Physiologia Bohemoslovaca

Publisher: Fysiologický ústav (Československá akademie věd)

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Other titles Physiological research
ISSN 0369-9463
OCLC 24169523
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A rôle for pulmonary endocrine cells has been suggested in the response of the lungs to hypoxia, the control of the pulmonary vasculature and inflammatory pulmonary disease. Since hypoxia, inflammation and vascular remodelling are all central to the pathology of chronic bronchitis and emphysema, we have studied these cells in the lungs of subjects with this condition. In comparison with lungs of matched controls, there was a modest uniform increase in endocrine cells containing gastrin-releasing peptide, possibly associated with vascular remodelling, and a marked increase in cells containing calcitonin, which was particularly seen in consolidated lobes and possibly related to inflammation.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 05/1991; 39(4):305-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Adult SHR aged 19-21 weeks, subjected to osmotic diuresis, responded to an intravenous 1.8% saline loading (15 ml/kg b.w.) with greater sodium excretion than age-matched WKY. Young (6-7 weeks old) SHR and WKY also responded to saline loading with an increased sodium excretion but there were no differences in the relative changes of sodium excretion between young WKY and SHR. In adult WKY, saline loading induced a faster erythrocyte 22Na uptake as compared with adult SHR or young WKY. This suggests that volume and/or sodium loading increased sodium turnover of red cells only in adult WKY. The sodium transport differences found in erythrocytes of adult SHR and WKY could be caused by some membrane differences or could be due to different hormonal and nonhormonal response(s) to saline loading. If similar alterations would also occur in other tissues, they might be important for the sodium excretion pattern.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(1):49-56.
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    ABSTRACT: The anticonvulsant action of a new antiepileptic drug ORG 6370 (Organon International B.V.) was studied in 217 male albino rats aged 7, 12, 18, 25 and 90 days. Epileptic phenomena induced by a subcutaneous injection of a 100 mg/kg dose of metrazol (isolated myoclonic jerk, minimal metrazol seizures and major, generalized tonic-clonic metrazol seizures) were used as a model. ORG 6370 did not influence myoclonic jerks or minimal metrazol seizures in those age groups where they were regularly elicited. In 12-day-old rats pretreatment with ORG 6370 led to the appearance of minimal metrazol seizures, a phenomenon rarely seen under control conditions. Major seizures were suppressed only in adult rats with a 20 mg/kg dose; on the other hand, ORG 6370 exhibited a selective action against the tonic phase of major seizures at all stages of development. The profile of action of ORG 6370 is almost the same as that of phenytoin.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(3):199-205.
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    ABSTRACT: Male Wistar rats were subjected to 65-70% hepatectomy and either immediately or 18 h after surgery were given a 6-hour infusion containing 3 ml of either Ringer solution or aqua pro injectione alone or with L-carnitine in doses 8 mg (12.4 mumol), 40 mg (62 mumol) and 200 mg (310.2 mumol)/kg b.w. The rats were killed 6, 18, 24 and 30 h after surgery. The changes in the DNA specific activity and in the mitotic activity demonstrate that L-carnitine has a stimulating, dose-dependent effect on liver regeneration. This effect acts both during early post-hepatectomy, the prereplicative period and in the subsequent replicative period.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(3):233-42.
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    ABSTRACT: Detergents (Triton X-100, dodecyl sulphate, saponin) added in concentrations of 0.1-10 mg/ml to solution at the outer frog skin surface reversibly reduced potential difference (PD) and short-circuit current (Isc); when added at the inner surface. Triton X-100 initially induced a short increase in the PD and Isc followed by a pronounced decrease similarly as after the application of any of the detergents used. When added to either serosal or mucosal surface of frog urinary bladder, the detergents reversibly abolished the reactivity to vasopressin. Triton X-100 blocked foskolin and cAMP-induced effects on membrane water permeability. The results suggest that hydrophobic elements of membrane play a crucial role in the regulation of membrane permeability for ions and water and of the responsiveness of the cells to vasopressin. Differences in sensitivity to detergents could be observed between the apical and the basolateral cell membrane.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(2):157-70.
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    ABSTRACT: Conditions allowing physiological development were determined in infant rats delivered by Caesarian section on the 22nd day of gestation and fed, from birth onwards, on various diets by stomach tube. Two new diets were prepared--K 50 A (11.7% fat, 7.7% protein) and LNaH (7.6% protein, 12% fat). The sole difference between the two diets is in the essential fatty acid (EFA) content, which is 42.6% in diet K 50 A, but only 0.7% in diet LNaH. Animals reared on the LNaH diet displayed slower growth and delayed development of the adenohypophysis and the thymus. Degenerative changes (intracytoplasmic vacuolation) were found in the somatotropin-producing cells of the adenohypophysis. The serum prolactin concentration of animals fed on the LNaH diet was lower than in the suckled controls and in animals given the K 50 A diet. The damaging effect of the LNaH diet was particularly marked on the first five days after birth, indicating that this is a critical period in the development of the newborn rat. The histological structure of the adenohypophysis and thymus of animals reared on the K 50 A diet was the same as in the suckled controls.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(2):135-46.
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    ABSTRACT: 1. The levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the liver and brain of newborn rats were independent of the birth mechanism (Cesarean section or natural birth). A significant increase of GSH content could be demonstrated 3 h after birth in the liver only. 2. The influence of reversible hypoxia (9 vol. % O2 in the respired air for one hour) on GSH and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels and the content of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reagible products were investigated in the liver and brain of newborn rats in dependence on the duration of reoxygenation. Only small changes were observed in the liver indicating a relative resistance of this organ to hypoxic stress and reoxygenation. Distinct effects were found in the brain, indicating that the glutathione status is altered by increased lipid peroxidation.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(3):257-60.
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    ABSTRACT: The authors studied 1-14C-palmitate metabolism in rat muscle, renal cortex and liver incubated with synthetic hippurate in vitro (1 mmol/l). a) Hippurate did not affect 1-14C-palmitate uptake and utilization in the muscle (hemidiaphragm). b) In the renal cortex it stimulated only the incorporation into total lipids and from the individual lipid fractions into mono- and diglycerides and free fatty acids (FFA). c) In the liver it stimulated the uptake, oxidation to 14CO2 and incorporation into total lipids and, out of the individual lipid fractions, into phospholipids, triacylglycerols and free fatty acids. d) Hippurate already had a significant effect in the concentration of 0.5 mmol/l, i.e. during the development of the disturbance and not just as a supplementary factor in advanced renal insufficiency. It is concluded that, by interfering with fatty acid metabolism, the hippurate present in the serum of patients with renal insufficiency plays an active role in the development of dyslipoproteinaemia in such patients.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(3):227-32.
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    ABSTRACT: The problem of space flights called for the need to construct ground-base models which imitate or simulate some reactions of the organism to the complex of spaceflight factors, mainly to microgravity. In this review the processes and models simulating flight factors and their advantages and disadvantages are described. The authors have supplemented the models used until now by a new modification of suspension hypokinesia, so-called safety-pin suspension. This model appears to be simple and inexpensive. It causes relatively weak traumatic stress and this may be demonstrated by daily weighing of the animals.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(5):471-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Successful and unsuccessful reaching attempts in rats were analysed with the aim of resolving the question of the programming of reaching movement. The course of movement was monitored continuously by a method based on the law of magnetic induction. The study of reaching showed that the forelimb extension had the same time course characteristics in both cases of reaching attempts and displayed features of preprogrammed ballistic movement. The course of the consecutive phases (grasping, forelimb flexion) showed differences between successful and unsuccessful attempts and also between individual successful attempts. The variability of the course of grasping and forelimb flexion indicates that a peripheral feedback participates in regulation of its performance and that the information on grasping the pellet is decisive for the subsequent performance of reaching. Reaching as a whole cannot be considered as a preprogrammed ballistic movement, but some of its components correspond to this pattern.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(4):343-50.
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    ABSTRACT: In albino rats, as in other mammals, nucleoli with nucleolonemata and compact nucleoli in the stem cells of the erythrocyte and granulocyte series are progressively replaced during maturation and differentiation first by ring shaped nucleoli and then by micronucleoli with low and finally with inhibited RNA synthesis. There are, however, differences between the nucleolar coefficient values and the proportion of ring shaped nucleoli and micronucleoli in maturing neutrophils in the albino rat, the mouse and man. In the case of the erythroblasts, the differences between the proportion of various nucleolar types in the three given species are smaller. The results thus indicate that the developmental trend of nucleolar changes related to cell maturation and differentiation is the same, but that there are interspecies differences because of which the results obtained in one species cannot be applied mechanically to another, i.e. results obtained in a laboratory animal cannot be applied automatically to man.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(6):505-11.
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    ABSTRACT: In experiments on Wistar strain rats of both sexes, aged 5, 10 and 14 days and adult (90-120 days), of their own breed, the authors determined the quantitative proportion of individual fatty acids in the serum free non-esterified fatty acid (FFA) fraction, using mixed blood (obtained by decapitation) and the titration method of Trout et al. (1960). The proportion of the individual fatty acids was then determined in this fraction by gas chromatography (Base 1978) and their concentration (in mumol.1-1) was determined by simple calculation from the relative chromatogram data. Animals in the first three age groups were killed in the morning, directly from the nest; in adult rats the FFA fraction was measured after a 20 h fast. It was demonstrated that the increase in the proportion of monoenoic acids was highly statistically significant (about fivefold) during ontogenesis and that there was also a marked increase in the quantitative expression of polyenic acids, especially in group (n-6). The n-6/n-3 acid index in the FFA fraction altered during maturation (despite some fluctuation it basically rose from 4.3 in 5-day-old young to 10.0 in adult rats). It was further demonstrated that the concentration of fatty acids with a very short chain fell significantly during development, so that C 8:0, for example, could be detected only in the first two age groups, but not in 14-day-old and adult rats. The concentration of the saturated fatty acids C 15:0 to C 18:0 in the serum FFA fraction showed a statistically significant increase, while the index expressing the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids displayed a downward trend during development.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(2):125-34.
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    ABSTRACT: Although the role of prostaglandins (PG) in the mechanism of dilatation of the ductus arteriosus (DA) has received considerable attention, no data on their possible interaction with the pressure-induced myogenic reaction are available. There is also a lack of information on PG production by the foetal blood vessels of the guinea-pig, in which the DA closes rapidly. Use of the RIA method showed relatively low PG production by isolated foetal guinea pig blood vessels, as represented by the main products, PGI1 and PGE2. When computed in pmol per mg wet weight, the production of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (an equivalent of PGI2) was statistically significantly higher in the foetal DA (4.06 +/- 1.13) than in the foetal aorta (2.04 +/- 0.33). The isolated DA reacts to a sudden increase in perfusion pressure by marked constriction, which in some cases leads to functional closure of the DA. In 10(-7) to 10(-5) mol.l-1 concentration, PGE2 reversibly inhibits pressure-induced myogenic constriction, while under the same conditions the contractility of the DA in response to oxygen is unaffected. In concentrations of 10(-6)-10(-5) mol.l-1, indomethacin, a blocker of PG biosynthesis, also induces pressure constriction and it raises the basal flow resistance of isolated DA preparations. The results indicate that PGs play a modulator role in the pressure myogenic response of the DA of guinea-pig and rabbit foetuses.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(3):207-16.
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    ABSTRACT: The authors studied the effect of administration of thyroid hormones on the beta-adrenergic receptors of rat adenohypophyseal cells. The administration of triiodothyronine and thyroxine was followed by an increase in specific binding for 3H-dihydroalprenolol. No significant differences were found in cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels before and after isoprenaline stimulation. The significance of changes in these receptors for the hyperplastic reaction after oestrogens is discussed with reference to the inhibitory effect of the thyroid hormones on hyperplasia of the adenohypophyseal cells after the administration of oestradiol.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(3):249-52.
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    ABSTRACT: The time course of lipid peroxidation was studied in the rat brain cortex after ischaemia and reperfusion. The ischaemia was induced by 4-hour occlusion of both common carotid arteries and was followed by reperfusion of different duration (10, 30 or 60 min). The extent of lipid peroxidation was determined by measurement of conjugated dienes (CD) and TBA reactive products. Maximal values of CD and TBA reactive products were found after 10- and 30-minute reperfusion. This indicated the most suitable time interval for studying the effect of antioxidants and oxygen radical scavengers in this model of brain ischaemia.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(6):513-7.

  • Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(5):385-93.

  • Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(4):289-95.
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    ABSTRACT: Female Wistar rats in experimental groups were treated subcutaneously with a single dose of 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 or 0.08 mmol body weight. Superovulated oocytes were cultivated in vitro for 4 or 14 h up to the stage of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and metaphase II (M II). In all, 606 oocytes were used for the determination obtained document that the Cd content in oocytes of cadmium-treated rats increases from less than 0.1, 1.6 +/- 0.4, 2.8 +/- 0.5, 6.5 +/- 0.3, 10.8 +/- 0.2 pg per oocyte. With and increasing cadmium dose the percentage of oocytes which reached the stage of metaphase II after 14 h of cultivation in vitro, decreased (86.6%, 77.6%, 43%, 4.3% respectively).
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(2):185-90.
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    ABSTRACT: The authors evaluated the migratory and proliferative properties and the chromosome number of cultivated male and female smooth muscle cells (SMC) obtained by the explanation method from the thoracic aorta of rats of a conventional and a specific pathogen-free (SPF) breed. It was found that male SMC, in most cases, began to migrate from the explants sooner than female SMC and that they migrated from a higher total number of explants. The time needed for the number of cells in the culture to double (doubling time) was practically the same for male and female SMC, but male SMC attained a higher maximum population density. Male SMC cultures (2nd passage) contained cells with a hyperploid chromosome number, whereas female SMC were diploid. It was also found that SMC from conventional rats, in which the presence of pathogens could be presumed, displayed higher migratory and proliferative capacity than the SMC of SPF rats. The capacity of the SMC of male rats for migration and proliferation could have been potentiated by the effect of a different composition of the intercellular matrix and a different chromosome number, and in conventional rats by the presence of pathogens.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(5):449-58.
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    ABSTRACT: Effect of severe incomplete ischemia, induced by occlusion of the abdominal aorta caudal to the left renal artery for 40 min, and postischemic reperfusion for 6 h, 1 and 4 days on phospholipid composition and unesterified cholesterol concentration was studied in the lumbosacral (L3-S1) spinal cord separated into the gracile fascicle (Fg), dorsal part without Fg (Dp) and ventral part (Vp). Ischemia decreased the inositol phospholipid (PI) concentration in Dp and Vp and this was recovered during reperfusion. Within 6 h following ischemia, ethanolamine (PE) and serine (PS) phospholipid concentrations decreased in Dp and PS also in Vp. During the long reperfusion intervals the concentrations of the two major phospholipids, PE and choline phospholipid (PC) declined in Fg, Dp and Vp. No changes were observed in sphingomyelin (SM). The concentration of unesterified cholesterol (UC) was lower throughout the reperfusion period in Dp and Vp, while the decrease in Fg was delayed. The molar ratio UC/TPL was reduced starting from 24 h of reperfusion. The pattern of changes, which were delayed in the white matter as compared to Dp and Vp (containing the gray matter) indicated severe damage to the membrane structures in the tissue, developed during reoxygenation, that was related to decreased tissue viability.
    Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 02/1990; 39(4):351-60.