Physiologia Bohemoslovaca

Publisher: Fysiologický ústav (Československá akademie věd)


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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Male Wistar rats were subjected to 65-70% hepatectomy and either immediately or 18 h after surgery were given a 6-hour infusion containing 3 ml of either Ringer solution or aqua pro injectione alone or with L-carnitine in doses 8 mg (12.4 mumol), 40 mg (62 mumol) and 200 mg (310.2 mumol)/kg b.w. The rats were killed 6, 18, 24 and 30 h after surgery. The changes in the DNA specific activity and in the mitotic activity demonstrate that L-carnitine has a stimulating, dose-dependent effect on liver regeneration. This effect acts both during early post-hepatectomy, the prereplicative period and in the subsequent replicative period.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(3):233-42.
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    ABSTRACT: In albino rats, as in other mammals, nucleoli with nucleolonemata and compact nucleoli in the stem cells of the erythrocyte and granulocyte series are progressively replaced during maturation and differentiation first by ring shaped nucleoli and then by micronucleoli with low and finally with inhibited RNA synthesis. There are, however, differences between the nucleolar coefficient values and the proportion of ring shaped nucleoli and micronucleoli in maturing neutrophils in the albino rat, the mouse and man. In the case of the erythroblasts, the differences between the proportion of various nucleolar types in the three given species are smaller. The results thus indicate that the developmental trend of nucleolar changes related to cell maturation and differentiation is the same, but that there are interspecies differences because of which the results obtained in one species cannot be applied mechanically to another, i.e. results obtained in a laboratory animal cannot be applied automatically to man.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(6):505-11.
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    ABSTRACT: The time course of lipid peroxidation was studied in the rat brain cortex after ischaemia and reperfusion. The ischaemia was induced by 4-hour occlusion of both common carotid arteries and was followed by reperfusion of different duration (10, 30 or 60 min). The extent of lipid peroxidation was determined by measurement of conjugated dienes (CD) and TBA reactive products. Maximal values of CD and TBA reactive products were found after 10- and 30-minute reperfusion. This indicated the most suitable time interval for studying the effect of antioxidants and oxygen radical scavengers in this model of brain ischaemia.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(6):513-7.
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    ABSTRACT: 1. The levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the liver and brain of newborn rats were independent of the birth mechanism (Cesarean section or natural birth). A significant increase of GSH content could be demonstrated 3 h after birth in the liver only. 2. The influence of reversible hypoxia (9 vol. % O2 in the respired air for one hour) on GSH and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels and the content of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reagible products were investigated in the liver and brain of newborn rats in dependence on the duration of reoxygenation. Only small changes were observed in the liver indicating a relative resistance of this organ to hypoxic stress and reoxygenation. Distinct effects were found in the brain, indicating that the glutathione status is altered by increased lipid peroxidation.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(3):257-60.
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    ABSTRACT: Successful and unsuccessful reaching attempts in rats were analysed with the aim of resolving the question of the programming of reaching movement. The course of movement was monitored continuously by a method based on the law of magnetic induction. The study of reaching showed that the forelimb extension had the same time course characteristics in both cases of reaching attempts and displayed features of preprogrammed ballistic movement. The course of the consecutive phases (grasping, forelimb flexion) showed differences between successful and unsuccessful attempts and also between individual successful attempts. The variability of the course of grasping and forelimb flexion indicates that a peripheral feedback participates in regulation of its performance and that the information on grasping the pellet is decisive for the subsequent performance of reaching. Reaching as a whole cannot be considered as a preprogrammed ballistic movement, but some of its components correspond to this pattern.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(4):343-50.
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    ABSTRACT: The authors studied the effect of administration of thyroid hormones on the beta-adrenergic receptors of rat adenohypophyseal cells. The administration of triiodothyronine and thyroxine was followed by an increase in specific binding for 3H-dihydroalprenolol. No significant differences were found in cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels before and after isoprenaline stimulation. The significance of changes in these receptors for the hyperplastic reaction after oestrogens is discussed with reference to the inhibitory effect of the thyroid hormones on hyperplasia of the adenohypophyseal cells after the administration of oestradiol.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(3):249-52.
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    ABSTRACT: In experiments on Wistar strain rats of both sexes, aged 5, 10 and 14 days and adult (90-120 days), of their own breed, the authors determined the quantitative proportion of individual fatty acids in the serum free non-esterified fatty acid (FFA) fraction, using mixed blood (obtained by decapitation) and the titration method of Trout et al. (1960). The proportion of the individual fatty acids was then determined in this fraction by gas chromatography (Base 1978) and their concentration (in mumol.1-1) was determined by simple calculation from the relative chromatogram data. Animals in the first three age groups were killed in the morning, directly from the nest; in adult rats the FFA fraction was measured after a 20 h fast. It was demonstrated that the increase in the proportion of monoenoic acids was highly statistically significant (about fivefold) during ontogenesis and that there was also a marked increase in the quantitative expression of polyenic acids, especially in group (n-6). The n-6/n-3 acid index in the FFA fraction altered during maturation (despite some fluctuation it basically rose from 4.3 in 5-day-old young to 10.0 in adult rats). It was further demonstrated that the concentration of fatty acids with a very short chain fell significantly during development, so that C 8:0, for example, could be detected only in the first two age groups, but not in 14-day-old and adult rats. The concentration of the saturated fatty acids C 15:0 to C 18:0 in the serum FFA fraction showed a statistically significant increase, while the index expressing the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids displayed a downward trend during development.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(2):125-34.
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    ABSTRACT: Adult SHR aged 19-21 weeks, subjected to osmotic diuresis, responded to an intravenous 1.8% saline loading (15 ml/kg b.w.) with greater sodium excretion than age-matched WKY. Young (6-7 weeks old) SHR and WKY also responded to saline loading with an increased sodium excretion but there were no differences in the relative changes of sodium excretion between young WKY and SHR. In adult WKY, saline loading induced a faster erythrocyte 22Na uptake as compared with adult SHR or young WKY. This suggests that volume and/or sodium loading increased sodium turnover of red cells only in adult WKY. The sodium transport differences found in erythrocytes of adult SHR and WKY could be caused by some membrane differences or could be due to different hormonal and nonhormonal response(s) to saline loading. If similar alterations would also occur in other tissues, they might be important for the sodium excretion pattern.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(1):49-56.
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of acute hypoxic hypoxia elicited by N2 inhalation on the driving and timing components of the breathing pattern were studied in 18 adult anaesthetized cats. Two phases could be distinguished in the ventilatory response to acute hypoxia. During the first phase, mean inspiratory flow (VT/TI) increased exponentially up to 240% of the initial value. During the second phase, VT/TI gradually decreased, reaching the control values in the last preapnoeic breaths during the first exposure and remained higher than normal with earlier respiratory arrest in three repeated N2 inhalations. No significant changes could be observed in the timing component of breathing pattern (TI/TT) in the course of the first hypoxic exposure, and the changes in TI/TT did not exceed 7% in repeated attacks. This suggests that the shortening of both inspiratory and expiratory durations increased the breathing frequency up to 130% of its resting value. Moreover, tachypnoea was preserved until respiratory arrest. Accordingly, it is concluded that the decrease in ventilation with the appearance of apnoea during the second phase of N2 inhalation in anaesthetized cats is not due to a failure of respiratory timing, but to a depression of the driving mechanisms which are responsible for this phenomenon.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(3):217-26.
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    ABSTRACT: Golden hamsters with alimentary hyperlipoproteinaemia (fed on a diet in which 44% of the energy was accounted for by fats, 52 mg cholesterol (CH)/100 g) were given apple pulp (10% of the diet) for six months. From the end of the first month up to the end of the experiment, elevation of serum CH, triacylglycerol (TG) and phospholipid (PL) levels and CH and TG accumulation in the liver were effectively inhibited. At the close of the experiment, hyperlipoproteinaemia was characterized by an increase in the amount of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), which carried 60-80% of all circulating lipids, accounted for over 70% of the total lipoprotein pool and transported almost 60% of the serum CH (high density lipoproteins--HDL--only 16%). The apple diet markedly reduced (by 50-80%) the amount of all lipids in the lipoproteins within density limits of 1,006-1,063 kg/m3 and lowered the total lipid concentration in these density classes and in the lipoprotein pool as a whole (by 50%). The proportion of the individual lipoprotein classes in the lipoprotein pool was not significantly affected. The apple diet did not affect either the chemical composition of HDL or their participation in the lipoprotein pool, but raised the proportion of serum CH transported in this lipoprotein class. Neither the lipoprotein lipase activity of the adipose tissue nor lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity were influenced by the apple diet.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(4):361-9.
  • Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(2):113-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Salt loads (0.17 or 0.34 mmol Na+; 6 M NaCl solution labelled with 24Na) were administered into the amnion of 7-day-old chick embryos. The 24Na distribution in embryonic blood, amniotic and allantoic fluids was measured in 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h intervals to assess the kinetics of salt load movements in particular egg compartments. The aim was to estimate the efficiency of the embryonic homeostatic apparatus to maintain ionic balance in the internal environment of the embryonic body. The Na+ concentration in amniotic fluid was expected to rise after salt loading by about 275 and 400 mM, respectively. More than 10% of the salt dose per ml appeared in the embryonic blood 2 h after salt load administration while only 0.2% were found in the urine (collected as allantonic fluid). The maximal rise of 24Na activity in the blood of salt-loaded embryos reached 11%-12% of the dose which corresponded to an increase of Na+ concentration by 19 and 41 mM, respectively. The maximum of 24Na activity appeared in the allantoic fluid with a delay of several hours and indicated an increment of Na+ concentration by 6% and 9% of the dose per ml in the case of salt-loaded embryos. The Na+ concentration in the allantoic fluid (urine) never exceeded that in the blood. The final Na+ activity (estimated in the blood 24 h after salt loading) was equal to 5% of the dose per ml in both cases, indicating a persistent elevation of Na+ concentration by 8.6 and 17.2 mM, respectively.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(1):87-93.
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    ABSTRACT: The protective effect of calcium entry blockers can be studied advantageously on the model of the calcium paradox, particularly on the basis of the preservation of haemodynamic and biochemical parameters as well as on the structure of the myocardium (Meno et al. 1984). Our aim in this study was to test the protective effect of the recently developed Czechoslovak drug diltiazem (LACHEMA) under conditions of the Ca2+ paradox.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(3):253-6.
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    ABSTRACT: A group of 44 patients with chronic glomerulonephritis (GN) and 20 healthy subjects were investigated under the conditions of normal dietary NaCl intake and after one week of salt load with a daily addition of 5 g NaCl per os. After the salt load, the mean blood pressure increased significantly in 47% subjects (salt-sensitive) and their natriuretic response was accompanied by an increase of glomerular filtration rate. The rates of ouabain-sensitive (OST) and furosemide-sensitive transport (FST) were decreased in patients with chronic GN even before salt loading which did not change these values. The lower OST rate can be explained by a reduced affinity for internal Na+. A decreased affinity of the Na(+)-K+ cotransport system for internal Na+ was detected only in hypertensive GN patients. In our study, no relationship between salt-sensitivity and red cell sodium transport either in normotensive or in hypertensive GN patients was found.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(1):57-63.
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    ABSTRACT: Urinary excretion of sodium, potassium and some hormones influencing their transport was investigated before and after i.v. furosemide administration in 10 offsprings of normotensive subjects who had a normal Na(+)-K+ cotransport activity and in 26 normotensive men with a positive family history of essential hypertension. The latter group was divided into two subgroups with regard to the activity of red cell Na(+)-K+ cotransport. The Co[-] subjects with a decreased Na(+)-K+ cotransport activity had lower urinary excretion of sodium and vasodilators (kallikrein, dopamine, PGE2 and prostacyclin) after furosemide administration. The urinary excretion of vasopressor factors (PGF2 alpha, thromboxane) was unchanged as compared with that in the control group. There was a significant correlation between Na(+)-K+ cotransport activity and kallikrein excretion. These results suggest a deficit in the secretion of renal substances with vasodilating or natriuretic effects in Co[-] subjects. This could negatively affect their sodium excretion.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(1):65-70.
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    ABSTRACT: It has been shown previously that 3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP) facilitates synaptic transmission in the frog sympathetic ganglion inducing so-called stimulus-bound repetition (SBR), i.e. a brief burst of repetitive postganglionic discharges after a single orthodromic stimulus. In the present study we analyzed one of the possible mechanisms of the 3,4-DAP-induced SBR, namely changes in postsynaptic membrane excitability. We found that 3,4-DAP in concentration optimal for inducing SBR (2 X 10(-4) mol.l-1) had no direct effect on the excitability of the postsynaptic membrane of frog sympathetic neurones. The excitability was expressed as the threshold for action potentials elicited orthodromically, antidromically and directly, as well as the spike activity evoked by constant depolarizing current pulses. We also indirectly excluded the involvement of two other possible mechanisms of neuronal membrane excitability modulation in the 3,4-DAP-induced SBR, i.e. the M-current suppression by analyzing the participation of muscarinic receptor activation in the SBR, and inhibition of the Ca(2+)-activated K+ currents by measuring the duration of afterhyperpolarization of antidromic action potential. Our findings indicate that no remarkable changes in the properties of the postsynaptic membrane contribute to the generation of 3,4-DAP-induced SBR in the frog sympathetic ganglion. This strongly supports the hypothesis that the mechanism underlying SBR evoked by this drug is presynaptic.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(6):519-31.
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    ABSTRACT: Protein kinase C activity in the lysate of erythrocytes of patients with essential hypertension (EH) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was found to be increased by 1.6-2.0 times as compared with normotensive controls. Membrane cytoskeleton alterations observed in the erythrocytes of patients with EH and SHR were revealed in decreased average erythrocyte volume, increase of cup-shaped cell formation, and increase of basal phosphorylation of band 4.9 protein. In addition, the rate of Na(+)-H+ exchange in erythrocytes of EH patients and SHR was increased by 1.9-fold. In vitro treatment of erythrocytes of healthy donors and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) with protein kinase C activator (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate) leads to similar changes of cell shape, cell volume, band 4.9 protein phosphorylation and Na(+)-H+ exchange, as well as to an increase of diS-C3-(5) fluorescence. It may be assumed that alterations of these parameters revealed in primary hypertension are caused by increased activity of protein kinase C.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(1):27-36.
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    ABSTRACT: The present results are a continuation of our experiments demonstrating the fact that the local action of a permanent magnetic field (PMF) with an intensity of 0.2 T on the rabbits carotid sinus area under pentobarbital anaesthesia has a hypotensive effect under normotonic conditions (Gmitrová et al. 1987). The aim of this paper was to investigate the PMF influence on the carotid sinus region during artificial hypotension in rabbits. The experiments were carried out in rabbits under pentobarbital anaesthesia under hypotonic conditions caused by electrostimulation of the right depressor nerve. Blood pressure, heart rate and respiration rate changes were monitored before the application of PMF (0.2 T intensity) on the sinocarotid region, during the "on" effect of PMF, under the PMF action, during the PMF "off" effect and after PMF application. PMF significantly decreased the depressor effect of depressor nerve electrostimulation in contrast to the condition of normotonia, where PMF had a hypotensive effect.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(4):327-34.
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    ABSTRACT: The problem of space flights called for the need to construct ground-base models which imitate or simulate some reactions of the organism to the complex of spaceflight factors, mainly to microgravity. In this review the processes and models simulating flight factors and their advantages and disadvantages are described. The authors have supplemented the models used until now by a new modification of suspension hypokinesia, so-called safety-pin suspension. This model appears to be simple and inexpensive. It causes relatively weak traumatic stress and this may be demonstrated by daily weighing of the animals.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(5):471-4.
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    ABSTRACT: The authors studied 1-14C-palmitate metabolism in rat muscle, renal cortex and liver incubated with synthetic hippurate in vitro (1 mmol/l). a) Hippurate did not affect 1-14C-palmitate uptake and utilization in the muscle (hemidiaphragm). b) In the renal cortex it stimulated only the incorporation into total lipids and from the individual lipid fractions into mono- and diglycerides and free fatty acids (FFA). c) In the liver it stimulated the uptake, oxidation to 14CO2 and incorporation into total lipids and, out of the individual lipid fractions, into phospholipids, triacylglycerols and free fatty acids. d) Hippurate already had a significant effect in the concentration of 0.5 mmol/l, i.e. during the development of the disturbance and not just as a supplementary factor in advanced renal insufficiency. It is concluded that, by interfering with fatty acid metabolism, the hippurate present in the serum of patients with renal insufficiency plays an active role in the development of dyslipoproteinaemia in such patients.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(3):227-32.