Journal of food protection (J FOOD PROTECT)

Publisher: International Association of Milk, Food, and Environmental Sanitarians; International Association for Food Protection, International Association for Food Protection

Journal description

The Journal of Food Protection (JFP) is an international monthly journal in the English language published by the International Association for Food Protection (formerly IAMFES). JFP is intended for publication of research and review articles on all apects of food protection and safety.

Current impact factor: 1.80

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1.797
2012 Impact Factor 1.832
2011 Impact Factor 1.937
2010 Impact Factor 1.72
2009 Impact Factor 1.96
2008 Impact Factor 1.763
2007 Impact Factor 1.886
2006 Impact Factor 1.921
2005 Impact Factor 1.687
2004 Impact Factor 1.874
2003 Impact Factor 2.154
2002 Impact Factor 1.686
2001 Impact Factor 1.808
2000 Impact Factor 1.82
1999 Impact Factor 1.415
1998 Impact Factor 1.329
1997 Impact Factor 1.288

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 2.18
Cited half-life 8.50
Immediacy index 0.31
Eigenfactor 0.02
Article influence 0.54
Website Journal of Food Protection website
Other titles Journal of food protection
ISSN 0362-028X
OCLC 2771676
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

International Association for Food Protection

  • Pre-print
    • Author cannot archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Classification
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate performance of the commercial kit based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in comparison with the International Organization for Standardization method for detecting uninjured and sublethally injured Salmonella cells artificially inoculated at levels of 100 and 101 CFU/25 g on raw duck wing, raw mung bean sprouts, and processed fishballs. Injured cells were prepared by a heat treatment for duck wings and fishball samples and a chlorine treatment for bean sprout samples. Additionally, a validation study was performed on naturally contaminated food samples sold in Singapore. A total of 110 samples of each commodity were analyzed in this study. Regardless of inoculum levels, the detection by the commercial LAMP kit showed 100% sensitivity and specificity for both inoculated and uninoculated samples compared with the International Organization for Standardization method, with the exception of bean sprout samples. Only 20% of bean sprout samples inoculated with 100 CFU/25 g injured Salmonella cells were positive by using the commercial LAMP-based kit. However, all negative samples became positive following a secondary enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis medium with soy broth or after concentration by centrifugation. These results suggest that secondary enrichment or centrifugation should be considered as an additional step to increase the sensitivity of the commercial LAMP-based kit with low numbers of injured target cells in samples with high background microflora (such as mung bean sprouts). The validation study also showed that the commercial LAMP-based kit provided 91% sensitivity and 95% specificity for naturally contaminated samples. Thus, this study demonstrates that the commercial LAMP-based kit might be a cost-effective method, as this system could provide rapid, accurate detection of both uninjured and injured Salmonella cells on raw duck wings, raw mung bean sprouts, and processed fishballs in less than 26 h.
    Journal of food protection 06/2015; 78(6):1203-1207. DOI:10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-14-535
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    ABSTRACT: Data on the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes (DEPs) in alfalfa sprouts and correlations between the presence of coliform bacteria (CB), fecal coliforms (FC), E. coli, DEPs, and Salmonella in alfalfa sprouts are not available. The presence of and correlations between CB, FC, E. coli, DEPs, and Salmonella in alfalfa sprouts were determined. One hundred sprout samples were collected from retail markets in Pachuca, Hidalgo State, Mexico. The presence of indicator bacteria and Salmonella was determined using conventional culture procedures. DEPs were identified using two multiplex PCR procedures. One hundred percent of samples were positive for CB, 90% for FC, 84% for generic E. coli, 10% for DEPs, and 4% for Salmonella. The populations of CB ranged from 6.2 up to 8.6 log CFU/g. The FC and E. coli concentrations were between, 3 and 1,100 most probable number (MPN)/g. The DEPs identified included enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC; 2%), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC; 3%), and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC; 5%). No E. coli O157:H7 strains were detected in any STEC-positive samples. In samples positive for DEPs, the concentrations ranged from 210 to 240 MPN/g for ETEC, 28 to 1,100 MPN/g for EPEC, and 3.6 to 460 MPN/g for STEC. The Salmonella isolates identified included Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in three samples and Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in one. STEC and Salmonella Typhimurium were identified together in one sample. Positive correlations were observed between FC and generic E. coli, between FC and DEPs, and between generic E. coli and DEPs. Negative correlations occurred between CB and DEPs and between CB and Salmonella. Neither FC nor generic E. coli correlated with Salmonella in the sprout samples. This is the first report of ETEC, EPEC, and STEC isolated from alfalfa sprouts and the first report of correlations between different indicator groups versus DEPs and Salmonella.
    Journal of food protection 03/2015; DOI:10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-14-229
  • Journal of food protection 02/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: This study reviews the current literature on behavioral and environmental food safety interventions conducted in commercial and institutional food service settings. A systematic search of the published literature yielded 268 candidate articles, from which a set of 23 articles reporting intervention outcomes was retained for evaluation. A categorization of measured outcomes is reported; studies addressed multiple outcomes ranging from knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of personal hygiene and food safety to management practices and disease rates and outbreaks. This study also investigates the quality of reported research methods used to evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions, using a nine-point quality index adapted by the authors. The observed scores suggest that there are opportunities to improve the design and reporting of research in the field of foodborne disease prevention as it applies to food safety interventions that target the food service industry. The aim is to aid researchers in this area to design higher quality studies and to produce clearer and more useful reports of their research. In turn, this can help to create a more complete evidence base that can be used to continually improve interventions in this domain.
    Journal of food protection 02/2015; 78(2):446-456. DOI:10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-14-266
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the microbiological effects of a hide-on carcass decontaminating treatment recently implemented at a beef packing plant, carcasses undergoing routine processing at the plant were sampled during successive periods in January/February, April/May, and September/October. During each period, samples were collected from carcasses before and after the decontamination of hide-on carcasses, after skinning, before decontamination of the skinned carcasses, and at the end of the carcass dressing process. At each stage of processing during each period, samples were obtained by swabbing an area of 1,000 cm2 on each of 25 carcasses. Aerobes, coliforms, and Escherichia coli were enumerated. In most samples, coliforms were predominantly E. coli. In all three periods, the log mean numbers of aerobes and E. coli recovered from hides before decontamination were between 6.6 and 6.8 and between 5.3 and 5.9 log CFU/1,000 cm2, respectively. The log mean numbers of aerobes recovered from decontaminated hides were 6.6 log CFU/1,000 cm2 in January/February and April/May but 5.4 log CFU/1,000 cm2 in September/October. The log total numbers of E. coli recovered from decontaminated hides in January/February and April/May were 2.4 and 3.8 log CFU/25,000 cm2, respectively, but no E. coli was recovered from such carcasses in September/October. Log total numbers of aerobes and E. coli recovered from skinned or dressed carcasses were mostly ≥4 and between 1 and 2 log CFU/25,000 cm2, respectively. Typing of 480 E. coli isolates by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) identified 218 MLVA types. Most isolates recovered from carcasses in different periods or at different stages of processing were of different MLVA types. However, small numbers of MLVA types were recovered in more than one period or from both hides before and after decontamination and skinned or dressed carcasses. The findings show that the hide-decontaminating treatment disrupted the usual transfer of E. coli from hides to meat surfaces during carcass skinning.
    Journal of food protection 02/2015; 78(2):256-263. DOI:10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-14-226
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    ABSTRACT: Total mercury was measured via thermal decomposition amalgamation atomic absorption spectroscopy in the muscle tissue of 82 swordfish originating in the Pacific Ocean and was found to range from 228 to 2,090 ppb. The relationships between total mercury concentration and the size of the fish (i.e., length and weight) were analyzed. It was found that dressed weight (DW) was a better predictor of mercury concentration than cleithrum-to-caudal keel length in a single variable model, and DW was the only significant predictor of mercury concentration in a multivariable model. Based on these relationships, swordfish with a DW greater than 96.4 kg (213 lb; 95% confidence interval, 88 to 107 kg [195 to 235 lb]) will exceed 1,000 ppb of mercury-the action level in the United States, Canada, and Europe-and should not be sold in commercial markets. Additionally, a logistic regression model was created to illustrate the probability of a swordfish at any DW being unsafe to consume (i.e., containing more than 1,000 ppb of mercury). In this model, the probability of a swordfish being unsafe exceeds the probability of being safe at 94.6 kg (209 lb). Taken together, the models presented in this report give regulators valuable postharvest tools to use for rapid determination of the safety of swordfish intended for sale in commercial markets.
    Journal of food protection 02/2015; 78(2):396-401. DOI:10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-14-449
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    ABSTRACT: The current study was undertaken to evaluate chlorine resistance among strains of Salmonella Kentucky isolated from chicken carcasses. Selected strains (n = 8) were exposed to 30 ppm of chlorine in 10% buffered peptone water (pH 7.4) for 0 to 10 min at 4°C and 150 rpm. The initial level (mean ± SD) of Salmonella Kentucky was 6.18 ± 0.09 log CFU/ml and did not differ (P > 0.05) among strains. A two-way analysis of variance indicated that the level of Salmonella Kentucky in chlorinated water was affected (P < 0.05) by a time by strain interaction. Differences among strains increased as a function of chlorine exposure time. After 10 min of chlorine exposure, the most resistant strain (SK145) was 5.63 ± 0.54 log CFU/ml, whereas the least resistant strain (SK275) was 3.07 ± 0.29 log CFU/ml. Significant differences in chlorine resistance were observed for most strain comparisons. Death of Salmonella Kentucky was nonlinear over time and fitted well to a power law model with a shape parameter of 0.34 (concave upward). Time (minutes) for a 1-log reduction of Salmonella Kentucky differed (P < 0.05) among strains: >10 min for SK145, 6.0 min for SK254, 1.5 min for SK179, and 0.3 to 0.65 min for other strains. Results of this study indicate that strain is an important variable to include in models that predict changes in levels of Salmonella Kentucky in chlorinated water.
    Journal of food protection 02/2015; 78(2):414-418. DOI:10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-14-379
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine the effect of temperature and period of postharvest storage on the microbiological quality and shelf life of raw mangrove oysters, Crassostrea brasiliana. A total of 150 dozen oysters were collected directly from the points of extraction or cultivation in southern Brazil, and in the laboratory, they were stored raw at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C for 1, 4, 8, 11, and 15 days. On each of these days, the oysters were subjected to microbiological analyses of aerobic mesophilic count, total coliforms, enterococci, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella. None of the tested samples under any storage condition showed contamination levels above those allowed by Brazilian legislation for E. coli, S. aureus, and Salmonella, and there was no change (P > 0.05) in the counts of these microorganisms due to the temperature and/or period of oyster storage. Counts of enterococci and total coliforms showed a tendency to increase (P < 0.05) among the different temperatures tested. Raw mangrove oysters remain in safe microbiological conditions for consumption up to 8 days after harvesting, regardless of temperature, and their shelf life may be extended to 15 days if they are stored at temperatures not exceeding 15°C.
    Journal of food protection 01/2015; 78(1):164-171. DOI:10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-14-255
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence and levels of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in rocket and cucumber samples by deterministic (estimation of a single value) and stochastic (estimation of a range of values) approaches. In parallel, the chromogenic media commonly used for the recovery of these microorganisms were evaluated and compared, and the efficiency of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based protocol was validated. L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 were detected and enumerated using agar Listeria according to Ottaviani and Agosti plus RAPID’L.mono medium and Fluorocult plus sorbitol MacConkey medium with cefixime and tellurite in parallel, respectively. Identity was confirmed with biochemical and molecular tests and the ELISA. Performance indices of the media and the prevalence of both pathogens were estimated using Bayesian inference. In rocket, prevalence of both L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 was estimated at 7% (7 of 100 samples). In cucumber, prevalence was 6% (6 of 100 samples) and 3% (3 of 100 samples) for L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7, respectively. The levels derived from the presence-absence data using Bayesian modeling were estimated at 0.12 CFU/25 g (0.06 to 0.20) and 0.09 CFU/25 g (0.04 to 0.170) for L. monocytogenes in rocket and cucumber samples, respectively. The corresponding values for E. coli O157:H7 were 0.59 CFU/25 g (0.43 to 0.78) and 1.78 CFU/25 g (1.38 to 2.24), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the culture media differed for rocket and cucumber samples. The ELISA technique had a high level of cross-reactivity. Parallel testing with at least two culture media was required to achieve a reliable result for L. monocytogenes or E. coli O157:H7 prevalence in rocket and cucumber samples.
    Journal of food protection 01/2015; 78:311-322.
  • Journal of food protection 01/2015; 35(1):36-48.
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    ABSTRACT: A substantial proportion of foodborne illnesses are associated with foods prepared in home kitchens. To determine risk factors that can contribute to the spread of pathogens in domestic kitchen environments, a combination study of raw poultry handling by individuals, using direct observational and questionnaire-based methods, was conducted. Fifty-six individual households were included in the study. Notational analysis was used to transcribe video recorded food handling behaviors into quantifiable risk factors. Additionally, questionnaires were administered to ascertain individuals’ knowledge of safe raw poultry handling. Questionnaire responses suggested that although participating individuals were knowledgeable about recommended poultry handling practices, observed poultry handling was frequently inconsistent with recommended practices. All of the individuals reported on the questionnaires that they wash their hands before and after handling raw poultry, but hands were actually washed properly after handling raw poultry only 12% of the time. Food handling practices leading to direct and/or indirect cross-contamination of hands, kitchen utensils, the kitchen environment, product containers (e.g., seasoning bottles) and devices (e.g., cell phones) were observed for 100% of the participating subjects. The results indicate that cross-contamination events are common during poultry handling in home kitchens, and that people’s knowledge of proper food handling was not fully translated into practice. Intervention efforts should strive to align food safety knowledge with behaviors, focusing particularly on ways to minimize the risk of cross-contamination during poultry handling in homes.
    Journal of food protection 01/2015; 35(1):8-23.
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    ABSTRACT: A sample of a potentially contaminated potato dish was submitted to the laboratory for analysis for nightshade alkaloids from a county health department. The potato dish had been contaminated by the inadvertent addition of an unknown plant from the Solonaceae family. Examples of plants from this family are tomato, potato, jimson weed, belladonna, tobacco, petunia and eggplant. These alkaloids include atropine, hyoscyamine, belledonine, scopolamine, -solanine and  -chaconine, among others. These alkaloids are the main components in belladonna, jimson weed, green and/or sprouting potatoes. Samples were prepared according to the FERN toxin/poison screen (T022) and analyzed on an LC system having a HILIC analytical column with an ODS guard column, and separated by a gradient program. A gradient liquid chromatographic (LC) method for the determination of four alkaloids from the nightshade family of plants was developed. Identification and quantitation was by MRM on a Micromass Quattro Premiere mass spectrometer. The MRM’s confirmed the presence of atropine, scopolamine, -solanine, and -chaconine. These confirmed the presence of jimson weed green and/or sprouting potatoes. The method provided an ideal and easy way of determining these types of alkaloid poisons. The method should be transferable, and is easy enough to use in a public health setting. (To Be Submitted)
    Journal of food protection 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Recent research has shown that mild milk thermization treatments routinely used in traditional Greek cheese production are efficient to inactivate Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogenic or undesirable bacteria, but they also inactivate a great part of the autochthonous antagonistic microbiota of raw milk. Therefore, in this study, the antilisterial activity of raw or thermized (63°C, 30 s) milk in the presence or absence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris M104, a wild, novel, nisin A–producing (Nis-A+) raw milk isolate, was assessed. Bulk milk samples were taken from a local cheese plant before or after thermization and were inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes (approximately 4 log CFU/ml) or with the cocktail, as above, plus the Nis-A+ strain (approximately 6 log CFU/ml) as a bioprotective culture. Heat-sterilized (121°C, 5 min) raw milk inoculated with L. monocytogenes was used as a control treatment. All milk samples were incubated at 37°C for 6 h and then at 18°C for an additional 66 h. L. monocytogenes grew abundantly (>8 log CFU/ml) in heat-sterilized milk, whereas its growth was completely inhibited in all raw milk samples. Conversely, in thermized milk, L. monocytogenes increased by 2 log CFU/ml in the absence of strain M104, whereas its growth was completely inhibited in the presence of strain M104. Furthermore, nisin activity was detected only in milk samples inoculated with strain M104. Thus, postthermal supplementation of thermized bulk milk with bioprotective L. lactis subsp. cremoris cultures replaces the natural antilisterial activity of raw milk reduced by thermization.
    Journal of food protection 08/2014; 77(8). DOI:10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-13-521