14.6%), emm89 (n= 10, 8.1%), emm118 (n= 9, 7.3%), and emm4 (n= 7, 5.7%). Pyrogenic toxin genes were found in 25 (18.6%) of the isolates, including speA in 11 isolates (8.2%) and speC in 12 isolates (8.9%) and both genes were detected in 2 isolates (1.5%). Sixty-two different Rep (Repetitive extragenic palindromic)-PCR profiles were detected in 134 S.pyogenes isolates by DiversiLab method. Thirteen different clusters were formed by a total of clonally related 36 isolates revealing a strain clustering ratio of 26.9%. Clonal relationship of all isolates in the same cluster was confirmed by PFGE method. In this study, relatively high percentage of GAS carriage was observed among primary school children in our region. The coverage rate of the 30-valent vaccine was determined to be over 90% with respect to M-protein types. Since the pyrogenic toxin-encoding genes were found in one fifth of the isolates from the studied subjects, we concluded that the carrier population may also have high risk for scarlet fever. We also concluded that, the clonal relationship ratio determined among the isolates may be a risk in school transmission of GAS.
    Mikrobiyoloji bülteni 08/2015; 49(3):301-313. DOI:10.5578/mb.9311
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    ABSTRACT: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis is the reactivation of the remaining latent organism which spreads during primary infection by the lymphohematogenous way. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis especially in endemic countries for tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (TB) treatment is based on the principle of the combined use of several drugs. As a result of the combination therapy there can be life threatening side effects which can lead to improper use of medications and may also cause drug resistance. In this report, we present an 85-year-old male patient desensitized due to the development of allergy against multi-drugs with rib tuberculosis and chest wall abscess to whom, culture, drug susceptibility and genotypical tests were applied. In November 2012, the patient applied to a medical center with complaints of swelling and pain under the right rib, underwent rib resection and eventually diagnosed as rib TB by histopathological examination. However, the anti-TB treatment was discontinued due to the hypersensitivity reactions in the skin and in addition to the hepatic and renal dysfunction side effects. The patient had widespread redness, rash and pruritus on the body and the laboratory findings were as follows; ALT: 114 U/L, AST: 152 U/L, ALP: 93 U/L, GGT: 26U/L, blood urea nitrogen (BUN): 26 mg/dL and creatinine: 1.7 mg/dL. After the disapperance of the complaints within 3 days of drug discontinuation, isoniazid treatment was initiated. However, the new treatment was also discontinued when the reactions reoccurred. Afterwards, the patient developed hypersensitivity reactions against the combination of streptomycin and ethambutol. The patient refused any further treatment and was discharged from the hospital. The patient was untreated for the last 5 months and admitted to our clinic with a fistulized swelling and abscess in the right chest wall. Bacteria was not detected in the acid-fast staining of the abscess material, however Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from culture by MGIT (Mycobacteria Growth Incubator Tube; BBL MGIT, BD, USA) system. The spoligotyping revealed that the genotype was Haarlem 1. Major drug susceptibility testing against rifampin, streptomycin, ethambutol, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide yielded sensitivity to those drugs. Minor drug susceptibility testing against paraaminosalicylic acid, ethionamide, kanamycin, capreomycin and ofloxacin was found to be sensitive. A regimen of isoniazid 300 mg/day, ethambutol 1000 mg/day and moxifloxacin 400 mg/day was initiated. Rapid oral desensitization against isoniazid and ethambutol were repeated on two consecutive days. The patient continued antituberculosis therapy for 12 months without adverse reactions. The chest wall fistula was closed. Abscess was drained surgically. Clinical and radiological improvements were achieved. The patient remains clinically disease free and continues his regular follow ups. This case is presented to emphasize about the importance of culture and susceptibility testing in extrapulmonary tuberculosis cases and desensitization in drug hypersensitivity reactions.
    Mikrobiyoloji bülteni 08/2015; 49(3):454-460. DOI:10.5578/mb.9366
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    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus pneumoniae, a gram-positive diplococcus, is the causative agent of invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs) characterized by severe infections such as bacteraemia, sepsis and meningitis. S.pneumoniae and IPDs are situated in the focus of the vaccine studies because of being encompassed of a significant burden of disease in the world, severe mortality and morbidities, and location in vaccine-preventable diseases group. Although S.pneumoniae has more than 90 defined serotypes, certain serotypes are often identified as the cause of IPDs. Individuals with comorbid and chronic diseases, primary or secondary immune deficiencies, and < 2 years or > 65 years of age are at increased risk for IPDs. Currently, a 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine and also 7, 10 and 13 valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCV) have been produced for pneumococci. Phase studies of protein based vaccines, which will provide protection independent of serotypes, and 15-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine are still ongoing. In Turkey, in November 2008 PCV7 and in April 2011 PCV13 have been implemented in the national immunization program. First case of the pneumococcal unvaccinated cases presented in this report was a 6-year-old girl patient with pneumonia and pleural empyema due to S.pneumoniae serotype 1, without any underlying risk factors. The other case is a 52-days-old male patient, who had a history of pneumococcal septicemia in the newborn period and was followed for bacteremia associated S.pneumoniae serotype 12B and diagnosed as complement deficiency on follow-up. S.pneumoniae serotype 1 is within serotypes covered by 10 and 13 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine that are in use today, and is a highly invasive strain often isolated in pneumococcal lobar pneumonia and empyema. S.pneumoniae serotype 12B is a non-vaccine serotype not included in any of conjugate and polysaccharide vaccines, and usually obtained in respiratory infections and nasopharyngeal carriage studies. The first case of this report was presented because of an IPD with a serotype included in PCV13 implemented in the routine childhood vaccination schedule and to give an idea about pneumococcal strains circulating in the community. The second case was discussed to draw attention for the evaluation of immune deficiencies and other risk factors in recurrent infections with encapsulated bacteria such as pneumococci. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines contribute the public immunity with the reduction of vaccine-type pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage, IPD incidence, and IPD associated morbidity and mortality especially in young children, at the same time cause a decrease in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant infections. Application of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines covering the whole society is important, according to all these important results.
    Mikrobiyoloji bülteni 07/2015; 49(3):446-453. DOI:10.5578/mb.9742
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    ABSTRACT: BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine is a widely used vaccine with the recommendation of World Health Organization to protect children against miliary tuberculosis (TB) and TB meningitis. Severe side effects related to this vaccine mostly manifest in the presence of underlying immunosuppressive disease. In this report, an infant case with unknown chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) who developed disseminated BCG infection after administration of BCG vaccine, was presented. High fever, left axillary lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly have developed in a 3-month 28-day female infant, without a known health problem, following BCG vaccination. The acid-fast bacilli (ARB) was isolated from the material of excised lymph node cultivated in Löwenstein-Jensen medium, and the isolate was identified as Mycobacterium bovis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA was detected in the axillary lymph node sample by polymerase chain reaction. Anti-tuberculous treatment included 20 mg/kg of rifampicin + 10 mg/kg of isoniazid + 15 mg/kg of ethambutol + 30 mg/kg of streptomycin was started. The patient was then further evaluated for immunodeficiency and on the basis of the results of dihydroamine and LAD (lymphocyte adhesion defect) tests, diagnosed as autosomal recessive CGD. Based on the anamnesis, there was no known immunodeficiency history both in the case during neonatal period and her family members. Interferon-gamma therapy, which is recommended for the patients with CGD living in endemic areas, was initiated. Our patient's fever dropped at the 15th day of anti-tuberculosis treatment, and she was discharged on the 35th day and continued to receive treatment at home. The patient was followed up at outpatient clinic and had no additional complaints; her hepatosplenomegaly was back to normal at the third month. As a result, since BCG vaccine is contraindicated in CGD carriers, newborns with a family history of CGD should be immunologically examined and BCG vaccine should be avoided until the results are obtained. In addition, newborns without a family history, diagnosed as disseminated mycobacterial infection following BCG vaccination, should be evaluated for an underlying immunodeficiency condition.
    Mikrobiyoloji bülteni 07/2015; 49(3):461-466. DOI:10.5578/mb.9331
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    ABSTRACT: The most effective method for monitoring country-level drug resistance frequency and to implement the necessary control measures is the establishment of a laboratory-based surveillance system. The aim of this study was to summarize the follow up trend of the drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) cases, determine the load of resistance and evaluate the capacities of laboratories depending on laboratory quality assurance system for the installation work of National Tuberculosis Laboratory Surveillance Network (TuLSA) which has started in Ankara in 2011. TuLSA studies was carried out under the coordination of National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory (NRL) with the participation of TB laboratories and dispensaries. Specimens of TB patients, reported from health institutions, were followed in TB laboratories, and the epidemiological information was collected from the dispensaries. One isolate per patient with the drug susceptibility test (DST) results were sent to NRL from TB laboratories and in NRL the isolates were rechecked with the genotypical (MTBDRplus, Hain Lifescience, Germany) and phenotypical (MGIT 960, BD, USA) DST methods. Molecular epidemiological analysis were also performed by spoligotyping and MIRU/VNTR. Second-line DST was applied to the isolates resistant to rifampin. A total of 1276 patients were reported between January 1st to December 31th 2011, and 335 cases were defined as "pulmonary TB from Ankara province". The mean age of those patients was 43.4 ± 20 years, and 67.5% were male. Three hundred seventeen (94.6%) patients were identified as new cases. The average sample number obtained from pulmonary TB cases was 3.26 ± 2.88, and 229 (68.3%) of them was culture positive. DST was applied to all culture positive isolates; 90.4% (207/229) of cases were susceptible to the five drugs tested (ethambutol, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, rifampicin, streptomycin). Eight (3.5%) of the isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB), while no extensively drug-resistant strains were detected. MDR-TB is likely to occur in 63.3 times more among previously treated cases, and 73.3 times more in legal aliens. The achievement of therapy among pulmonary TB cases was 91.9%. Spoligotyping performed for 221 M.tuberculosis complex isolates, showed that all strains were clustered in nine groups. SIT 41 (105/221; 47.5%) was the most frequent spoligotype detected, and clustering rate based on MIRU-VNTR results were found as 16.3%. All of the clustered strains were sensitive while all of MDR-TB isolates showed specific MIRU-VNTR profiles. In conclusion, TuLSA studies started in Ankara in 2011 and the system is still expanding in the country. Our data obtained with TuLSA have been published as a regional surveillance data in the WHO Global Tuberculosis Report 2011, and as a national surveillance data in Global Tuberculosis Report 2012.
    Mikrobiyoloji bülteni 07/2015; 49(2):143-55.

  • Mikrobiyoloji bülteni 07/2015; 49(3):340-351. DOI:10.5578/mb.9360
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    ABSTRACT: Non-vertebrate hosts, such as Galleria mellonella, namely wax moth, have been used to study microbial virulence and host defense. This organism has advantages as it is economical, ethically expedient and easy to handle. Here we describe an experimental in vivo study using the larvae of Galleria mellonella infected with some bacterial and fungal pathogens. In this study, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing and non-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, colistin resistant and susceptible Acinetobacter baumanii clinical strains; Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), Scedosporium aurantiacum (CBS 136047) and Pseudallescheria boydii (CBS 117410) reference strains, and Aspergillus terreus and Fusarium oxysporum clinical strains were used as pathogens. The larvae of G.mellonella were challenged with these bacterial and fungal strains, and the mortality rates were calculated using Kaplan-Meier plots. Mortality rates at 16th hour were found as 83% for the larvae infected with both ESBL positive and negative E.coli, ESBL negative K.pneumoniae and ESBL positive P.aeruginosa; 91% for ESBL positive K.pneumoniae; 75% for ESBL negative P.aeruginosa; 66% for both colistin resistant and susceptible A.baumanii strains. All larvae infected with bacteria died within the first 24 hour. Larvae infected with bacteria showed significantly higher mortality rates than those infected with fungi. Mortality rates at 16th hour were found as 0% for C.albicans and F.oxysporum, 16% for S.aurantiacum, 8% for P.boydii and A.terreus; at 24th hour that was 25% for C.albicans and P.boydii, 33% for S.aurantiacum, A.terreus and F.oxysporum; at 48th hour that was 33% for C.albicans, 50% for P.boydii and F.oxysporum, 58% for A.terreus, and 66% for S.aurantiacum; in 72 hours that was 58% for C.albicans and F.oxysporum, 66% for P.boydii, 75% for A.terreus and S.aurantiacum, in 96 hours that was 83% for C.albicans, P.boydii and F.oxysporum, 91% for A.terreus and S.aurantiacum. As a result of this study, potential evidences provided that bacteria were more virulent than fungi for G.mellonella larvae model, each fungal species showed different virulence patterns, and bacterial virulence was correlated neither with species nor antibiotic susceptibility.
    Mikrobiyoloji bülteni 07/2015; 49(3):366-376. DOI:10.5578/mb.9701
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    ABSTRACT: Phleboviruses are enveloped segmented RNA viruses, capable of inducing febrile disease and/or meningoencephalitis in exposed individuals, according to the infecting strain, following transmission via arthropods. Prototype medically-important phlebovirus strains responsible for sandfly fever are sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV) and sandfly fever Naples virus (SFNV), where the SFSV variant sandfly fever Cyprus virus (SFCV) is also detected in individuals with febrile disease. Toscana virus (TOSV) is unique among phleboviruses as the cause of infections involving central nervous system. In this seroepidemiological study, human exposure to selected medically-important phleboviruses was investigated in healthy adult residents of the Mersin province, Mediterranean Anatolia, Turkey, where the current data on phlebovirus epidemiology is scarce. A total of 1784 healthy individuals (mean age: 34.7 ± 9.6 years; 97.3% were male), accepted as blood donors at the Mersin University Center for Health Research and Application Blood Bank were included in the study after informed consent during a seventeen month period between July 2011 to November 2012. All participants were requested to fill out a questionnaire to reveal risk factors for vector exposure. SFSV, SFNV, SFCV and TOSV IgG antibodies in serum were investigated via a commercial indirect immunofluorescence test (IIFT) (Sandfly Fever Virus IgG Mosaic I; Euroimmun, Germany). Sera interpreted as positive or strong positive for TOSV or SFNV+TOSV in IIFT were evaluated via TOSV virus neutralization test (VNT) for specificity confirmation. IIFT seroreactivity for at least one of the tested phleboviruses was present in 66.8% (1192/1784) of the samples. The most frequently-detected phlebovirus strain was SFSV (51.6%; 920/1784), followed by SFNV (46.4%; 827/1784), TOSV (43.7%; 779/1784) and SFCV (47.3%; 843/1784). Among the reactive sera, 6.6% (79/1192) were positive for a single virus serotype, whereas in 39.8% (475/1192) antibodies reacting with all tested virus serotypes were revealed. A total of 187 sera was included in the TOSV VNT and neutralizing antibodies were detected in 13.9%. According to the IIFT reactivity, residing in rural areas was observed as a statistically significant risk factor for exposure in all phleboviruses tested (p values for SFSV, SFNV, TOSV and SFCV were 0.002, 0.001, < 0.001 and 0.003, respectively). TOSV exposure is more frequently detected via IIFT in individuals having pets or domestic farm animals around the living quarters (p= 0.005). As a result, frequent exposure to SFSV/SFCV or antigenically similar phlebovirus strains and viruses of the SFNV species were determined in healthy blood donors in Mersin province, located in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Furthermore, TOSV neutralizing antibodies were detected in selected samples with IIFT reactivity, confirming previous reports suggesting TOSV activity in the region. TOSV and other phleboviruses must be included in the diagnostic work-up in cases with febrile diseases and viral central nervous system infections during the sandfly-active months.
    Mikrobiyoloji bülteni 07/2015; 49(3):403-413. DOI:10.5578/mb.9765
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    ABSTRACT: The increased antibiotic resistance and diversity of resistance mechanisms in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lead to serious problems in treatment. Bacterial resistance against antibiotics can be influenced by patient characteristics, antibiotic usage policy depending on the country, region, hospital, clinics and even may vary during treatment. In this meta-analysis study, we aimed to evaluate the trends in P.aeruginosa antibiotic resistance over the past 11 years. The study was planned and conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and the literature search method, criteria for inclusion and exclusion, evaluation of publications, data collection, and statistical analysis were performed. To identify relevant publications, two national databases (ULAKBIM and TURK MEDLINE) and one international database (PubMed) were searched. Published manuscripts were evaluated for exclusion criteria, after the study data were collected, and statistical analyses were performed. The data obtained from the literature were assessed under a common unit. The calculations made in the 95% confidence interval value of p≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. As a result of exclusion criteria, meta-analysis was performed for 48 studies published between 2003 and 2013. For the evaluation of the changes in antibiotic resistance of P.aeruginosa isolates over time, studies were divided into three groups according to the year of publication. The number of publications was relatively consistent over the course of the study period with 17 studies published in 2003-2006; 14 in 2007-2009, and 17 in 2010-2013. There were significant changes in antibiotic resistance results within years however, none of these differences were statistically significant (p> 0.05). Carbapenem resistance, especially imipenem resistance, increased between 2007 and 2009, however, the changes were not statistically significant for either imipenem or meropenem (p= 0.254, p= 0.499, respectively). Through the 11-year period, the resistance rates for imipenem and meropenem were 29.4% and 32.1%, respectively. In the last 4 years of the study period, notable decrease were reported in antibiotic groups except for cefepime from cephalosporins and monobactam; the resistance rates for cephalosporins remained unchanged during this time period. The reported resistance rates for cefepime and ceftazidime were 41.4% and 43.9%, respectively. Similar decreases in resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics, including amikacin, gentamicin, netilmicin, and tobramycin, were also seen, however, these changes were not statistically significant (p> 0.05). The current data suggested that antibiotic resistance in P.aeruginosa has a tendency to decrease in our country. Though being at the bottom of the ladder, it can be expressed that rational and restricted use of antibiotics policy, contributed to the strength of the decrease; however for the decline of resistance to a reasonable level, new and sustainable policy is necessary to be implemented.
    Mikrobiyoloji bülteni 07/2015; 49(3):352-365. DOI:10.5578/mb.9734
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    ABSTRACT: Meningococcal conjunctivitis is a rare but important infection since it can lead to severe complications and can threaten public health. It may emerge in two forms, either primary or secondary type which is developed after a systemic infection. Accurate diagnosis of primary meningococcal conjunctivitis is very important in addition to ocular complications which can result in loss of vision, the condition can also lead to severe complications like systemic meningococcal disease. However, the lack of specific symptoms which can distinguish meningococcal conjunctivitis from other forms of bacterial conjunctivitis, initiation of empiric antibiotic therapy without performing culture and nonaccurate differentiation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis with commercial kits/systems used in laboratories cause problematic situations. This report describes a case of primary unilateral conjunctivitis in a 14-month-old girl caused by non-groupable N.meningitidis that was resolved without sequelae following treatment. A pre-healthy 14-month-old girl was brought to the pediatric emergency department with redness, crusts and discharge in the left eye that had begun two days earlier. Ocular examination revealed hyperemia and purulent discharge in the left conjunctiva. Purulent conjunctivitis was diagnosed. A conjunctival swab specimen was taken for culture, and the patient was started on topical netilmicin (4x1), topical fusidic acid (2x1) and artificial tears. Microscopic examination of the conjunctival swab revealed polymorphonuclear leukocytes and no visible bacteria. Catalase and oxidase positive, gram-negative diplococci grew purely in culture. The first Gram stain preparation was evaluated again after the growth and small numbers of gram-negative diplococci were observed. The cultivated bacteria were identified as N.meningitidis using MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker Daltonics, Germany), but as N.gonorrhoeae with BBL Crystal N/H (Neisseria/Haemophilus) (BD Diagnostic Systems, MD) identification system. The isolate was identified as N.meningitidis by polymerase chain reaction method. The isolate was sent to the Public Health Institution of Turkey for confirmation and serotyping. It was confirmed as non-groupable N.meningitidis. This is the first report of conjunctivitis caused by non-groupable N.meningitidis from Turkey. We wish to emphasize the importance of Gram staining and differentiation of the species by automatized systems in diagnosis, netilmicin may be one of the options for empiric treatment and in terms of public health the most appropriate approach may be evaluation of the severity of conjunctivitis and causative serogroup which depends on case-based approach.
    Mikrobiyoloji bülteni 07/2015; 49(3):467-472. DOI:10.5578/mb.9362
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of fungal infections has increased in recent years. Antifungal resistance is a major problem with increasing frequency due to the widespread use of antifungal agents in infections. Identification of the Candida species and susceptibility patterns with the appropriate tests for resistance and selection of the empirical agents used for treatment are important. The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes of the epidemiology of Candida species and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the antifungal agents, isolated in Mycology Laboratory of Ondokuz Mayıs University Faculty of Medicine, between 1 January 2009 to 1 July 2012. The study was performed retrospectively based on records in the mycology unit and checked comparatively with the automation system in the hospital. The recurrent reproductions of the same patient were excluded. For the identification of Candida species API®ID 32C (bioMerieux, France) system was used. Information on the isolated material, patient's age, gender and the inpatients' clinics were recorded. The susceptibility of Candida species isolated from blood cultures were studied with Etest (bioMerieux, France) method. A total of 1238 isolates were included in the study. The most common species isolated from clinical samples was C.albicans with a rate of 51.1% (n= 632), followed by C.tropicalis with a rate of 15.8% (n= 195). Among the pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) patients C.parapsilosis 42% (n= 17) was the most common isolate and the second most common isolate was C.albicans 32% (n= 13). However, in the adult ICU the most common isolate was C.albicans 34% (n= 13) and the second was C.parapsilosis 31% (n= 12). When the distribution of Candida species were analyzed from the records of last four years, the frequency rate of C.albicans and non-albicans species was found as 51.1% (n= 632) and %48.9 (n= 606), respectively. Based on these data, a comparison was made between the years and no difference between the two groups in terms of the distribution of fungi within the specified time (x²: 3.2, df: 1, p: 0.073) was determined. Of the Candida species isolated from blood cultures, seven isolates (2.2%) were resistant to fluconazole in the study period. The differences of MIC levels in fluconazole were detected between the years 2010-2012 and 2011-2012. The geometric mean of the MICs in 2012 increased significantly compared to 2010 and 2011 (p< 0.01). There was no resistance to amphotericin B except for intrinsically resistant Candida lusitaniae. There were no significant differences among amphotericin MIC values between years (p> 0.05). According to the sensitivity results, fluconazole is still seen as an option that can be used for the first choice. Although it remains as the first antifungal choice, antifungal susceptibility testing of the identified fungi will help the clinician for the plan and continuation of the treatment.
    Mikrobiyoloji bülteni 07/2015; 49(3):423-431. DOI:10.5578/mb.9647
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    ABSTRACT: Microsporidian pathogens are obligatory intracellular eukaryotic parasites which can be found worldwide. They have been represented in 144 genera and more than 1200 species that may cause infections in both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis are the most common species among 14 species of microsporidia identified as human pathogens and they cause infections in the gastrointestinal tract. These species may also cause chronic diarrhea particularly in immunocompromised patients, as well as disseminated infections with severe clinical conditions which can be life-threatening. Since the spores of microsporidia are quite small-sized structures, they frequently may be overlooked in routine stool examinations. Therefore, molecular methods and transmission electron microscopy, if possible, are used as the gold standard methods in laboratory diagnosis. In laboratories in which those methods could not be applied, immunofluorescence assay using monoclonal antibodies (IFA-MAbs) may be advantageous compared to conventional methods. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of E.intestinalis and E.bieneusi in bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients by using IFA-MAbs method. A total of 200 BMT patients (134 male, 66 female; mean age: 43.2 ± 15.01 years), of them 147 with diarrhea and 80 healthy subjects (43 male, 37 female; mean age: 31.9 ± 11.76 years) as control group were included in the study. All of the stool samples were examined by a commercial IFA-MAbs (Bordier Affinity Products, Switzerland) method as well as conventional (native-lugol and modified acid-fast staining) methods. Of the patients 25.5% (51/200) were positive for E.intestinalis, 4% (8/200) for E.bieneusi and 9.5% (19/200) for both of them, giving a total positivity rate of 39% (78/200). Those rates were 5% (4/80), 2.5% (2/80), 3.8% (3/80) and 11.3% (9/80), respectively for control group. The difference between the patient and control groups in terms of positivity was found statistically significant (39% vs 11.3%, p< 0.05). Among 78 positive BMT patients, 67 (85.9%) were suffering from diarrhea. The correlation between the presence of diarrhea and the presence of microsporidia was statistically significant (p< 0.05). It was concluded that, BMT patients particularly those with gastrointestinal complaints, have to be evaluated for microsporidian pathogens regularly to improve quality of life and to decrease the problems during the treatment period.
    Mikrobiyoloji bülteni 07/2015; 49(3):432-8. DOI:10.5578/mb.9809
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    ABSTRACT: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a main cause of severe morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Ganciclovir (GCV) is used for both prophylaxis and treatment of CMV disease with successful results, however GCV resistance has been increasingly reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the GCV resistance in patients whose viral loads did not decline (≥1000 copies/mL) despite of receiving GCV treatment, by using sequence analysis method. A total of 30 patients, 25 of them were bone marrow transplant (BMT) and five who were followed in hematology clinics (non-Hodgkin lymphoma, lung cancer, diffuse large B cell lymphoma, combined immune deficiency, chronic lymphocytic leukemia) were included in the study. CMV-DNA levels were monitored by real-time polymerase chain reaction (QIAsymphony, Artus® CMV QS-RGQ kit, Qiagen, Germany), and DNA sequence analysis (ABI 310 Genetic Analyzer, Applied Biosystems, USA) was performed to detect the mutations leading to CMV antiviral drug resistance in following gene regions: 420-664 codons in UL97 gene region and 261 to 588 and 740 to 987 codons in UL54 gene region. Of 30 patients included, M460V mutation in CMV UL97 gene region was detected in one (3.3%) (1st case) and L802M mutation in UL54 gene region, in addition to P887S and S897L variant sequences in another patient (3.3%) (2nd case). The first patient was a 20-year-old male with acute myeloid leukemia who underwent BMT. The blood sample for the investigation of antiviral drug resistance was taken on the 117th day of transplantation (with simultaneous viral load 4470 copies/mL) and the patient has been using GCV for 70 days when the sample was taken. Valganciclovir (VGCV) and foscarnet (FOS) were used for the therapy of the first patient and monitored. The second patient was a 19-year-old male with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who underwent BMT. The blood sample for the investigation of antiviral drug resistance was taken on the 109th day of transplantation (with simultaneous viral load 4830 copies/mL) and the patient received GCV for 26 days and VGCV for 40 days when the sample was taken. FOS and cidofovir were used for the therapy of the second patient but the patient was lost due to the underlying diseases. In conclusion, mutations responsible for GCV resistance was detected in 6.6% (2/30) of immunocompromised patients receiving GCV, indicating that the determination of CMV antiviral drug resistance may help clinicians for planning the antiviral therapy.
    Mikrobiyoloji bülteni 07/2015; 49(3):393-402. DOI:10.5578/mb.9185
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    ABSTRACT: Coronaviruses (CoV) are enveloped, spherical, single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses causing mainly respiratory and intestinal infections in animals and humans. Until recently five types of human coronaviruses (HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-229E, SARS-CoV) have been known, however a novel CoV has been identified in 2012 in Saudi Arabia. This virus, namely MERS-CoV (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus), was classified within Coronaviridae family, Coronavirinae sub-family, Betacoronavirus genus, clade C. It causes acute respiratory infections in humans and transmits via respiratory route and close contact between humans. The aim of this study was to present the first MERS case from Turkey identified by molecular methods and the results of viral sequence analysis. A 42-year-old male Turkish citizen who worked as an employee in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, admitted to hospital with the complaints of fever and malaise on 25-26 September 2014. Since his symptoms went on and got worse, he returned to Turkey, and hospitalized in a hospital's intensive care unit in Hatay on 6th of October with the symptoms of fever, malaise, sweating, cough and respiratory distress. He transferred to a university hospital on 8th of October and died on 11th October. The tracheal aspirate sample obtained before he died was sent to Virology Unit of Reference Laboratories of the Turkish Public Health Institution. Detection of viral RNA was performed by using a commercial real-time PCR kit (hCoV-EMC Real-Time RT-PCR, Fast Track Diagnostics, Luxembourg) targeting the MERS-CoV E protein (upE), ORF1a and ORF1b gene regions. The reference method Superscript III One Step RT-PCR (Invitrogen, USA) recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) was also applied for confirmation. Both of the methods yielded positive results for MERS-CoV RNA. For the amplification of nucleocapsid (N) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes, hemi-nested PCR (Invitrogen, ABD) was conducted, followed by sequence analysis of 204 nucleotide part of N gene. Phylogenetic tree of N gene was obtained with the use of MEGA6 software. N gene was chosen as it comprised a two aminoacid deletion in the corresponding published sequence from the patient treated in London, United Kingdom. There was no nucleotide or aminoacid change in our isolate, namely ANK/1079/2014 when compared with human Betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012 reference strain found in Genbank database. The target gene regions selected in our study (UpE, ORF1a, ORF1b, N and RdRp) which were also recommended by WHO, shown to have high specificity and sensitivity for the diagnosis and confirmation of MERS-CoV, and also recommended by WHO. The previous studies indicated that, the viral genomes detected in the earliest cases of humans (clade A) are genetically distinct from the others (clade B) which were isolated from dromedary camels and humans. In our study, according to phylogenetic analysis of partial N gene segment, isolate ANK/1079/2014 has taken place within clade A. In conclusion, MERS-CoV appears to have limited circulation in Arabian Peninsula and Middle-Eastern countries, it should be considered in mind that travel-related cases may export the virus outside these regions leading autochtonous infections in the other parts of the world.
    Mikrobiyoloji bülteni 07/2015; 49(3):414-422. DOI:10.5578/mb.9247
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    ABSTRACT: Lyme borreliosis, which is more prevalent in the northern hemisphere, is the most common tick-borne contagious disease among people living in the North America and Europe. The causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, Borrelia burgdorferi, is transmitted by the bites of ticks of the genus Ixodes. In Turkey, the seroprevalence of Lyme disease is increased in regions where ticks and tick-bite cases are prevalent. The present study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Lyme borreliosis in people at risk, living in the rural areas of Van province, which is located in the eastern region of Turkey. No previous study on this topic has been performed in our province. The study included a total of 446 subjects (mean age: 39.6 ± 15.5 years), of them 139 were male and 307 were female, living in the rural areas of Van province between January 2012 and July 2012. The serum samples collected from participants after informed consent were screened for the presence of B.burgdorferi IgG antibodies by ELISA method. Western blot (WB) method was used for the confirmation of positive or borderline positive samples, and also for the investigation of IgM antibodies. During the study, the individuals from whom samples were taken, were questioned whether they have ever been exposed to tick or insect bite. B.burgdorferi IgG positivity was detected in 17 (3.8%) of the cases, whereas it was within the limit values in 14 cases. A total of 31 samples which yielded positive and borderline positive results were retested by WB and 4 (12.9%) were detected as positive while 10 (32.3%) of the samples were indeterminate. B.burgdorferi IgM antibody positivity was not detected in any of the samples. Considering the WB as reference method, the rate of B.burgdorferi IgG seropositivity was estimated as 0.9% (4/446). Three of these four cases were defined as tick or insect bites. The seroprevalence rate of B.burgdorferi detected in the present study was low as compared to the results of the other studies reported from Turkey. The reason of this result might be from the geographical characteristics and the differences of tick fauna in our region. As a result, it was concluded that our province is not endemic for Lyme borreliosis, however for the reduction of tick exposure, emphasis must be placed on preventive health services for the individuals at risk.
    Mikrobiyoloji bülteni 07/2015; 49(3):439-445. DOI:10.5578/mb.9329
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    ABSTRACT: In asplenic individuals depending on the weakness of the immune response, sepsis are known to be developed with a high mortality rate. The most common species which are responsible for sepsis are encapsulated bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis. Sepsis caused by immune deficiencies linked to splenectomy leads to infections particularly in the lungs and liver and causes multiple organ failure. On the other hand, -D-glucan (BDG), a branched glucose polymer, shows immunomodulatory activity, by enhancing the resistance of the host against microbial agents, and promotes phagocytic and proliferative activities of reticuloendothelial system. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of BDG alone and in combination with ceftriaxone on sepsis caused by encapsulated invasive S.pneumoniae serotype 19F. A total of 36 Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study, and the animals (6 in each group) were equally divided into six groups as control, splenectomy, sepsis, BDG, ceftriaxone and BDG+ceftriaxone groups. Treatment groups were intravenously infected with S.pneumoniae 19F strain, and after sacrification, microbiological [bacterial counts (cfu/mL)], biochemical (myeloperoxidase activity, DNA oxidation, specific IgM and IgG levels) and histopathological analysis were performed in the tissue samples. In the study, BDG, ceftriaxone and BDG+ceftriaxone groups had statistically significant decrease in the amount of bacteria in all tissues when compared to the sepsis group (p< 0.05). We demonstrated that, BDG alone or combined treatment partially recovered the low serum IgM levels in splenectomized rats (p< 0.001 ve p< 0.02, respectively) and completely inhibited oxidative DNA damage in lung and liver after S.pneumoniae infection (p< 0.00001). In addition, BDG alone or combined treatment fairly minimized the presence of bacteria in all tissues, when compared with sepsis group (p< 0.00001). The data of our study suggests that, BDG, an immunomodulatory agent, alone and in combination with ceftriaxone can reverse the systemic inflammatory reaction in S.pneumoniae sepsis and thereby can reduce multiple organ failure.
    Mikrobiyoloji bülteni 07/2015; 49(3):314-326. DOI:10.5578/mb.9363
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    ABSTRACT: The basal core promoter (BCP) and precore (PC) gene regions of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome are important for the viral replication and synthesis of "e" antigen. Genetic variability has been described in PCP and PC gene regions, commonly in HBeAg negative patients. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of the predominant mutation patterns of BCP/PC gene regions and their correlations with HBeAg status, HBV-DNA levels, and liver biochemical profiles in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients infected with genotype D, in Mersin province which is located at Mediteranean part of Turkey. A total of 54 CHB patients (33 male, 21 female; mean age: 40.05 ± 12.91 years) infected with HBV genotype D were enrolled in the study. Serum HBV-DNA levels, serological markers (HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg, anti-HBe, anti-HBc) and biochemical profiles (ALT and AST) were analyzed in all patients. BCP and PC gene regions were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mutations of these regions were determined by direct sequencing of PCR products then aligned with known wild-type HBV sequences. BCP [nucleotide (nt.) 1753-1762/1764] and/or PC (nt. 1896) mutations were detected in 87.75% (43/49) of the patients. Mutation rates were detected as 97.1% (33/34) and 66.7% (10/15) in the HBeAg negative and in HBeAg positive patient groups, respectively (p= 0.008). PC nt. G1896A mutation was more common in HBeAg negative samples than in HBeAg positive samples (73.5% vs. 20%, p= 0.001), however there was no significant differences in the occurrence of BCP mutations between the two groups (p= 0.331). No correlation was found between the presence of BCP and/or PC mutations and serum HBV-DNA or ALT-AST levels. Our study reveals that significant number of chronically infected patients with genotype D HBV have BCP and PC variants. G1896A stop codon mutation in precore region seems to have a significant role in the loss of HBeAg in our patients. The results of our study provided important data about the frequency and the genetic heterogeneity of different kinds of mutations occurring at BCP and PC gene regions.
    Mikrobiyoloji bülteni 07/2015; 49(3):377-92. DOI:10.5578/mb.9479