Mikrobiyoloji bülteni Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Ankara Mikrobiyoloji Derneği

Journal description

Current impact factor: 0.44

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 0.438
2012 Impact Factor 0.611
2011 Impact Factor 0.402
2010 Impact Factor 0.354
2009 Impact Factor 0.286
2008 Impact Factor 0.301
2007 Impact Factor 0.209

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 0.55
Cited half-life 4.20
Immediacy index 0.04
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.10
Website Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni / Bulletin of Mikrobiyology website
Other titles Mikrobiyoloji bülteni, Bulletin of microbiology
ISSN 0374-9096
OCLC 1262126
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tularemia have attracted attention due to increased number of cases since 2009 in Amasya region which is located at Central Blacksea Region of Turkey. The aims of this letter were to provide information about the disease, to emphasize the importance of early treatment due to the outbreak peak in our province between 2009-2012 and water chlorination in epidemic areas. A total of 250 tularemia-suspected patients (117 female, 133 male; mean age: 42 yrs) who were admitted to our hospital with the symptoms of sore throat, fever, malaise and/or presence of neck mass, from 20 different locations within last four years were included in the study. Serum samples of 73 (29.2%) patients yielded ≥ 1/160 titers with F.tularensis microagglutination test which were considered as positive. All positive cases presented with the oropharyngeal form of the disease. The year with the highest number of tularemia cases was 2010. When the regional distribution was evaluated, it was detected that positive cases have precipitated especially in the southeastern (highland area) and northeastern (lowland area) parts of Amasya (34/73; 46.6%). Majority of the tularemia cases (53/73; 72.6%) were identified in colder seasons. The number of cases in rural and urban centers have decreased after 2010. In conclusion, it is considered that the emergence of new cases is likely to persist due to the geographical characteristics of Amasya and occupational properties (livestock breeding) of the population. Therefore, the clinicians should consider tularemia in differential diagnosis of the cases originated from risky rural areas.
    Mikrobiyoloji bülteni 01/2015; 49(1):139-141. DOI:10.5578/mb.8632
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    ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common cause of both community and healthcare-associated infections. As staphylococci have developed resistance to various antibiotics, initially to penicillins then to methicillin and glycopeptides and have the ability to cause epidemics, they continue to be a major problem from past to present. Methicillin resistance gave rise to the use of alternative antibiotics such as macrolides, however worldwide development of macrolide resistance limited the use of these antibiotics. Macrolide resistance occurs either through target site modification (MLSB phenotype, encoded by erm genes), efflux pumps (MS phenotype, encoded by msrA/B genes) or decreased cell wall permeability. The aim of this study was to investigate the MLSB resistance of clinical S.aureus strains with phenotypic and genotypic methods. A total of 404 S.aureus strains isolated from different clinical samples (50% wound, 15% tracheal aspirate and 35% other samples) of inpatients (93.3%) and outpatients (6.7%) were included in the study. Double disc synergy test (D-test) was used for the phenotypical research and PCR was used for the genotypical research of MLSB resistance of isolates. One hundred fifty eight (39.1%) of the S.aureus isolates were methicillin-resistant (MRSA), and 246 (60.9%) were methicillin-susceptible (MSSA). By the use of D-test, constitutive (cMLSB) and inducible (iMLSB) clindamycin resistance were detected in 19 and 111 isolates, respectively, while five isolates were MS phenotype and 268 isolates were S phenotype (susceptible to erythromycin and clindamycin). The resistance genes of 136 isolates with MLSB resistance phenotype were determined genotypically and among 111 isolates showing iMLSB phenotype ermA gene was found in 81.9% (83 MRSA, 8 MSSA), ermC gene in 10.8% (7 MRSA, 5 MSSA), msrA gene in 10.8% (11 MRSA, 1 MSSA), msrB gene in 1.8% (2 MRSA) and ermB gene in 0.9% (1 MRSA). Among 19 strains with cMLSB phenotype, ermA was found in 57.9% (10 MRSA, 1 MSSA), ermC in 36.8% (6 MRSA, 1 MSSA) and ermB in 15.8% (3 MRSA). Among five strains with MS phenotype, ermA was found in 80% (2 MRSA, 2 MSSA), msrA in 75% (3 MSSA), msrB in 50% (2 MSSA) and ermC in 25% (1 MSSA) of the isolates. ErmA and ermC genes were detected together in 14 isolates, ermA, ermC and msrA genes in one isolate, ermA and msrA genes in 11 isolates, ermA, msrA and msrB genes in three isolates and ermA and ermB genes in three isolates, respectively. In this study, two MRSA isolates with MS phenotype and negative D-test had only ermA gene and among two MSSA strains, erm genes were also determined in addition to msr genes. In our study RAPD-PCR method was used to investigate the clonal similarity, however no dominance of one or a number of clonal type was observed among the isolates in which the resistance genes were identified. In conclusion, the detection of MLSB resistance in S.aureus isolates is likely to influence the selection of antibiotics in the treatment of the infections caused by this bacteria.
    Mikrobiyoloji bülteni 01/2015; 49(1):1-14. DOI:10.5578/mb.8790
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    ABSTRACT: The role of certain serogroups and serotypes of Escherichia coli in the etiology of gastroenteritis is increasingly appreciated. It is important to detect the virulence factors of diarrheagenic E.coli strains that differentiate them from nonpathogenic members of normal intestinal flora for the diagnosis and treatment. The aims of this study were to determine the serotypes of E.coli isolates that cause gastroenteritis and to investigate the presence of virulence genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 202 watery, bloody or mucoid stool samples sent to microbiology laboratory collected from patients with diarrhea who were admitted to outpatient clinics of Trakya University Health Research and Application Hospital between February to October 2009, were included in the study. A total of 254 predominantly grown E.coli strains have been isolated and identified with conventional methods from the cultures of those 202 samples. All strains were tested by slide agglutination (SA) that includes 6 units of O serogroups polyvalent antisera of enteropathogenic E.coli (EPEC), enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC) and enteroinvasive E.coli (EIEC). The samples which yielded positive results with SA test and the same number of negative samples selected with mapping method as controls were studied for the presence of virulence genes belonging EPEC, ETEC and EIEC by conventional PCR. In the study, 14.3% (29/202) of the samples were serogrouped with SA, of them 13 (6.4%) were identified as EPEC, 11 (5.4%) as EIEC and five (2.4%) as ETEC. Only five isolates belonging to EPEC serogroup could be defined by monovalent antiserum and they were all in O1 serogroup. Out of 29 pathogenic E.coli serotyped, 3 (10.3%) of them harbored the virulence genes of diarrheagenic strains. One sample which was positive for eaeA gene of EPEC, did not harbor bfpA and stx genes and was defined as atypical EPEC. Out of other two samples, one was positive for estA gene of ETEC and the other one for ial gene of EIEC. One strain serotyped as EPEC detected to carry estA gene of ETEC with PCR. All of the 29 control isolates that give negative results with polyvalent antisera were also negative for the presence of virulence genes. In conclusion, since serotyping and conventional PCR methods did not reveal similar results for the identification of pathogenic E.coli, multicenter and large-scaled studies performed with standardized methods are needed.
    Mikrobiyoloji bülteni 01/2015; 49(1):124-129. DOI:10.5578/mb.8822
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    ABSTRACT: Aeromonas spp. are oxidase positive, gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacilli that are widely distributed in aquatic environments. A.hydrophila, A.sobria and A.bestiarum may cause severe infections in both human and cold-blooded animals. Environmental persistance of quinolones that are widely used in both human and veterinary medicine plays an important role in the selection of resistant mutants. Plasmid-mediated resistance is one of the main mechanisms involved in quinolone resistance, and qnr, qepA, aac(6')-Ib-cr, oqxAB genes are identified as resistance determinants. Determination of various types of qnr gene in different bacteria mainly in Enterobacteriaceae, suggests that they are widely distributed in nature. Recently, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance was defined among Aeromonas species isolated from water. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of qnr genes among aquatic Aeromonas spp. in Turkey. A total of 45 Aeromonas strains isolated from water and fishes collected from three different geographical regions (Aegean, Mediterranean and Blacksea) in Turkey, were included in the study. The isolates were identified at species level by the use of 16S rDNA-RFLP (Restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR). Among the isolates, 20 were identified as A.sobria, 10 as A.hydrophila, nine as A.salmonicida, four as A.bestiarum and two as A.veronii. The plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants, qnrA, qnrB, qnrC and qnrS genes, were investigated by M-PCR, and sequence analysis was performed for nine qnr-positive isolates. According to the sequence analysis of the genes, qnr genes were characterized in six A.sobria, in two A.bestiarum and in one A.hydrophila isolate (9/45; 20%). When the sequence was compared with GenBank database, this gene was found as qnrS2. All qnrS-positive Aeromonas spp. isolates were ciprofloxacin-susceptible, while five of them were resistant to nalidixic acid. This study is the first research about the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance and the presence of qnrS2 genes among Aeromonas spp. isolated from fishes and water in Turkey. In conclusion, various resistance genes of aquatic bacteria may constitute a potential risk for the transmission of those genes to other bacteria as well as clinical isolates.
    Mikrobiyoloji bülteni 01/2015; 49(1):114-123. DOI:10.5578/mb.8839
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    ABSTRACT: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunistic emergent pathogen causing hospital-acquired infections. It is resistant to majority of the broad spectrum antibiotics due to several mechanisms which significantly limit the treatment options. Although the relationship between integrons, mobile genetic elements which play role in transferring resistance genes, and the antibiotic resistance in different gram-negative bacteria have been investigated, the data are limited in Turkey especially for S.maltophilia. The aims of this study were to detect the presence of different classes of integrons and plasmids in clinical isolates of S.maltophilia and to investigate the antibiotic resistance profiles of those isolates. One hundred S.maltophilia strains isolated from various clinical samples (32 sputum, 25 tracheal aspirates, 9 urine and blood, 7 exudates and catheters, 4 sterile body fluids and wounds, 2 CSF, 1 conjunctiva) in our microbiology laboratory during January 2011-September 2012, were included in the study. The isolates were identified by VITEK2 Compact (BioMerieux, France) or Phoenix 100 (BD, USA) automatized systems, and the susceptibilities of the strains to levofloxacin, chloramphenicol, ceftazidime and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazol (SXT) were evaluated via broth microdilution method according to the CLSI recommendations. Class 1 (intI-1), class 2 (intI-2), class 3 (intI-3) integron gene cassettes and integron 5'-3' conserved gene regions (intI-5'-3'CS) were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers in all of the strains. Nucleotide sequence analysis of PCR products was performed in case of positive result, and the presence and size of plasmids were further investigated. The susceptibility rates of S.maltophilia strains to ceftazidime, chloramphenicol, SXT and levofloxacin were found as 24%, 66%, 93% and 95%, respectively, while MIC50 and MIC90 values were 64-128 µg/ml, 8-16 µg/ml, 1/19-2/38 µg/ml and 1-2 µg/ml, respectively. In PCR amplification with intI-1, intI-2 and intI-3 primers, 12%, 2% and 10% of the isolates yielded expectative bands, respectively. DNA sequence analysis of the amplified products revealed five isolates to harbour intI-1 gene, while intI class 2 and class 3 genes were not detected in any of the strains. Furthermore in PCR amplification with intI-5'CS and 3'CS primers, 20% of the strains yielded expected bands. Sequence analysis of these amplicons revealed the presence of quaternary ammonium compound resistance protein genes (qacL) in two, aminoglycoside adenyltransferase gene (aadA) in one and integron-associated recombination site (attI1) genes in five strains. Additionally, the presence of plasmids have been detected in 9 (9%) of the strains, however all of them was integron-negative. The sizes of plasmids were 2340, 1350, 2760, 18600, 20000, 3570-2540, 2510 and 5000-2540 base pairs, respectively. When the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of strains were compared with the presence of intI gene regions, no statistically significant relationship was observed (p> 0.05). In conclusion, the demonstration of integron class 1 genes and plasmids among clinical S.maltophilia strains is regarded as a warning data to indicate the potential for spread of those resistant strains in our hospital.
    Mikrobiyoloji bülteni 01/2015; 49(1):35-46. DOI:10.5578/mb.8459
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    ABSTRACT: The vast majority of vaginal fungal infections are caused by Candida species. However, vaginitis cases caused by molds are extremely rare. Aspergillus protuberus is previously known as a member of Aspergillus section Versicolores which can cause opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients, however it has recently been described as a seperate species. Although the members of Aspergillus section Versicolores have been isolated rarely in cases of pulmonary infections, eye infections, otomycosis, osteomyelitis and onycomycoses, to the best of our knowledge, there is no published case of human infection caused by A.protuberus. In this report, the first case of persistent vaginitis due to A.protuberus in an immunocompetent patient was presented. A 42-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with the complaints of pelvic pain, vaginal itching and discharge during one month. Her symptoms had been persistant despite of the miconazole nitrate and clotrimazole therapies for probable candidal vaginitis. Fungal structures such as branched, septate hyphae together with the conidial forms were seen in microscopic examination as in the cervical smear. Thereafter, a vaginal discharge sample was taken for microbiological evaluation and similar characteristics of fungal structures were observed in the microscopic examination as of cervical smear. Then, preliminary result was reported as Aspergillus spp. At the same time, the sample was plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) in duplicate and incubated at room temperature and at 37oC. After 5 days, white, powdery and pure-looking fungal colonies were observed in SDA which was incubated at room temperature, while the other medium remained sterile. The culture was submitted to the CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Center for further characterization. Phenotypic identification showed that the isolated strain belonged to the Aspergillus section Versicolores. The strain was grown for 7 days on malt extract agar and then ITS regions were amplified and sequenced from isolated DNA for genomic characterization. The obtained sequences were compared with the NCBI database and internal databases of the CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre and confirmed as Aspergillus section Versicolores. As a result of recent changes in classification of fungi, analysis of partial -tubulin and calmodulin sequences have also been used to obtain a detailed and precise characterization. Eventually, the strain has been identified as A.protuberus which is a recently accepted species distinct from Aspergillus section Versicolores. As the patient could not be contacted after the preliminary report, detailed demographical information, probable origin and route of transmission of the agent and prognosis of infection remained obscure. In conclusion, the first case of vaginitis caused by A.protuberus was described in this report with the support of clinical, pathological, microbiological and molecular data.
    Mikrobiyoloji bülteni 01/2015; 49(1):130-4. DOI:10.5578/mb.8397
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    ABSTRACT: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) constitutes a restricting factor for the effective treatment of TB worldwide. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of patients are the most effective strategy in the control of MDR-TB. Therefore, knowledge of drug resistance patterns of the MDR-TB clinical isolates are necessary in planning of an appropriate treatment regimen for the patient. The aims of this study were to detect the susceptibilities of MDR-TB isolates to second-line anti-TB drugs by E-test method, and to compare their results with Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) proportion method. A total of 122 MDR (resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin) Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) strains isolated from samples of patients with pulmonary TB were included in the study. The isolates were identified by conventional methods and first-line anti-TB drug susceptibility testing was performed by the proportion method using LJ medium. The susceptibilities of the isolates to second-line anti-TB drugs [kanamycin (KN), ofloxacin (OFL), ethionamid (ETN), linezolid (LIN)] were tested by proportion method on LJ medium and E-test method on Middlebrook 7H11 medium. For this purpose, E-test strips (bioMerieux, Fransa) of KN (0.016-256 mg/ml), OFL (0.02-32 mg/ml), ETN (0.016-256 mg/ml), and LIN (0.016-256 mg/ml) were used. The susceptibility tests were evaluated in 5., 7., and 10. days after application of the E-test strips, and proportion method on LJ medium was evaluated 28 days later. Second line-anti-TB drug susceptibility results were obtained in 5 to 10 days by E-test. Of the MDR MTC strains 98% (119/122) were susceptible to KN, OFL and LIN, while 2% (3/122) of the strains were resistant to KN and ETN. The correlation between E-test and LJ proportion method was estimated as 96% for KN and ETN, 98% for OFL, and 100% for LIN. When compared with LJ proportion method, the specificity of E-test in the detection of susceptibility to KN, OFL, ETN and LIN were 60%, 38%, 60%, and 100%, respectively, while the sensitivity was 100% for all drugs. Our results indicated that E-test method exhibited high sensitivity and specificity (100%) for LIN, so it may be used alone in susceptibility testing for this drug, however since the specificity is low (38%) for OFL it should be used together with the proportion method. In conclusion, E-test method might contribute for initiation of an early and effective anti-TB drug treatment and control of infection by rapid diagnosis in MDR-TB cases.
    Mikrobiyoloji bülteni 01/2015; 49(1):47-55. DOI:10.5578/mb.8602
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    ABSTRACT: Blastocystis species are enteric protozoa frequently detected in human and animals. Seventeen subtypes (STs) have now been identified, nine of them isolating from humans. The pleomorphic structure and genetic diversity of Blastocystis spp. and the absence of standardized diagnostic methods complicate the evaluation of current data. Microscopic methods such as native-lugol and trichrome staining are most frequently used methods in routine diagnosis, while culture and molecular methods are preferred for research purposes. The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of Blastocystis spp. in the stool samples of patients with gastrointestinal complaints by microscopic and culture methods, and to detect the subtypes of isolates by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 350 stool samples collected from patients with diarrhea (n= 157) and without diarrhea (n= 193) were included in the study. Presence of Blastocystis spp. in the samples were investigated by native-lugol examination, trichrome staining and direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) methods. Ringer's solution containing 10% horse serum and 0.05% asparagine was used for cultivation. The cultures were evaluated after 3-4 days of incubation at 37oC by microscopic examination. The subtypes of Blastocystis spp. strains isolated from the cultures have been identified by PCR using sequence-tagged site primers. A total of 66 (19%) stool samples, of them 26 (16.6%) were from diarrheal and 40 (21%) from non-diarrheal cases, yielded Blastocystis sp. growth in culture. Among the evaluated samples, 12% (42/350) were found positive with native-lugol examination, 17% (58/350) with trichrome staining, and 19% (66/350) with DFA method. The agreement of culture and native-lugol method was estimated as strong (κ= 0.752), while it was very strong between culture with trichrome staining and DFA methods (κ= 0.922 and κ= 1.00, respectively). When the culture was accepted as reference method, the sensitivity and specificity rates of native-lugol method were 65% and 100%, trichrome staining method were 88% and 100%, and DFA method were 100% and 100%, respectively. Forty-three (65%) of Blastocystis spp. positive samples were subtyped by PCR, while 23 isolates could not be subtyped. The most frequent detected subtype was ST3 (12/43; 28%), followed by ST1 (6/43; 13.9%), ST4 (5/43; 11.6%) and ST7 (5/43; 11.6%), ST2 (3/43; 7%) and ST6 (1/43; 2.3%). ST5 was not detected in this study and 11 (25.6%) samples have been identified to have mixed subtypes. The differences of Blastocystis spp. positivity rates and the distribution of the subtypes between the patients with or without diarrhea were not found statistically significant (p> 0.05). In our study, ST3 was the most frequently identified Blastocystis spp. subtype, similar to the previous national studies, however ST6 and ST7 have been identified for the first time. In conclusion, as the sensitivity of native-lugol examination is low, culture is time-consuming and laborious and PCR methods are costly and non-standardized, rapid, practical and high sensitive DFA is considered as the favourable method in the diagnosis of Blastocystis spp. in routine laboratories.
    Mikrobiyoloji bülteni 01/2015; 49(1):85-97. DOI:10.5578/mb.8439
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    ABSTRACT: Unlike Hymenolepis nana that transmits directly from person to person, the transmission of Hymenolepis diminuta to human is via accidentally ingesting of arthropods carrying cysticercoid larvae as intermediate host. In places with poor hygienic conditions, this cestod may cause seldom infections especially in children. Studies carried out on various populations have reported the prevalence rate of H.diminuta between 0.001% and 5.5%. Although the reported cases are mostly children, the disease can be seen in every age group. In this report, a pediatric case of H.diminuta infection is presented. A twenty one-month-old male patient with the symptoms of vomiting 3-4 times a day along with mud-like diarrhea continuing for a week was admitted to the pediatric outpatient clinic. According to the history, it was learned that the house where he lived was above a barn and there was a history of insect swallowing. Laboratory findings revealed iron-deficiency anemia. The macroscopic appearance of the stool was in a pale clay-like form, and by direct microscopic examination with lugol solution, 70-75 μm in diameter, thick-shelled and six central hookleted eggs that are characteristic for H.diminuta were identified. A six-day course of oral niclosamide was administered to the patient beginning with 500 mg on the first day and 250 mg on the following five days, together with the treatment for the iron deficiency anemia. After fifteen days, the oral niclosamide treatment was repeated. No H.diminuta eggs were detected in the parasitological examination performed one month after completion of the second round of treatment. This case has been presented to call attention to the importance of patient anamnesis and microscopic examination in the diagnosis of H.diminuta infection which is a rarely seen parasitosis.
    Mikrobiyoloji bülteni 01/2015; 49(1):135-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Microsporidia species are obligate intracellular parasites and constitute one of the most important opportunistic pathogens that can cause severe infections especially in immunocompromised patients. Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis are the most common species among 14 microsporidia species identified as human pathogens. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of E.intestinalis and E.bieneusi in cancer patients under chemotherapy by immunofluorescent antibody and conventional staining methods. A total of 123 stool samples obtained from 93 patients (58 male, 35 female) with cancer who were followed in oncology and hematology clinics of our hospital and 30 healthy volunteers (13 male, 17 female) were included in the study. Fifty-one (55%) of the patients had complain of diarrhea. The presence of E.intestinalis and E.bieneusi were investigated by a commercial immunofluorescence antibody test using monoclonal antibodies (IFA-MAbs; Bordier Affinity Products, Switzerland) in all of the samples, and 50 of the samples were also investigated by modified trichrome, acid-fast trichrome and calcofluor staining methods. A total of 65 (69.9%) patients were found positive with IFA-MAbs method, including 43 (46.2%) E.intestinalis, 9 (9.7%) E.bieneusi and 13 (14%) mixed infections. In the control group, 5 (16.7%) subjects were positive with IFA-MAbs method, including 2 (6.7%) E.intestinalis, 1 (3.3%) E.bieneusi and 2 (6.7%) mixed infections. The difference between the positivity rate of the patient and control groups was statistically significant (p< 0.05). Of the patients with diarrhea, 68.6% (35/51) were infected with microsporidia, and the difference between cases with and without (48.6%) diarrhea was statistically significant (p< 0.05). When 50 samples in which all of the methods could be performed were evaluated, the frequency of microsporidia were detected as follows; 66% (n= 33) with IFA-MAbs, 34% (n= 17) with modified trichrome staining, 24% (n= 12) with acid-fast trichrome staining and 42% (n= 21) with calcofluor staining methods. Our data indicated that the use of IFA-MAbs method along with the conventional staining methods in diagnosis of microsporidia will increase the sensitivity. As a conclusion, the prevalence of E.intestinalis and E.bieneusi in cancer patients under chemotherapy was detected quite high (69.9%) in our study, it would be appropriate to screen these patients regularly in terms of microsporidian pathogens.
    Mikrobiyoloji bülteni 01/2015; 49(1):105-13.
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    ABSTRACT: Following the report of the first AIDS case in Turkey in 1985, the total number of HIV-positive and AIDS cases is 6802 near the end of June 2013, according to the data obtained from the Turkish Ministry of Health. Although combined antiretroviral drug therapy has greatly improved the life-span and the life quality of the patients, HIV-1 drug resistance poses a major obstacle for treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of primary drug resistance in antiretroviral therapy-naive cases. Plasma samples obtained from 190 cases (143 male, 28 female, 19 unknown; age range: 20-72 yrs; mean age: 34.7 yrs) sent to AIDS Confirmation Center of Turkish Public Health Institution, from different provinces of Turkey (Ankara: 64; Adana: 42; Istanbul: 20; Antalya: 13; Gaziantep: 11; Erzurum: 5; Elazig: 3; Malatya: 3; Mersin: 3; and 26 samples from other 21 regions) for routine HIV-1 genotyping test between May 2010-April 2014 period were included in the study. In viral pol gene, complete protease encoding sequence and the first 335 codons of reverse transcriptase (RT) encoding sequence were analyzed by Sanger population-based sequencing method with a commercial test kit (ViroSeq, Abbott/Celera Diagnostics, USA). An alternative in house PCR method with different set of primers was used when the commercial test failed. Primary drug resistance mutations were identified according to the WHO 2009 drug resistance surveillance list. The mean HIV-RNA level at the time of resistance testing was 5.07 (range, 2.09-7.67) log10 copies/ml and the median CD4+ T cell count was 280.3 (range, 0-1000) cells/mm3. The period between the diagnosis of HIV infection and HIV-1 drug resistance test was 18.4 (range, 0-973) weeks. Most prevalent HIV-1 subtypes were subtype B (31%); recombinant B, F1 (24.7%), sub-subtype A1 (16.8%), recombinant B/CRF02_AG (10.5%) and CRF02_G (7.8%). Analysis of our results showed that 10% (19/190) of the samples exhibited resistance mutations. Detected mutations were as follows: M41L, K70E, M184V, L210W and T215C/D/S, responsible for nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTI) resistance; K103N/S and Y181C, responsible for non-nucleoside RT inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance; M46L and L90M, responsible for protease inhibitor (PI) resistance. NRTI, NNRTI and PI mutation rates in the samples were found as 5.2%, 3.1% and 2.1%, respectively. Both NRTI and NNRTI mutations were detected in one sample. Two mutations leading to NRTI resistance were obtained together in five samples. Seven out of the 19 strains with primary resistance mutation were isolated from samples sent from Ankara, three from Adana, two of each from Istanbul, Erzurum and Mersin, and one of each from Amasya, Samsun and Tokat provinces. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of age, gender, CD4+ T cell count, time from diagnosis to resistance testing between the patient group with primary drug resistance and the group without resistance (p> 0.05). However, the mean HIV-RNA level in patients with primary drug resistance [4.77 (2.95-6.87) log10 copies/ml] was significantly lower than those without primary drug resistance [5.11 (2.09-7.67) log10 copies/ml] (p= 0.043). Our results revealed a relatively high (10%) prevalence of HIV-1 primary drug resistance. We therefore support the need for routine HIV resistance testing so that clinicians can individualize their treatments taking into account the presenting drug resistance.
    Mikrobiyoloji bülteni 10/2014; 48(4):585-95.