Journal of food protection (J FOOD PROTECT )

Publisher: International Association of Milk, Food, and Environmental Sanitarians; International Association for Food Protection, International Association for Food Protection


The Journal of Food Protection (JFP) is an international monthly journal in the English language published by the International Association for Food Protection (formerly IAMFES). JFP is intended for publication of research and review articles on all apects of food protection and safety.

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International Association for Food Protection

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Publications in this journal

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A sample of a potentially contaminated potato dish was submitted to the laboratory for analysis for nightshade alkaloids from a county health department. The potato dish had been contaminated by the inadvertent addition of an unknown plant from the Solonaceae family. Examples of plants from this family are tomato, potato, jimson weed, belladonna, tobacco, petunia and eggplant. These alkaloids include atropine, hyoscyamine, belledonine, scopolamine, -solanine and  -chaconine, among others. These alkaloids are the main components in belladonna, jimson weed, green and/or sprouting potatoes. Samples were prepared according to the FERN toxin/poison screen (T022) and analyzed on an LC system having a HILIC analytical column with an ODS guard column, and separated by a gradient program. A gradient liquid chromatographic (LC) method for the determination of four alkaloids from the nightshade family of plants was developed. Identification and quantitation was by MRM on a Micromass Quattro Premiere mass spectrometer. The MRM’s confirmed the presence of atropine, scopolamine, -solanine, and -chaconine. These confirmed the presence of jimson weed green and/or sprouting potatoes. The method provided an ideal and easy way of determining these types of alkaloid poisons. The method should be transferable, and is easy enough to use in a public health setting. (To Be Submitted)
    Journal of food protection 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Ready-to-eat (RTE) food which does not need thermal processing before consumption could be a vehicle for the spread of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. As part of general microbiological safety checks, staphylococci are routinely enumerated in these kinds of foods.However, the presence of antibiotic resistant staphylococci in RTE food is not routinely investigated, and data are only available from a small number of studies. The present study evaluated the pheno- and genotypical antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from 858 RTE food (cheeses, cured meats, sausages, smoked fishes, salads). 113 strains were isolated of which S. aureus was the prevalent species, followed by S. xylosus, S.saprophyticus and S. epidermidis. More than half (54.9%) of the isolates were resistant to at least one class of tested antibiotic of which 35.4% strains were classified as multidrug resistant –MDR. Most of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin (47.9%) followed by clindamycin (39.3%), tigecycline (27.4%), quinupristin/dalfopristin (22.2%), rifampicin (20.5%), tetracycline (17.9%) and erythromycin (8.5%). All methicillin resistant staphylococci harbored mecA gene. Among the isolates resistant to at least one antibiotic, 38 isolates harbored tetracycline resistance determinant tet(M), 24 - tet(L) and 9 - tet(K). Of the isolates positive for tet(M) genes 34.2% were positive for the Tn916/Tn1545-like integrase family gene. Our results indicated that retail RTE food could be considered as an important route for the transmission of antibiotic resistant bacteria harboring multiple antibiotic resistance genes.
    Journal of food protection 01/2014;
  • Journal of food protection 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the effects of ethanolic extracts obtained from Mentha spicata and Artemisia campestris on the shelf life and the quality of vacuum-packed sardine fillets stored at 3 ± 1 °C for a period of 21 days. The three groups were tested were VC, control group; VM, group treated with 1% mint extract; and VA, group treated with 1% artemisia extract. The observed shelf life of sardine fillets was 10 days for control samples, whereas the combination of vacuum packaging with mint and artemisia extracts extended the product’s shelf life to 17 days. Among the chemical indices determined, the thiobarbituricacid–reactive substances values were significantly lower in VM samples. Total volatile base nitrogen was maintained at low levels in VA samples until 17 days of chilled storage. Results of aerobic plate counts and coliform counts showed the existence of a reduced growth in VA group, whereas lactic acid bacteria did not show a significant difference among groups. Natural extract treatments combined with vacuum packaging showed lower microbiological and chemical indices, indicating that the presence of phenolic compounds in mint and artemisia extracts and the removal of oxygen in the pack retarded lipid oxidation and reduced the growth of microorganisms, which resulted in preventing spoilage and extending the product’s shelf life.
    Journal of food protection 10/2013; 76(10):1719–1725.
  • Journal of food protection 01/2013;
  • Journal of food protection 01/2013;
  • Journal of food protection 01/2013; 76(10):1753-1760.
  • Journal of food protection 01/2012; 75(75).
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objectives were to identify the source of Listeria monocytogenes in bulk tank milk (BTM), and to assess characteristics of Petrifilm Environmental Listeria (PEL) for detection of this pathogen in farm samples. Environmental and milk samples were collected from a dairy during two sampling periods. Follow-up samples of daily BTM and milk filters were collected. Isolates of L. monocytogenes were compared by use of Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis. Samples were plated on PEL and results classified into positive or negative. Of samples collected during the two sampling periods, L. monocytogenes was isolated from 66% of milk filters (19 of 29), 16% of BTM (7 of 44), 6% of water samples (two of 33) and one of 18 in-line milk samples. Except for one isolate, all were identical and of the same molecular type. Contamination of BTM with L. monocytogenes most likely originated from a common source, and results indicate that farms can develop persistent sources of contamination. The sensitivity of the PEL was high (100 and 74.1% for environmental and milk samples, respectively), but there was a high proportion of false-positive results and low specificity. These limitations need to be considered when using the PEL for on-farm screening of L. monocytogenes.
    Journal of food protection 01/2012; 32(9):512-521.
  • Journal of food protection 01/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: The possible causative agent and shrimp species involved in a bait shrimp poisoning case that occurred in northern Taiwan was determined. Because the patient's symptoms were similar to those caused by boric acid and slightly similar to those caused by sulfite, the concentrations of boric acid and sulfite (as sulfur dioxide) in the patient's vomitus and in shrimp collected from bait stores and markets were analyzed. The concentration of boric acid was 36.8 to 37.1 mg/g in the patient's vomitus, 1.4 to 3.8 mg/g in shrimp meats obtained from bait stores, and not detectable (less than 0.001 mg/g) in shrimp meat obtained from commercial markets. No significant differences in sulfur dioxide concentrations (0.067 to 0.088 mg/g) were found in patient's vomitus and the shrimp meat from both bait stores and commercial markets. A fragment of the cytochrome b gene (∼406 bp) was amplified by PCR using a pair of primers (UCYTB151F and UCYTB270R) from shrimp meat of two species and the vomitus. The vomited shrimp was identified as Parapenaeus fissuroides on the basis of gene sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns after treatment with endonuclease Alu I. Based on the patient's symptoms and analytical data, we concluded that boric acid at toxic levels had been illegally added to the bait shrimp P. fissuroides.
    Journal of food protection 11/2010; 73(12):2250-2255.
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    ABSTRACT: Outbreaks of salmonellosis associated with almonds have raised interest in better understanding the behavior of Salmonella on other tree nuts. We undertook a study to determine the survival and growth characteristics of Salmonella on high-moisture (water activity of 0.96 to 0.99) pecan nutmeats, in-shell pecans, and inedible components (shuck, shell, and middle septum tissue) of in-shell pecans. Salmonella did not grow on high-moisture nutmeat halves, pieces, or granules stored at 4°C for up to 48 h. Growth did occur, however, at 21, 30, and 37°C. Increases of 1.77 to 5.87 log CFU/g of nutmeats occurred within 48 h at 37°C; the order in which nutmeats supported growth was granules > pieces > halves. Populations of Salmonella on and in high-moisture in-shell pecans (kernel water activity of 0.94) stored at 4, 21, 30, and 37°C for 8 days decreased by 0.52 to 1.19 log CFU/g. The pathogen grew on the surface of high-moisture (water activity of 0.99) pecan shucks and shells but died on middle septum tissue stored at 21, 30, and 37°C for up to 6 days. Salmonella died in water extracts of shucks and in pecan orchard soil saturated with water or shuck extract, but survived well for at least 18 weeks in dry soil. The ability of the pathogen to grow on high-moisture nutmeats and some of the inedible components of pecans emphasizes the importance of controlling or limiting the time pecans are exposed to water in preharvest and postharvest environments.
    Journal of food protection 11/2010; 73(11):1975-85.
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    ABSTRACT: Pathogens occurring in particulate foods may be unevenly distributed, which may impact interpretation of most-probable-number (MPN) values. The MPN analysis of Salmonella in naturally contaminated raw almonds was conducted using two sample preparation methods. Raw almond kernels (3,698 samples) and inshell almonds (455 samples) were collected from almond processors throughout California during the 2006 and 2007 harvests, and 100-g samples were enriched for Salmonella. The prevalence of Salmonella on kernels and inshell almonds was 1.6 and 0.9%, respectively, in 2006, and 0.83 and 2.2%, respectively, in 2007. Almond kernel samples from 2006 were further enriched for Salmonella, and levels of the organism were determined for positive samples by three-tube MPN analysis (25 g, 2.5 g, 0.25 g). Almonds were either divided into subsamples prior to blending and enrichment (method A), or samples were blended in enrichment broth prior to preparation of subsamples (method B). Salmonella was not isolated (<1.2 MPN/100 g) upon retesting of 19 of 31 (method A) or 23 of 29 (method B) positive samples. When detected, levels were 1.4 to 15.5 MPN/100 g (average 2.3 MPN/100 g) or 1.4 to 18.3 MPN/100 g (average 2.1 MPN/100 g) using methods A or B, respectively. A total of 23 different Salmonella serovars were identified from the original almond samples. Salmonella Muenchen was the most frequently isolated serovar (15%) from the 53 Salmonella-positive samples, followed by Newport (12%), Enteritidis (10%), and Typhimurium (8%). No correlation was found between presence of Salmonella and E. coli levels, aerobic plate counts, or counts of yeasts or molds.
    Journal of food protection 11/2010; 73(11):1986-92.
  • Journal of food protection 11/2010; 73(11):1964-6; author reply 1965-6.
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    ABSTRACT: The frequency of Salmonella-infected food workers identified through routine surveillance from 1997 to 2004 in Minnesota was determined in order to evaluate the impact of surveillance on the detection of outbreaks in restaurants and to quantify the duration of Salmonella shedding in stool. Of 4,976 culture-confirmed Salmonella cases reported to the Minnesota Department of Health, 110 (2.2%) were identified as food workers; this was less than one-half the number expected based on the incidence of Salmonella in the general population. Twenty food workers (18%) were associated with outbreaks. Twelve were involved in nine independent outbreaks at the restaurants where they worked. The identification of the index food worker in six of these outbreaks was critical to the initiation of outbreak investigations that revealed much larger problems. Among food workers who submitted specimens until at least one negative result was obtained (n = 69), the median duration of shedding was 22 days (range, 1 to 359 days). Among the four most common serotypes (Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Heidelberg, and Newport) the median duration of shedding was significantly longer for Salmonella Newport (80 days; P = 0.02) and for Salmonella Enteritidis (32 days; P = 0.04) than for Salmonella Heidelberg (8 days). Food workers should be considered an important source of Salmonella transmission, and those identified through surveillance should raise a high index of suspicion of a possible outbreak at their place of work. Food service managers need to be alert to Salmonella-like illnesses among food workers to facilitate prevention and control efforts, including exclusion of infected food workers or restriction of their duties.
    Journal of food protection 11/2010; 73(11):2053-8.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of Arcobacter species in water sources and raw milk from healthy animals in Kayseri, Turkey. A total of 175 samples of drinking water (n = 100), spring water (n = 25), and raw milk (n = 50) were examined. Arcobacter species were isolated using the membrane filtration technique. Overall, 7 (4%) of the 175 samples yielded Arcobacter spp.: 3 (3%) drinking water samples, 1 (4%) spring water sample, and 3 (6%) raw milk samples. Two species of Arcobacter were recovered from the seven positive samples: Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter skirrowii, and A. butzleri plus A. skirrowii found in 3 (1.7%), 2 (1.1%), and 2 (1.1%) samples, respectively. Our study is the first to report the isolation of both A. butzleri and A. skirrowii together from drinking water and is the first report of Arcobacter in milk from healthy cows in Turkey. Based on these findings, the presence of Arcobacter species in environmental waters and raw milk may pose a potential hazard for human health.
    Journal of food protection 11/2010; 73(11):2099-102.

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