Chinese medical journal (CHINESE MED J-PEKING )

Publisher: Zhonghua yi xue hui (China: 1949- )


The Chinese Medical Journal (CMJ) is published monthly in English by the Chinese Medical Association, and is a peer reviewed general medical journal for all doctors, researchers, and health workers regardless of their medical specialty or type of employment. Established in 1887, it is the oldest medical periodical in China and is distributed worldwide. The journal functions as a window into China's medical sciences and reflects the advances and progress in China's medical sciences and technology. It serves the objective of international academic exchange. The journal includes Original Articles, Editorial, Review Articles, Medical Progress, Brief Reports, Case Reports, Conference Proceedings, News and Notes.

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    Chinese Medical Journal (English Edition) website
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    Chinese medical journal (Online), Chinese medical journal
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    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance (IR) plays an important pathophysiological role in the development of diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Moreover, IR can occur even in non-obese people without diabetes. However, direct detection of IR is complicated. In order to find a simple surrogate marker of IR early in non-obese people, we investigate the association of commonly-used biochemical markers (liver enzymes and lipid profiles) with IR in urban middle-aged and older non-obese Chinese without diabetes. This cross-sectional study included 1 987 subjects (1 473 women). Fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of glucose, insulin, liver enzymes, lipid profiles and creatinine. Subjects whose homeostasis model of assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) index values exceeded the 75th percentile (2.67 for women and 2.48 for men) of the population were considered to have IR. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to compare the power of potential markers in identifying IR. Triglycerides (TG) and ratio of TG to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) discriminated IR better than other indexes for both sexes; areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AUC) values were 0.770 (95% confidence interval 0.733-0.807) and 0.772 (0.736-0.809), respectively, for women and 0.754 (0.664-0.844) and 0.756 (0.672-0.840), respectively, for men. To identify IR, the optimal cut-offs for TG and TG/HDL-C ratio were 1.315 mmol/L (sensitivity 74.3%, specificity 71.0%) and 0.873 (sensitivity 70.1%, specificity 73.4%), respectively, for women, and 1.275 mmol/L (sensitivity 66.7%, specificity 74.4%) and 0.812 (sensitivity 75.8%, specificity 69.2%), respectively, for men. TG and TG/HDL-C ratio could be used to identify IR in urban middle-aged and older non-obese Chinese without diabetes.
    Chinese medical journal 05/2014; 127(10):1858-62.
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence shows that ezrin plays an important role in the development of some human malignancies. But the mechanism by which ezrin may affect tumor cell invasion and metastasis remains unclear. In this study, the expression of ezrin was verified in osteosarcoma (OS) cells and tissues by comparison with normal bone cells and tissues using Western blotting. OS-MG63 were transfected with pcDNA3.1-ezrin or pGenesil-1/shRNA-ezrin and the stably transfected cells were selected with G418 to yield the ezrin cell line. The OS-MG63 tumor cells were delivered by tail vein to female BALB/c to develop pulmonary metastasis model in vivo. Ezrin was identified as a direct target of miR-183 via a luciferase reporter carrying the 3'-untranslated region of ezrin. Migration assays and invasion assays were done with the transwells. Signaling pathway was studied by Western blotting and/or inhibitor. Ectopic overexpression of ezrin in OS cell line MG63 promoted tumor cell invasion and migration. Consistent with this, knockdown of ezrin inhibited tumor cell invasion and migration. Similar results were obtained in the experimental metastasis model in vivo. We identified ezrin as a direct target of miR-183. What is more, ectopic expression of ezrin could induce the expression of N-cadherin and enhance the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. Collectively, these results suggest that ezrin as a direct target of miR-183 promotes the aggressiveness of OS via increased N-cadherin and activating ERK signaling.
    Chinese medical journal 05/2014; 127(10):1954-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of sepsis, which is associated with higher risks of adverse outcomes. Recently, kidney disease: improving global outcomes (KDIGO) recommended a new guideline for AKI, including a little modification on the AKI staging criteria. This retrospective study included 211 septic patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) at Xiangya Hospital, Central South University from January 2008 to January 2011. AKI was diagnosed and classified according to the KDIGO or acute kidney injury network (AKIN) criteria. Differences between the AKI and non-AKI groups for baseline characteristics, laboratory examinations, etiology, outcomes, as well as the risk factors for AKI and 28-day mortality were analyzed. The reliability of the KDIGO criteria was also evaluated by comparing it with the AKIN criteria. The overall incidence of AKI in septic patients was 47.9%, and the 28-day mortality was 32.7%. The incidence of AKI was significantly higher in patients with more severe sepsis. Indicators of hepatic and respiratory function were significantly worse in the AKI group. Furthermore, a higher proportion of patients were infected with Enterobacter cloacae in the AKI group. The independent risk factors for AKI were shock, the number of organ failures, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels, and the use of vasopressors. The independent risk factors for mortality were BUN and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) levels. Both the KDIGO criteria and the AKIN criteria were significantly associated with 28-day mortality. The incidence and 28-day mortality of AKI were very high in ICU septic patients. Greater attention should be paid to AKI-induced hepatic and respiratory dysfunction in clinical practice. Patients with an intra-abdominal source of infection were more likely to develop AKI. KDIGO criteria are reliable in AKI staging.
    Chinese medical journal 05/2014; 127(10):1820-6.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to conduct thyroid ultrasound examinations on a large sample of subjects and explore the occurrence, distribution, and characteristics of thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer to provide some information on the epidemic trend of thyroid nodules and cancer. The thyroid ultrasonic examination results of 19 895 healthy physical examinees who visited the Department of Health Management, Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2009 to December 2011 were analyzed retrospectively to determine the detection rate and characteristics of thyroid nodules. Fine needle aspiration or surgical resection was suggested to subjects suspected of having thyroid cancer. The detection rate of thyroid nodules was 42.6% (8 480/19 895), 40.0% (4 661/11 678) in men and 46.5% (3 819/8 217) in women. The detection rate noticeably increased with increasing age. The detection rate of thyroid nodules by palpation was obviously lower than by ultrasonic examination in various age groups. Among those with thyroid nodules, 61.3% were multiple and 38.7% were solitary; multiple nodule was the major type both in men and women. Twenty-nine cases of malignant nodules were solitary, and 30 cases of malignant nodules were multiple. There was no significant difference. The detection rate of thyroid cancer was 0.30% for the entire group of examinees, and 0.15% in men and 0.50% in women. Among all sex and age groups, 30- to 40-year-old women had the highest detection rate (0.76%). The detection rate of thyroid nodules correlated with age, systolic blood pressure, height, and weight. Increasing age and/or higher systolic blood pressure correlated with a higher detection rate, while smaller height and weight also correlated with a higher detection rate with significant differences. However, there were no significant correlations between the detection rate and diastolic blood pressure or body mass index. The detection of thyroid cancer increased significantly, especially in women. Thus, precautions needed to be taken. Regular physical examination and timely intervention after detection of malignant nodules are critical to improve the prognosis in thyroid cancer patients.
    Chinese medical journal 05/2014; 127(9):1661-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Infancy is a critical period of growth and physiological development, in which breast milk is the best source of nutrients. Compared to western countries, research on breast milk of Chinese population are limited. Thus, it is necessary to measure breast milk energy and macronutrient concentrations of healthy urban Chinese mothers at different lactation stages, to expand the database of milk composition of Chinese population, and to examine whether dietary or other maternal factors can affect the levels of macronutrients in breast milk. Breast milk of full expression of one side breast from 436 urban Chinese lactating mothers at 5-11 days, 12-30 days, 31-60 days, 61-120 days, and 121-240 days postpartum was obtained at 9:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. Total energy, lactose, protein, and fat contents were measured. 24-hour dietary recall was surveyed, and maternal nutrient intakes were analyzed. Milk composition changed over the course of lactation and large individual variations were documented. The concentrations were 61.3 kcal/dl for total energy, 7.1 g/dl for lactose, 0.9 g/dl for protein, and 3.4 g/dl for fat in mature milk. Stage of lactation was a strong factor affecting milk composition. Minimal evidence was found for associations between maternal current dietary intake and milk macronutrient concentration, consistently with prior research. Maternal body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with milk fat content, to a greater extent than did dietary intake. All other maternal characteristics were not significant for milk composition. These findings suggest that milk composition is generally weakly associated with maternal factors except for stage of lactation, and is likely to be more susceptible to long-term maternal nutritional status than short-term dietary fluctuation.
    Chinese medical journal 05/2014; 127(9):1721-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Nicotine may improve schizophrenia patient's cognitive deficit symptoms. This study was to explore the chronic effects of smoking on prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex (PPI) and P50 in the patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES). The event-related potentials (ERP) recording and analysis instrument made by Brain Products, Germany, was used to detect PPI and P50 in 49 male FES patients (FES group, n = 21 for smokers and n = 28 for non-smokers) and 43 normal male controls (control group, n = 19 for smokers and n = 24 for non-smokers). Compared with normal controls, the FES group had prolonged PPI latency when elicited by single stronger stimulus (P < 0.05); the FES group had prolonged PPI latency and increased PPI amplitude (P < 0.05, 0.01) when elicited by weak and strong stimuli. The FES group had lower PPI inhibition rate than normal controls (P < 0.05). Compared with normal controls, the FES group had increased P50-S2 amplitude and increased amplitude ratio S2/S1 (both P <0.05). In the control group, the smokers had a tendency of increase in P50-S2 amplitude (P > 0.05) and shorter P50-S2 latency (P < 0.05) than the non-smokers. The smokers had higher PPI amplitude than the non-smokers (P < 0.05). In the FES group, the smokers had higher P50-S1 amplitude, shorter P50-S2 latency, and higher amplitude ratio S2/S1 than the non-smokers (P < 0.05, 0.01). The smokers had higher PPI amplitude than the non-smokers (P < 0.05). There is obvious PPI and P50 deficits in schizophrenic patients. However, these deficits are relatively preserved in the smokers compared with the non-smokers, which suggests that long-term smoking might partially improve the sensory gating in schizophrenic patients. Whether this conclusion can be deduced to female patients requires further follow-ups.
    Chinese medical journal 05/2014; 127(9):1651-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Amniotic fluid (AF) supernatant contains cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) fragments. This study attempted to take advantage of cffDNA as a new material for prenatal diagnosis, which could be combined with simple quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) to provide an ancillary method for the prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21 syndrome. AF supernatant samples were obtained from 27 women carrying euploid fetuses and 28 women carrying aneuploid fetuses with known cytogenetic karyotypes. Peripheral blood samples of the parents were collected at the same time. Short tandem repeat (STR) fragments on chromosome 21 were amplified by QF-PCR. Fetal condition and the parental source of the extra chromosome could be determined by the STR peaks. The sensitivity of the assay for the aneuploid was 93% (26/28; confidence interval, CI: 77%-98%) and the specificity was 100% (26/26; CI: 88%-100%). The determination rate of the origin of the extra chromosome was 69%. The sensitivity and the specificity of the assay in the euploid were 100% (27/27). Trisomy 21 can be prenatally diagnosed by the QF-PCR method in AF supernatant. This karyotype analysis method greatly reduces the requirement for the specimen size. It will be a benefit for early amniocentesis and could avoid pregnancy complications. The method may become an ancillary method for prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21.
    Chinese medical journal 05/2014; 127(10):1897-901.
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    ABSTRACT: Significant efforts have been made to identify factors that differentiate patients treated with novel therapies, such as bortezomib in multiple myeloma (MM). The exact expression pattern and prognostic value of the cancer/testis antigen preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma (PRAME) in MM are unknown and were explored in this study. The transcript level of PRAME was detected in bone marrow specimens from 100 newly diagnosed MM patients using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the prognostic value of PRAME was determined through retrospective survival analysis. PRAME expression higher than the upper limit of normal bone marrow was defined as PRAME overexpression or PRAME (+). Sixty-two patients (62.0%) overexpressed PRAME. PRAME overexpression showed no prognostic significance to either overall survival (n = 100) or progression-free survival (PFS, n = 96, all P > 0.05) of patients. The patients were also categorized according to regimens with or without bortezomib. PRAME overexpression tended to be associated with a lower two-year PFS rate in patients treated with non-bortezomib-containing regimens (53.5% vs. 76.9%, P = 0.071). By contrast, it was not associated with the two-year PFS rate in patients with bortezomib-containing regimens (77.5% vs. 63.9%, P > 0.05). When the patients were categorized into PRAME (+) and PRAME (-) groups, treatment with bortezomibcontaining regimens predicted a higher two-year PFS rate in PRAME (+) patients (77.5% vs. 53.5%, P = 0.027) but showed no significant effect on two-year PFS rate in PRAME (-) patients (63.9% vs. 76.9%, P > 0.05). PRAME overexpression might be an adverse prognostic factor of PFS in MM patients treated with non-bortezomib-containing regimens. Bortezomib improves PFS in patients overexpressing PRAME.
    Chinese medical journal 05/2014; 127(9):1666-71.
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    ABSTRACT: Ouabain and digoxin are important cardiac glycoside and related to many cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of sodium pump α-subunit expression in rats and compare the effects of ouabain (OUA) and digoxin (DIG) on the development of hypertension. In situ hybridization was performed. Specific sequence oligonucleotide probe tailing with a Dig-dUTP hybrid to target nucleic acids of the sodium pump α-subunit. According to counting positive particles sodium pump subunit expression was analyzed with statistical methods. On day 16 of drug administration, the blood pressure of rats increased significantly in the OUA group. In the DIG group, the blood pressure revealed no significant difference when compared to the control group. In addition, the effects of OUA and DIG on sodium pump α-subunit RNA expression in tissues differed. OUA and DIG can not only change the configuration of the sodium pump to depress their activity, but also influence their gene expression which is important in the mechanism of hypertension. This may be a key point in the pathogenesis of hypertension in the manner in which OUA differs from DIG and changes the sodium pump gene expression in the arteries and kidneys of rats.
    Chinese medical journal 05/2014; 127(10):1931-4.
  • Chinese medical journal 05/2014; 127(9):1798.
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    ABSTRACT: Some hepatitis B extracellular antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in their immune active phase can clear the virus spontaneously and enter into an inactive hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier state, indicating a benign prognosis. In this study, the association between cytokine-inducible SRC homology 2 domain protein (CISH) gene polymorphisms at -292 (rs414171) and the spontaneous clearance of HBV in HBeAg-positive CHB patients in immune the active phase was investigated. Seventy HBeAg-positive CHB patients in the immune active phase were followed up for 76 weeks without antiviral therapy. The alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, HBV DNA, HBeAg and hepatitis B extracellular antibody levels were tested regularly. At week 76, 27 patients were classified into group A (HBV DNA level below 2 104 IU/ml and the value of HBeAg declined below 10% of the baseline at week 76), and 43 patients were classified into group B (HBV DNA level higher than 2×10(4) IU/ml or the value of HBeAg did not decline substantially at week 76). CISH (rs414171) polymorphisms were also tested using the iPLEX system. The HBV DNA levels at week 12 were significantly greater in group B compared with group A (group A: (6.87±1.40) log10IU/ml; group B: (7.61±1.38) log10IU/ml, P = 0.034) and the HBeAg values were greater in group B at week 28 compared with group A (P = 0.001). The differences in HBV DNA and HBeAg values increased between the groups over time. Sixteen patients in group A and 11 in group B were genotype AA. Those with genotype AT or TT included 11 in group A and 31 in group B (AA vs. AT and TT, odds ratio 4.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.462-11.491), P = 0.006). CISH gene polymorphisms at -292 (rs414171) are associated with HBV clearance in HBeAg-positive CHB patients in the immune active phase, and AA is a favorable genotype for this effect.
    Chinese medical journal 05/2014; 127(9):1691-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Shang Ring male circumcision (MC) is a safe surgery with good short-term effects. This retrospective study was performed to investigate the long-term result of patients who had undergone Shang Ring MC. A total of 103 patients who underwent the surgery were recruited in the study. Before and after the surgery, a questionnaire inquiring sexual function and sexual satisfaction was filled up. Face-to-face interview was executed. Physical examination of the external genitals was performed and complications were evaluated. The median follow-up duration was 19.1 months (range from 9 to 28 months). The mean width of penile mucosa was (9.3±2.5) mm. The mean width of scar was (3.7±1.6) mm. No tender pain was found in participants when palpating the penis. No significant or functional complication was observed except of mucosa asymmetry in one case and scar hyperplasia in two cases. The postoperative sexual function did not differ from the preoperative one, although partners showed better satisfaction toward sexual life. Shang Ring MC represents a good long-term cosmetic result with no significant complication or adverse effects on sexual function.
    Chinese medical journal 05/2014; 127(10):1879-83.
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have suggested that primary degeneration of hair cells causes secondary degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), but the effect of SGN degeneration on hair cells has not been studied. In the adult mouse inner ear ouabain can selectively and permanently induce the degeneration of type 1 SGNs while leaving type 2 SGNs, efferent fibers, and sensory hair cells relatively intact. This study aimed to investigate the dynamic changes in hair cell ribbon synapse induced by loss of SGNs using ouabain application to the round window niche of adult mice. In the analysis, 24 CBA/CAJ mice aged 8-10 weeks, were used, of which 6 normal mice were used as the control group. After ouabain application in the round window niche 6 times in an hour, ABR threshold shifts at least 30 dB in the three experimental groups which had six mice for 1-week group, six for 1-month group, and six for 3-month group. All 24 animals underwent function test at 1 week and then immunostaining at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months. The loss of neurons was followed by degeneration of postsynaptic specializations at the afferent synapse with hair cells. One week after ouabain treatment, the nerve endings of type 1 SGNs and postsynaptic densities, as measured by Na/K ATPase and PSD-95, were affected but not entirely missing, but their partial loss had consequences for synaptic ribbons that form the presynaptic specialization at the synapse between hair cells and primary afferent neurons. Ribbon numbers in inner hair cells decreased (some of them broken and the ribbon number much decreased), and the arrangement of the synaptic ribbons had undergone a dynamic reorganization: ribbons with or without associated postsynaptic densities moved from their normal location in the basal membrane of the cell to a more apical location and the neural endings alone were also found at more apical locations without associated ribbons. After 1 month, when the neural postsynaptic densities had completed their degeneration, most ribbons were lost and the remaining ribbons had no contact with postsynaptic densities; after 3 months, the ribbon synapses were gone except for an occasional remnant of a CtBP2-positive vesicle. Hair cells were intact other than the loss of ribbons (based on immunohistochemistry and DPOAE). These findings define the effect of SGN loss on the precise spatiotemporal size and location of ribbons and the time course of synaptic degeneration and provide a model for studying plasticity and regeneration.
    Chinese medical journal 05/2014; 127(10):1941-6.
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    ABSTRACT: miR-338-3p is a recently discovered miRNA and is involved in cell differentiation. However, few data are yet available on the aberrant expression of miR-338-3p in human colorectal carcinoma (CRC). This work aimed to investigate the relationship between miR-338-3p expression pattern and clinicopathological features of human CRC and the possible regulative mechanisms. The 40 CRC, adjacent nontumorous tissues and 2 human CRC-derived cell lines (SW-480 and SW-620) were collected, respectively, and the total RNA and protein were isolated routinely. The miR-338-3p expression pattern was detected by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Northern blotting. Smoothened (SMO, possible target of miR-338-3p) mRNA and corresponding protein expression pattern were detected by semiquantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. miR-338-3p expression patterns were compared between nontumor mucosa and CRC samples, graded by progression-related factors. Disease outcome was calculated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to determine whether miR-338-3p was related to disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients. Moreover, SMO 3'-UTR fragment was PCR amplified from genome DNA of human colon and inserted into a luciferase reporter plasmid. The luciferase reporter plasmid construct was then transfected into CRC cells together with pre-miR-338-3p or anti-miR-338-3p and the luciferase activity in the transfected cells was detected. The expression of miR-338-3p was significantly downregulated in CRCs than those in the adjacent nontumorous tissues, and the value was negatively related to advanced TNM stage and local invasion (P < 0.01). Furthermore, miR-338-3p value was decreased markedly in SW-620 cell line relative to SW-480 (P < 0.01). Low expression of miR-338-3p was associated with unfavorable outcome in DFS but not in OS independent of clinical covariates. Moreover, RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis demonstrated that there was no significant difference in SMO mRNA expression between the corresponding CRCs and nontumorous tissues, whereas SMO protein markedly increased in CRCs (P < 0.01). A significant increase in luciferase activity was detected in CRC cells, which were cotransfected with the luciferase reporter plasmid construct and anti-miR-338-3p (P < 0.01). miR-338-3p is expressed differentially in CRC and associated with progression and prognosis of CRC. SMO might be a possible target of miR-338-3p, which made it a potential antitumor candidate for treatment and prevention of CRC.
    Chinese medical journal 05/2014; 127(10):1884-90.
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    ABSTRACT: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal chronic interstitial lung disease (ILD) of unknown cause and having a variable and unpredictable course. This study aimed to summarize the clinical features and follow-up outcomes and to identify potential factors useful for the assessment of prognosis in IPF. Two hundred and ten patients hospitalized and diagnosed as IPF in our unit from January 1999 to June 2007 were enrolled into this study. The baseline demographic, clinical, radiologic and physiologic characteristics were summarized. Clinical follow-up data until February 2010 were collected, and the median survival time and 1-, 2-, and 5-year survival rates, as well as the influences of the summarized baseline variables on the prognosis were analyzed. The age at diagnosis as IPF was (64±10) years, the duration before diagnosis of 106 patients (50%) was shorter than 2 years, and 73% were males. One hundred and forty-five patients (69%) had a history of smoking with a median pack-year of 18. Eighty-nine patients (42%) had emphysema and 62 patients (29%) pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). One hundred and twenty-four patients were followed up, of which 99 patients died from various causes including respiratory failure related to IPF (93%). The follow-up period was (21±23) months. The median survival time was 38 months. The 1-, 2-, and 5-year survival rates were 61%, 52%, and 39%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed clubbing, PAH, duration from initial onset to diagnosis, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) were independent prognostic indicators of IPF. IPF patients who have clubbing, PAH, a higher FEV1/FVC, and a short duration from initial onset to diagnosis have a poorer outcome.
    Chinese medical journal 05/2014; 127(10):1868-73.
  • Chinese medical journal 05/2014; 127(10):1989.
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    ABSTRACT: Over the last decade, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has emerged as a significant nosocomial infection, yet little has been reported from China. This study aimed to characterize the clinical and microbiological features of CDI from a hospital in Shanghai. Patients with CDI seen between December 2010 and March 2013 were included in this study, of which clinical data were retrospectively collected. The microbiological features of corresponding isolates were analyzed including genotype by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), antimicrobial susceptibility, toxin production, sporulation capacity, biofilm formation, and motility. Ninety-four cases of CDI were included during this study period, 12 of whom were severe cases. By reviewing the clinical data, all patients were treated empirically with proton pump inhibitor or antibiotics or both, and they were distributed widely across various wards, most frequently to the digestive ward (28/94, 29.79%). Comparing the severe with mild cases, no significant differences were found in the basic epidemiological data or the microbiological features. Among the 94 isolates, 31 were toxin A-negative toxin B-positive all genotyped as ST37. They generated fewer toxins and spores, as well as similar amounts of biofilm and motility percentages, but exhibited highest drug resistance to cephalosporins, quinolones, macrolide-lincosamide and streptogramin (MLSB), and tetracycline. No specific clinical genotype or microbiological features were found in severe cases; antimicrobial resistance could be the primary reason for epidemic strains leading to the dissemination and persistence of CDI.
    Chinese medical journal 05/2014; 127(9):1601-7.

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