Physiologia Bohemoslovaca

Publisher: Fysiologický ústav (Československá akademie věd)


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Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: The authors studied the question of the completeness of ventilation of an additional dead space in the form of a tube 3 cm in diameter and with a volume of 600 ml. Seven young volunteers were examined while breathing with and without the tube, seated at rest and during a two-grade exercise load on a bicycle ergometer. The criterion of ventilation of the tube was enlargement of the dead space by 600 ml during breathing through the tube. The functional dead space was always calculated from the tidal volume and the CO2 concentration in mixed expired air and in an end-tidal sample, using the Bohr equation. In every case, the tube was found to be completely ventilated by breathing, both under resting conditions and during exercise. In breathing during the bicycle exercise, the ratio of the functional dead space to tidal volume fell from 0.3 to 0.19 and a similar decrease was recorded in breathing through the tube.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(5):443-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The micropuncture technique and X-ray microanalyses were used to evaluate Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl and fluid transport in the early distal tubule mediated by low-molecular fractions isolated from the intestine of the hibernating ground squirrel (HSI). Perfusion of intertubular capillaries with a solution containing HSI with a molecular weight of 1-10 kD (0.1 decreased the relative reabsorption of fluid, Ca and Mg. The other low-molecular fraction 1-10 kD of m.v. (0.1 isolated from the intestine of alert ground squirrels (ASI 1-10) caused no significant changes of the ionic concentration and inulin concentration index in the distal tubule. Fraction 1 with molecular weight 1.2-4.5 kD (0.1 obtained by further division of HSI 1-10, decreased the reabsorption of fluid and ions under study. Fractions 2 (m.w. 0.98 kD) and 3 (m.w. 0.89 kD) had no effect on the ion and fluid transport in the same tubule. The addition of naloxone (0.4 blocked the action mediated by HSI 1-10 or fraction 1. Thus, the substance(s) capable of regulating Ca, Mg, and fluid transport in the distal tubule likely to be mediated by the opiate-dependent process has a molecular weight of 1.2-4.5 kD.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(5):425-34.
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    ABSTRACT: Bilateral paralysis of the diaphragm can result in normo or hypoventilation, according to the species studied. Our aim was to ascertain the results of bilateral phrenicotomy in the rat and, if hypoventilation should be present, to try to identify its pathophysiology. We used 33 male rats under urethane anaesthesia (1.3 g/kg i.p.). They were divided into three groups: control animals, rats with bilateral phrenicotomy and a group with two doses of pentobarbital (25 mg/kg i.p. each) on top of the urethane anaesthesia. We observed pronounced hypoventilation both in the rats after phrenicotomy and those with pentobarbital. At comparable levels of hypoventilation (PaCO2 = 5.61 +/- 0.28 kPa immediately after phrenicotomy and 5.91 +/- 0.25 kPa after the first dose of pentobarbital; and 7.21 +/- 0.47 kPa 4 hours after phrenicotomy and 7.38 +/- 0.39 kPa after the second dose of pentobarbital) the only difference was a longer relative duration of inspiration in phrenicotomized rats; (0.39 +/- 0.04 and 0.34 +/- 0.04 after phrenicotomy; 0.32 +/- 0.04 and 0.24 +/- 0.05 in rats after pentobarbital). Immediately after phrenicotomy and 2 and 4 hours later, and also after both doses of pentobarbital breathing was stimulated by hypoxia and hypercapnia due to the additional external dead space (0.5 ml) for 5 min. There was no pronounced differences in the ventilatory response to the dead space between the two groups; the response changed from an isocapnic (in control rats and before phrenicotomy or pentobarbital) to an isoventilatory one (four hours after phrenicotomy and after the second dose of pentobarbital). The rats after the second dose of pentobarbital did not, however, survive the added dead space.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(5):435-42.
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with essential hypertension have 3.2 fold and patients with chronic uraemia 11.7 fold higher serum concentrations of endogenous digitalis-like activity than normotensives (76.3 +/- 9.3 nM). Upon haemodialysis this serum activity drops to almost normal values. A low molecular factor could be partially purified from 4000 l haemofiltrate.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(1):79-85.
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    ABSTRACT: The delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) was studied in guinea-pigs using the skin test. The mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tbc)--was applied by various routes. The control group received ovalbumin in Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA) into the footpad. The first experimental group received ovalbumin in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) into the footpad. The other experimental groups always received, in addition to ovalbumin plus FIA into the footpad, the M. tbc. 1. intracisternally, 2. intramuscularly, 3. intraperitoneally, 4. orally. On the day of administration of the sensibilizing substance, the body temperature was monitored. The skin test was measured after 14 and 21 days. It was established that, for the study of the DTH, the 21-day interval was more significant than the 14-day interval. A 100 times smaller dose of M. tbc. given intracisternally had the same immunostimulating effect as the injection of ovalbumin with M. tbc into the footpad (p less than 0.01). The size of the skin reaction was not only significantly influenced by the intramuscular and oral administration of M. tbc. On the other hand, the intraperitoneal administration inhibited the DTH (p less than 0.01). The increase of body temperature after the administration of M. tbc. correlated with the influence on the DTH except for the intraperitoneal administration. The route of the M. tbc. administration was crucial for the development of the DTH.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(3):193-8.
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    ABSTRACT: One of the central issues in present experimental pain research is to establish the identity, location, and mechanism of action of various opioids (opioid peptides and alkaloids) and multiple opioid receptors in the modulation of nociceptive processes. At the cerebral level, studies employing several experimental approaches point to an essential role of beta-endorphin in analgesia, induced by electrical stimulation of the periaqueductal grey of the midbrain. Tolerance and cross-tolerance studies suggest that mu-opioid receptors mediate this effect. The significance of delta- and, in particular, chi-opioid receptors in cerebral pain modulation is less well documented. At the spinal level, nociception is relayed in the dorsal horn, where opioid peptides as well as all types of opioid receptors are abundant. mu-opioid receptor-mediated antinociceptive processes appear to be most important in this region, but delta-opioid receptors may also be involved. In addition, a role of chi-opioid receptors can be demonstrated under certain conditions. Recent experiments indicate that opioids may also modulate nociception in the periphery, in particular in inflamed tissue. The identification of opioid receptors and their endogenous ligands, the opioid peptides, marked the beginning of a new era in pain research. The differentiation of several types of opioid receptors and the subsequent characterization of a series of opioid peptides illustrate the striking complexity of opioid systems. The implications of this multiplicity for neurobiology in general and for the understanding of pain mechanisms in particular are presently not fully understood. In this presentation some aspects of opioidergic pain control at various levels of the neuraxis will be discussed.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(5):395-401.
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    ABSTRACT: A study of the numbers of pulmonary endocrine cells per cm2 of section of lung obtained at combined heart-lung transplantation in 25 cases of plexogenic pulmonary arteriopathy demonstrated that the peptide which may become unduly prominent in pulmonary arterial disease is bombesin. The type of vascular disease in which bombesin becomes prominent is plexogenic pulmonary arteriopathy, be this primary or secondary to congenital heart disease. The increased prominence of bombesin appears to be related to the stage reached in the arteriopathy. Increased numbers of pulmonary endocrine cells are found in association with classic cellular plexiform lesions with narrow vascular channels. Their numbers are within normal limits when the plexiform lesions are mature with wide vascular channels and narrow intervening septa. The pulmonary endocrine cells are most prominent in the pre-plexiform stage when smooth muscle cells in the inner half of the media of the pulmonary artery show increased electron density, and migrate through gaps in the inner elastic lamina to reach the intima. Here they are transformed into myofibroblasts and proliferate. The migration of muscle cells may be related in some way to long-acting trophic factors released from the pulmonary endocrine cells into the surrounding tissues from which they reach the blood and hence the pulmonary arteries.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(4):309-13.
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    ABSTRACT: Male Wistar strain rats and PHHC (Prague hereditary hypercholesterolaemic) rats received an intraperitoneal injection of 4-cholesten-3-one for five days. Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity and total cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipid levels were determined in their serum. A significant drop in the total cholesterol level was found in normocholesterolaemic Wistar rats after the administration of cholestenone. The serum triglyceride content remained unaltered and the phospholipid concentration showed a downward trend. Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity was also significantly reduced. In PHHC rats, no significant changes occurred in total cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipid levels, or in lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity, after the administration of 4-cholesten-3-one. A comparison of serum 4-cholesten-3-one concentrations in the two groups of experimental animals shows that the turnover time for this substance in hypercholesterolaemic rats is only half as long as in normocholesterolaemic rats.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(2):119-23.
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    ABSTRACT: Experiments were carried out on 16 anaesthetized, non-paralysed cats to determine the effects of unilateral, successive focal cooling of the nuclei of the dorsal and ventral respiratory groups (DRG, VRG) of the medulla oblongata on quiet breathing parameters. The results of cold block tests of the respiratory nuclei showed that: 1. Compared with the control state, cooling of the ventrolateral part of the nucleus solitarii (vl. NTS) and the rostral part of the nucleus retroambigualis (r. NRA) to 20 degrees C or 15 degrees C decreased the respiration rate (p less than 0.001), prolonged the inspiration time (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001 respectively) and the development of apneustic breathing. A decrease in the inspiratory pleural pressure values (p less than 0.01) was found after cooling the r. NRA region to 15 degrees C. In 45% of the cases of cooling of the vl. NTS and 66.7% of cooling of the r. NRA to 15 degrees C, an incidence of short inspiratory efforts was observed. 2. Focal cooling of the nucleus retrofacialis (nucl. RF) region to 20 degrees C always arrested rhythmic respiration. 3. The effects of unilateral focal cooling of the respiratory nuclei were always bilaterally symmetrical and, after discontinuing cooling, reversible. 4. The findings indicate that the inspiratory neurones of the r. NRA participate more in regulation of the intensity of inspiration than those of the vl. NTS, while the nucl. RF region may be a part of central regulatory mechanisms essential for the maintenance of rhythmic breathing in cats.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(2):171-84.
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    ABSTRACT: The self-sustained after-discharges (SSADs) characterised by the EEG pattern of serrated waves (SerW) were induced by rhythmic low frequency electrical stimulation of thalamic nuclei and the hippocampus of Wistar albino male rats in acute experiments. We used spreading depression to eliminate functionally the cortex and the hippocampus. Suction ablation of the cortical somatosensory projection area was also used to test its involvement in the SerW SSAD induction. The hippocampal spreading depression but not the cortical one abolished the SerW SSAD induced by the stimulation of the thalamic nuclei. The animals with the suction ablation of the somatosensory projection area also produced SerW SSADs when the stimulation electrodes were placed in the thalamic ventrobasal complex (in intact animals this stimulation induces spike-and-wave SSADs but not SerW-SSAD). The crucial importance of the hippocampus in the SerW SSAD generation and its possible use as a model of partial seizures with complex symptomatology is discussed.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(4):335-42.
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    ABSTRACT: In experiments on Wistar strain rats of both sexes, aged 5, 10 and 14 days and adult (90-120 days), of their own breed, the authors determined the quantitative proportion of individual fatty acids in the serum free non-esterified fatty acid (FFA) fraction, using mixed blood (obtained by decapitation) and the titration method of Trout et al. (1960). The proportion of the individual fatty acids was then determined in this fraction by gas chromatography (Base 1978) and their concentration (in mumol.1-1) was determined by simple calculation from the relative chromatogram data. Animals in the first three age groups were killed in the morning, directly from the nest; in adult rats the FFA fraction was measured after a 20 h fast. It was demonstrated that the increase in the proportion of monoenoic acids was highly statistically significant (about fivefold) during ontogenesis and that there was also a marked increase in the quantitative expression of polyenic acids, especially in group (n-6). The n-6/n-3 acid index in the FFA fraction altered during maturation (despite some fluctuation it basically rose from 4.3 in 5-day-old young to 10.0 in adult rats). It was further demonstrated that the concentration of fatty acids with a very short chain fell significantly during development, so that C 8:0, for example, could be detected only in the first two age groups, but not in 14-day-old and adult rats. The concentration of the saturated fatty acids C 15:0 to C 18:0 in the serum FFA fraction showed a statistically significant increase, while the index expressing the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids displayed a downward trend during development.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(2):125-34.
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    ABSTRACT: 1. The levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the liver and brain of newborn rats were independent of the birth mechanism (Cesarean section or natural birth). A significant increase of GSH content could be demonstrated 3 h after birth in the liver only. 2. The influence of reversible hypoxia (9 vol. % O2 in the respired air for one hour) on GSH and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels and the content of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reagible products were investigated in the liver and brain of newborn rats in dependence on the duration of reoxygenation. Only small changes were observed in the liver indicating a relative resistance of this organ to hypoxic stress and reoxygenation. Distinct effects were found in the brain, indicating that the glutathione status is altered by increased lipid peroxidation.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(3):257-60.
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    ABSTRACT: Successful and unsuccessful reaching attempts in rats were analysed with the aim of resolving the question of the programming of reaching movement. The course of movement was monitored continuously by a method based on the law of magnetic induction. The study of reaching showed that the forelimb extension had the same time course characteristics in both cases of reaching attempts and displayed features of preprogrammed ballistic movement. The course of the consecutive phases (grasping, forelimb flexion) showed differences between successful and unsuccessful attempts and also between individual successful attempts. The variability of the course of grasping and forelimb flexion indicates that a peripheral feedback participates in regulation of its performance and that the information on grasping the pellet is decisive for the subsequent performance of reaching. Reaching as a whole cannot be considered as a preprogrammed ballistic movement, but some of its components correspond to this pattern.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(4):343-50.
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    ABSTRACT: The authors studied the effect of administration of thyroid hormones on the beta-adrenergic receptors of rat adenohypophyseal cells. The administration of triiodothyronine and thyroxine was followed by an increase in specific binding for 3H-dihydroalprenolol. No significant differences were found in cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels before and after isoprenaline stimulation. The significance of changes in these receptors for the hyperplastic reaction after oestrogens is discussed with reference to the inhibitory effect of the thyroid hormones on hyperplasia of the adenohypophyseal cells after the administration of oestradiol.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(3):249-52.
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    ABSTRACT: Male Wistar rats were subjected to 65-70% hepatectomy and either immediately or 18 h after surgery were given a 6-hour infusion containing 3 ml of either Ringer solution or aqua pro injectione alone or with L-carnitine in doses 8 mg (12.4 mumol), 40 mg (62 mumol) and 200 mg (310.2 mumol)/kg b.w. The rats were killed 6, 18, 24 and 30 h after surgery. The changes in the DNA specific activity and in the mitotic activity demonstrate that L-carnitine has a stimulating, dose-dependent effect on liver regeneration. This effect acts both during early post-hepatectomy, the prereplicative period and in the subsequent replicative period.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(3):233-42.
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    ABSTRACT: The time course of lipid peroxidation was studied in the rat brain cortex after ischaemia and reperfusion. The ischaemia was induced by 4-hour occlusion of both common carotid arteries and was followed by reperfusion of different duration (10, 30 or 60 min). The extent of lipid peroxidation was determined by measurement of conjugated dienes (CD) and TBA reactive products. Maximal values of CD and TBA reactive products were found after 10- and 30-minute reperfusion. This indicated the most suitable time interval for studying the effect of antioxidants and oxygen radical scavengers in this model of brain ischaemia.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(6):513-7.
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    ABSTRACT: In albino rats, as in other mammals, nucleoli with nucleolonemata and compact nucleoli in the stem cells of the erythrocyte and granulocyte series are progressively replaced during maturation and differentiation first by ring shaped nucleoli and then by micronucleoli with low and finally with inhibited RNA synthesis. There are, however, differences between the nucleolar coefficient values and the proportion of ring shaped nucleoli and micronucleoli in maturing neutrophils in the albino rat, the mouse and man. In the case of the erythroblasts, the differences between the proportion of various nucleolar types in the three given species are smaller. The results thus indicate that the developmental trend of nucleolar changes related to cell maturation and differentiation is the same, but that there are interspecies differences because of which the results obtained in one species cannot be applied mechanically to another, i.e. results obtained in a laboratory animal cannot be applied automatically to man.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(6):505-11.
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    ABSTRACT: Adult SHR aged 19-21 weeks, subjected to osmotic diuresis, responded to an intravenous 1.8% saline loading (15 ml/kg b.w.) with greater sodium excretion than age-matched WKY. Young (6-7 weeks old) SHR and WKY also responded to saline loading with an increased sodium excretion but there were no differences in the relative changes of sodium excretion between young WKY and SHR. In adult WKY, saline loading induced a faster erythrocyte 22Na uptake as compared with adult SHR or young WKY. This suggests that volume and/or sodium loading increased sodium turnover of red cells only in adult WKY. The sodium transport differences found in erythrocytes of adult SHR and WKY could be caused by some membrane differences or could be due to different hormonal and nonhormonal response(s) to saline loading. If similar alterations would also occur in other tissues, they might be important for the sodium excretion pattern.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(1):49-56.
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    ABSTRACT: An assay was developed to characterize the kinetic parameters of the Na(+)-K+ pump of rat erythrocytes under conditions as physiological as possible. Changes in the red cell Na+ and Rb+ content were determined in Na+ media (containing 2.5 mM inorganic phosphate (PO4) as a function of cell Na+ (2-8 mmol/l) and extracellular Rb+ (0.2-5 mM). Evaluation of the data revealed that under these conditions the Na(+)-K+ pump mediates, in addition to forward running 3 Nai+: 2 Rbo+ exchange, 1 Ki+:Rbo+ exchange and pump reversal (3 Nao+:2 Ki+ exchange). The two latter modes of Na(+)-K+ pump operation are accelerated by PO4 and lowering of cell Na+. At physiological cation and PO4 concentrations, 1Ki+:Rbo+ exchange contributes by 30-60% to total ouabain-sensitive Rb+ uptake. Thereby, the stoichiometry of ouabain-sensitive Na+ net-extrusion to Rb+ uptake is reduced to values between 1.0 and 0.5. Only at cell Na+ contents above 20 mmol/l the Na+:Rb+ stoichiometry approaches the value of 3:2 = 1.5. At certain constellations of Nai+ and Rbo+ the Na(+)-K+ pump cannot perform any net-transport of Na+ and K+ (Rb+). These equilibrium points are not far from those expected from thermodynamic considerations. The results demonstrate that in normal rat erythrocytes the reversible reaction cycle of the Na(+)-K+ pump runs in several modes of operation. The "abnormal" modes complicate the interpretation of unidirectional fluxes mediated by the Na(+)-K+ pump.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(1):3-14.
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    ABSTRACT: Diazepam was administered by infusion to three groups of rats with an induced differentiated total lipid content in their lymph (unfed, fed, oil-fed) and its lymph/blood concentration ratios in the steady state were determined. Ratio values were highest in the group with the highest lymph lipid content (the oil-fed group, 2.20 +/- 0.08) and fell significantly in the other groups (fed group 1.46 +/- 0.09, unfed group 1.15 +/- 0.05). The areas under the blood and lymph concentration curves after the intravenous (i.v.) and intraduodenal (i.d.) administration of diazepam were used to determine absolute (F) and lymphatic (FL) bioavailability. The F value in the blood can be raised by increasing the amount of lipids, whereas in the lymph, under the same conditions, it falls. During the i.v. and i.d. administration of diazepam, FL always rises with an increase in the amount of lipids in the lymph. The role played by the lymphatic system in total diazepam absorption was determined from the experimental results of its i.d. administration. The absolute values are very low (0.043-0.316%), but are significantly influenced by the presence of lipids.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(5):403-8.

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