Journal of food protection (J FOOD PROTECT )

Publisher: International Association of Milk, Food, and Environmental Sanitarians; International Association for Food Protection, International Association for Food Protection

Description

The Journal of Food Protection (JFP) is an international monthly journal in the English language published by the International Association for Food Protection (formerly IAMFES). JFP is intended for publication of research and review articles on all apects of food protection and safety.

  • Impact factor
    1.83
    Show impact factor history
     
    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    2.18
  • Cited half-life
    8.50
  • Immediacy index
    0.31
  • Eigenfactor
    0.02
  • Article influence
    0.54
  • Website
    Journal of Food Protection website
  • Other titles
    Journal of food protection
  • ISSN
    0362-028X
  • OCLC
    2771676
  • Material type
    Periodical
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

International Association for Food Protection

  • Pre-print
    • Author cannot archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Classification
    ​ white

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A sample of a potentially contaminated potato dish was submitted to the laboratory for analysis for nightshade alkaloids from a county health department. The potato dish had been contaminated by the inadvertent addition of an unknown plant from the Solonaceae family. Examples of plants from this family are tomato, potato, jimson weed, belladonna, tobacco, petunia and eggplant. These alkaloids include atropine, hyoscyamine, belledonine, scopolamine, -solanine and  -chaconine, among others. These alkaloids are the main components in belladonna, jimson weed, green and/or sprouting potatoes. Samples were prepared according to the FERN toxin/poison screen (T022) and analyzed on an LC system having a HILIC analytical column with an ODS guard column, and separated by a gradient program. A gradient liquid chromatographic (LC) method for the determination of four alkaloids from the nightshade family of plants was developed. Identification and quantitation was by MRM on a Micromass Quattro Premiere mass spectrometer. The MRM’s confirmed the presence of atropine, scopolamine, -solanine, and -chaconine. These confirmed the presence of jimson weed green and/or sprouting potatoes. The method provided an ideal and easy way of determining these types of alkaloid poisons. The method should be transferable, and is easy enough to use in a public health setting. (To Be Submitted)
    Journal of food protection 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Factors including pH, temperature, glucose concentration and iron compounds affect the activity of plant myrosinase and consequently, endogenous glucosinolate degradation. These factors also may affect glucosinolate degradation by bacterial myrosinase, therefore this study examined the effect of temperature (4-21ºC), glucose (0.05-1.0%) and iron (10 mM ferrous or ferric) on sinigrin degradation by Salmonella or L. monocytogenes cocktails in Mueller-Hinton (MH) broth and the effect of sinigrin degradation on bacterial viability. The degradation of sinigrin by both pathogens increased with higher temperatures (21ºC > 10ºC > 4ºC). Salmonella and L. monocytogenes cocktails hydrolyzed 59.1% and 53.2% of sinigrin, respectively, at 21ºC up to 21d. Both iron compounds significantly enhanced sinigrin degradation by the pathogens. At day 7, sinigrin was not detected when the Salmonella cocktail was cultured with ferrous iron or when the L. monocytogenes cocktail was cultured in MH broth containing ferric iron. In contrast, ferric and ferrous iron inhibited the activity of 0.002 U/ml myrosinase from white mustard by 63% and 35% at day 1. Salmonella and L. monocytogenes cocktails were able to degrade >80% of sinigrin at 0.05 and 0.1% glucose; however, 0.25-1.0% glucose significantly reduced sinigrin degradation. Although both pathogens significantly degraded sinigrin, the allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) recoverable was ≤ 6.2 ppm which is not inhibitory to Salmonella or L. monocytogenes. It is probable that the gradual hydrolysis of sinigrin to form AITC either did not produce an inhibitory level of AITC or the AITC formed was unstable in the aqueous medium and rapidly decomposed to new compounds which were less bactericidal against the pathogens.
    Journal of food protection 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: An automated dead-end (single pass, no recirculation) ultrafiltration device, the Portable Multi-use Automated Concentration System (PMACS), was evaluated as a means to concentrate Escherichia coli O157:H7 from 40 liters of simulated commercial lettuce wash water. The assessment included generating, sieving, and concentrating sanitizer-free lettuce wash water, either uninoculated or inoculated with green fluorescent protein–transformed E. coli O157:H7 at a high (1.00 log CFU/ml) or low (–1.00 log CFU/ml) concentration. Cells collected within the filters were recovered in approximately 400 ml of buffer to create lettuce wash retentates. The extent of concentration was determined by viable plate counts using a medium selective for the transformed E. coli O157:H7. The samples were qualitatively analyzed for E. coli O157:H7 according to the U. S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual enrichment method and with an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. This concentration method was then evaluated in a pilot-scale production line at Michigan State University using chlorinated (100, 30, and 10 ppm of available chlorine) lettuce wash water. The total PMACS processing times were 82 ± 6 and 65 ± 5 min for sanitizer-free and chlorinated washes, respectively. Overall, E. coli O157:H7 populations were approximately 2 log higher in retentates than in unconcentrated lettuce wash samples. The higher E. coli O157:H7 levels in the retentates enabled cultural and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay detection in some samples when the corresponding lettuce wash samples were negative. When combined with standard and rapid detection methods, the PMACS concentration method may provide a means to enhance pathogen monitoring of produce wash water.
    Journal of food protection 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Shellfish have been implicated in norovirus (NoV) infection outbreaks worldwide. This study presents data obtained from various batches of shellfish and fishery products from a Belgian seafood company over a 6-month period. For the intact shellfish (oysters, mussels, and clams), 21 of 65 samples from 12 of 34 batches were positive for NoVs; 9 samples contained quantitative NoV levels at 3,300 to 14,300 genomic copies per g. For the semiprocessed fishery products (scallops and common sole rolls with scallop fragments), 29 of 36 samples from all eight batches were positive for NoVs; 17 samples contained quantitative NoV levels at 200 to 1,800 copies per g. This convenience study demonstrated the performance and robustness of the reverse transcription quantitative PCR detection and interpretation method and the added value of NoV testing in the framework of periodic control of seafood products bought internationally and distributed by a Belgian seafood processing company to Belgian food markets.
    Journal of food protection 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Foods grown in organic production systems have been described as representing an increased risk to public health compared with foods from conventional production. Leafy vegetables (spinach, romaine lettuce, and green sesame leaves) grown in organic and conventional systems were collected from various areas in Korea and examined using standard culture methods to compare the microbiological quality of the produce grown in the two agricultural systems. The 354 samples of these leafy vegetables were analyzed for levels of indicator bacteria (aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli) and the prevalence of the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella. Aerobic bacteria and coliforms were detected in all vegetable types, but nonpathogenic E. coli was below the limit of detection in all samples. B. cereus was the most prevalent pathogen, found on 7 (11.1%) of the 63 organic spinach samples. The prevalence of S. aureus was highest in organic sesame leaves; it was found on 5 (8.0%) of the 63 samples. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes was highest on organic romaine lettuce and spinach; it was found in 4 (6.4%) of 63 samples of each type of vegetable. E. coli O157:H7 found on only 1 (1.58%) of 55 conventional spinach samples. These results suggest that farming type at most only slightly affects the hygienic quality of leafy vegetables, and no effect was found for sample collection area. Salmonella was not isolated from any of the conventional or organic leafy vegetables. These results do not support the hypothesis that organic produce poses a substantially greater risk of pathogen contamination than does conventional produce.
    Journal of food protection 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Building a comprehensive knowledge base of the association of Listeria monocytogenes isolates across national food chains, clinical cases, and environments can play a key role in helping control the incidence of listeriosis. Today, many food chains cross national borders and are often shared by neighboring countries. This study characterized L. monocytogenes isolated from food samples in Northern Ireland and investigated whether similarities in the population and associations of L. monocytogenes strains exist in the neighboring countries of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, which together constitute the island of Ireland. Listeria monocytogenes isolates were characterized using serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis subtyping. This data was then interrogated against existing data for the Republic of Ireland, to identify any shared trends in the ecology and contamination patterns of L. monocytogenes strains. The results of this study indicated that contaminated food products often shared L. monocytogenes strains with other products. A total of six different strain subtypes were identified among 18 contaminated products. Overall strain diversity in positive samples was low, with no sample yielding more than one L. monocytogenes strain, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis subtyping. When comparisons against an Irish strain database were performed, many related strain subtypes were also shared by a variety of sources in the Republic of Ireland. This study highlights the potential benefits that a whole-island surveillance approach may present to food safety and public health in both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.
    Journal of food protection 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Very few studies have investigated the difference in the distribution of metal elements between rice and rice bran samples. In this study, the concentrations of 27 metal elements (Li, Be, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Cs, Ba, Tl, Pb, and U) in 56 polished rice and their corresponding bran samples were determined. A significant difference in concentrations of all elements except Ag and Cd was found between rice and bran (P 204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, and 208Pb) ratios also were determined. The 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios in bran were generally higher than those in rice (P Document Type: Research Article DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-14-079 Affiliations: 1: Public Monitoring Center for Agro-Product of Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, People's Republic of China, Key Laboratory of Testing and Evaluation for Agro-product Safety and Quality, Ministry of Agriculture, Guangzhou 510640, People's Republic of China, State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, People's Republic of China 2: Public Monitoring Center for Agro-Product of Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, People's Republic of China, Key Laboratory of Testing and Evaluation for Agro-product Safety and Quality, Ministry of Agriculture, Guangzhou 510640, People's Republic of China;, Email: yanghui8890@163.com 3: Public Monitoring Center for Agro-Product of Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, People's Republic of China, Key Laboratory of Testing and Evaluation for Agro-product Safety and Quality, Ministry of Agriculture, Guangzhou 510640, People's Republic of China Publication date: August 1, 2014 More about this publication? IAFP members must first sign in on the right to access full text articles of JFP First published in 1937, the Journal of Food Protection®, is a refereed monthly publication. Each issue contains scientific research and authoritative review articles reporting on a variety of topics in food science pertaining to food safety and quality. The Journal is internationally recognized as the leading publication in the field of food microbiology with a readership exceeding 11,000 scientists from 70 countries. The Journal of Food Protection® is indexed in Index Medicus, Current Contents, BIOSIS, PubMed, Medline, and many others. Print and online subscriptions are available to Members and Institutional subscribers. Online visitors who are not IAFP Members or journal subscribers will be charged on a pay-per-view basis. Information can be obtained by calling +1 800.369.6337; +1 515.276.3344; fax: +1 515.276.8655, E-mail: info@foodprotection.org or Web site: www.foodprotection.org Information for Authors Submit a Paper Subscribe to this Title Membership Information Information for Advertisers ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites $(document).ready(function() { var shortdescription = $(".originaldescription").text().replace(/\\&/g, '&').replace(/\\, '<').replace(/\\>/g, '>').replace(/\\t/g, ' ').replace(/\\n/g, ''); if (shortdescription.length > 350){ shortdescription = "" + shortdescription.substring(0,250) + "... more"; } $(".descriptionitem").prepend(shortdescription); $(".shortdescription a").click(function() { $(".shortdescription").hide(); $(".originaldescription").slideDown(); return false; }); }); Related content In this: publication By this: publisher In this Subject: Nutrition & Food By this author: Dai, Shouhui ; Yang, Hui ; Yang, Lan ; Wang, Fuhua ; Du, Ruiying ; Wen, Dian GA_googleFillSlot("Horizontal_banner_bottom");
    Journal of food protection 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Bovines are recognized as an important reservoir of Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Although STEC strains are significant foodborne pathogens, not all of the STEC held by cattle are pathogenic, and which type of STEC that will become epidemic in humans is unpredictable. Information about the prevalence of serotype and virulence gene distribution in beef cattle is insufficient to develop monitoring and controlling activities for a food safety and security program. Thus, this study investigated the prevalence of O157 and non-O157 STEC in Japanese beef cattle and characterized the isolates by the type of O antigen and several virulence markers to help predict the pathogenicity. In this study, 64.2% (176 of 274) of enrichment cultures of fecal samples collected from an abattoir and farms were stx 1 and/or stx 2 positive by PCR. STEC strains were isolated from 22.1% (39 of 176) of the positive fecal samples, and these isolates represented 17 types of O antigen (O1, O2 or O50, O5, O8, O55, O84, O91, O109, O113, O136, O150, O156, O157, O163, O168, O174, and O177). Two selective media targeting major STEC groups, cefixime-tellurite sorbitol MacConkey agar and CHROMagar O26/O157, allowed isolation of a variety of STEC strains. The most frequently isolated STEC was O113 (8 of 39), which has previously been reported as a cause of foodborne infections. Although most of the O113 STEC isolated from infected patients possessed the enterohemolysin (hlyA) gene, none of the O113 STEC cattle isolates possessed the hlyA gene. The second most common isolate was O157 (6 of 39), and all these isolates contained common virulence factors, including eae, tir, lpf 1, lpf 2, and hlyA. This study shows the prevalence of O157 and non-O157 STEC in Japanese beef cattle and the relationship of O antigen and virulotypes of the isolates. This information may improve identification of the source of infection, developing surveillance programs or the current understanding of virulence factors of STEC infections.
    Journal of food protection 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Potentially hazardous foods require time/temperature control for safety. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code, most cheeses are potentially hazardous foods based on pH and water activity, and a product assessment is required to evaluate safety of storage >6 h at 21°C. We tested the ability of 67 market cheeses to support growth of Listeria monocytogenes (LM), Salmonella spp. (SALM), Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EC), and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) over 15 days at 25°C. Hard (Asiago and Cheddar), semi-hard (Colby and Havarti), and soft cheeses (mozzarella and Mexican-style), and reduced-sodium or reduced-fat types were tested. Single-pathogen cocktails were prepared and individually inoculated onto cheese slices (∼105 CFU/g). Cocktails were 10 strains of L. monocytogenes, 6 of Salmonella spp., or 5 of E. coli O157:H7 or S. aureus. Inoculated slices were vacuum packaged and stored at 25°C for ≤15 days, with surviving inocula enumerated every 3 days. Percent salt-in-the-moisture phase, percent titratable acidity, pH, water activity, and levels of indigenous/starter bacteria were measured. Pathogens did not grow on 53 cheeses, while 14 cheeses supported growth of SA, 6 of SALM, 4 of LM, and 3 of EC. Of the cheeses supporting pathogen growth, all supported growth of SA, ranging from 0.57 to 3.08 log CFU/g (average 1.70 log CFU/g). Growth of SALM, LM, and EC ranged from 1.01 to 3.02 log CFU/g (average 2.05 log CFU/g), 0.60 to 2.68 log CFU/g (average 1.60 log CFU/g), and 0.41 to 2.90 log CFU/g (average 1.69 log CFU/g), respectively. Pathogen growth varied within cheese types or lots. Pathogen growth was influenced by pH and percent salt-in-the-moisture phase, and these two factors were used to establish growth/no-growth boundary conditions for safe, extended storage (≤25°C) of pasteurized milk cheeses. Pathogen growth/no-growth could not be predicted for Swiss-style cheeses, mold-ripened or bacterial surface–ripened cheeses, and cheeses made with nonbovine milk, as insufficient data were gathered. This challenge study data can support science-based decision making in a regulatory framework.
    Journal of food protection 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Noroviruses (NoVs) are the most common etiologic agents of endemic and epidemic foodborne disease in the United States. Food safety professionals play an important role in protecting the public from foodborne illness. A survey of food safety professionals (n = 314) was conducted to characterize their knowledge of NoVs and to identify gaps in this knowledge. To recruit individuals, 25 professional organizations promoted the survey via their Web sites, newsletters, and/or e-mail distribution lists. The survey used true or false and open-ended questions to assess knowledge about NoVs, including attribution, transmission, and prevention and control strategies, including food handling practices. The online survey was available from mid-October 2012 to mid-January 2013. Of the 314 respondents, 66.2% correctly identified NoVs as one of the three most common causes of foodborne disease in the United States. Only 5.4% of respondents correctly identified the three most common settings for NoV infections, and 65.0% of respondents had the misperception that cruise ships are one of the three most common settings. Seventeen respondents (5.4%) answered all 20 true-or-false questions correctly, 33 respondents (10.5%) answered at least 19 of the 20 questions correctly, and 186 respondents (65.0%) answered at least 15 of the 20 questions correctly (i.e., a score of 75% or higher). The content domain in which respondents had the most incorrect answers was food handling practices. Thirty-eight percent of respondents incorrectly responded that it is safe for restaurant workers infected with NoVs to handle packaged food, food equipment, and utensils. About half of respondents did not know the recommended sanitizing solution for eliminating NoVs from a contaminated surface. The survey findings identified several important gaps in food safety professionals' knowledge of NoVs. The study results will inform the development of a Web-based educational module on NoVs to improve efforts to prevent the spread of NoVs in retail and institutional food establishments.
    Journal of food protection 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and quantify the number of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh chicken carcasses sold in traditional markets and supermarkets in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, and to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of the isolated L. monocytogenes strains. The overall prevalence of L. monocytogenes in chicken carcasses was 15.8% (29/184). When comparing samples from traditional markets and supermarkets, no significant difference in the L. monocytogenes prevalence was detectable (15.2 versus 16.3%). Of the samples, 97.3% had L. monocytogenes counts L. monocytogenes counts between 101 and 1,000 CFU/g, and 0.5% had L. monocytogenes counts of 1,001 to 10,000 CFU/g. Of the isolates, 27.6% were resistant to at least one of the 10 antimicrobials tested, with the major resistant phenotypes to penicillin (17.2%), ampicillin (6.9%), and erythromycin (6.9%). All 29 isolates recovered in this study were grouped into the molecular serogroup IIb, comprising the serovars 1/2b, 3b, and 7.
    Journal of food protection 08/2014; 77(8):1407-1410.
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    ABSTRACT: Nasogastric liquid feed formulation (NGLF) was developed for immunocompromised patients who are vulnerable targets of pathogenic assault. NGLF consisted of cereals, pulses, vegetables, and milk powder to provide balanced nutrients; however, the shelf life was only a few hours because this product was highly prone to microbial contamination and proliferation due to its high water content and rich nutrients. Postpreparation storage and distribution was very difficult, even at chilled temperatures. To overcome this problem, the NGLF was irradiated at various doses (2.5 to 10 kGy). Gamma irradiation at 10 kGy reduced the microbial load to nondetectable levels, and the product could be stored up to 1 month without any detectable increase in microbial load. The sensory evaluation did not indicate differences between the nonirradiated fresh, irradiated fresh, and stored samples. Nutritional quality in terms of total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, proteins, calories, vitamins A and C, and the micronutrients calcium, iron, and zinc was not affected by irradiation. NGLF also possessed antimutagenic potential against ethylmethanesulphonate-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli cells as evaluated by the rifampin resistance assay. This property of NGLF remained unchanged even after exposure to a 10-kGy dose of gamma radiation. Thus, irradiated NGLF seemed to be a safe and wholesome food for immunocompromised patients.
    Journal of food protection 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Stakeholders in the public health risk analysis community can possess differing opinions about what is meant by “conduct a risk assessment.” In reality, there is no one-size-fits-all risk assessment that can address all public health issues, problems, and regulatory needs. Although several international and national organizations (e.g., Codex Alimentarius Commission, Office International des Epizooties, Food and Agricultural Organization, World Health Organization, National Research Council, and European Food Safety Authority) have addressed this issue, confusion remains. The type and complexity of a risk assessment must reflect the risk management needs to appropriately inform a regulatory or nonregulatory decision, i.e., a risk assessment is ideally “fit for purpose” and directly applicable to risk management issues of concern. Frequently however, there is a lack of understanding by those not completely familiar with risk assessment regarding the specific utility of different approaches for assessing public health risks. This unfamiliarity can unduly hamper the acceptance of risk assessment results by risk managers and may reduce the usefulness of such results for guiding public health policies, practices, and operations. Differences in interpretation of risk assessment terminology further complicate effective communication among risk assessors, risk managers, and stakeholders. This article provides an overview of the types of risk assessments commonly conducted, with examples primarily from the food and agricultural sectors, and a discussion of the utility and limitations of these specific approaches for assessing public health risks. Clarification of the risk management issues and corresponding risk assessment design needs during the formative stages of the risk analysis process is a key step for ensuring that the most appropriate assessment of risk is developed and used to guide risk management decisions.
    Journal of food protection 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Parasitic diseases can be acquired by ingestion of contaminated raw or minimally processed fresh produce (herbs and fruits). The sensitivity of methods used to detect parasites on fresh produce depends in part on the efficacy of wash solutions in removing them from suspect samples. In this study, six wash solutions (sterile E-Pure water, 3% levulinic acid–3% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 1 M glycine, 0.1 M phosphate-buffered saline, 0.1% Alconox, and 1% HCl–pepsin) were evaluated for their effectiveness in removing Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Toxoplasma gondii from basil. One hundred or 1,000 oocysts of these parasites were inoculated onto the adaxial surfaces of 25 g of basil leaves, placed in stomacher bags, and stored for 1 h at 21°C or 24 h at 4°C. Leaves were hand washed in each wash solution for 1 min. DNA was extracted from the wash solutions and amplified using PCR for the detection of all parasites. Oocysts inoculated at a concentration of 1,000 oocysts per 25 g of basil were detected in all wash solutions. At an inoculum concentration of 100 oocysts per 25 g, oocysts were detected in 18.5 to 92.6% of the wash solutions. The lowest variability in recovering oocysts from basil inoculated with 100 oocysts was observed in 1% HCl–pepsin wash solution. Oocyst recovery rates were higher at 1 h than at 24 h postinoculation. Unlike most bacteria, parasites cannot be enriched; therefore, an optimal recovery process for oocysts from suspected foods is critical. The observations in this study provide guidance concerning the selection of wash solutions giving the highest retrieval of parasite oocysts.
    Journal of food protection 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Since 2009, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) has received FoodCORE funding to hire graduate students to conduct in-depth food exposure interviews of salmonellosis case patients. In 2011, an increase in the number of Salmonella Heidelberg infections with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis Xba I pattern JF6X01.0022 among observant Jewish communities in New York and New Jersey was investigated. As this pattern is common nationwide, some cases identified were not associated with the outbreak. To reduce the number of background cases, DOHMH focused on the community initially identified in the outbreak and defined a case as a person infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Heidelberg with illness onset from 1 April to 17 November 2011 and who consumed a kosher diet, spoke Yiddish, or self-identified as Jewish. Nationally, 190 individuals were infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Heidelberg; 63 New York City residents met the DOHMH case definition. In October 2011, the graduate students (Team Salmonella) interviewed three case patients who reported eating broiled chicken livers. Laboratory testing of chicken liver samples revealed the outbreak strain of Salmonella Heidelberg. Although they were only partially cooked, the livers appeared fully cooked, and consumers and retail establishment food handlers did not cook them thoroughly before eating or using them in a ready-to-eat spread. This investigation highlighted the need to prevent further illnesses from partially cooked chicken products. Removing background cases helped to focus the investigation. Training graduate students to collect exposure information can be a highly effective model for conducting foodborne disease surveillance and outbreak investigations for local and state departments of public health.
    Journal of food protection 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A group of 37 strains representing all 13 serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes with an initial cell density of 107 CFU/ml were analyzed for their heat tolerance at 60°C for 10 min. These L. monocytogenes strains were categorized into three heat tolerance groups: low (L. monocytogenes strain from each heat tolerance group was subjected to sublethal heat stress at 48°C for 30 or 60 min, the survival of heat-stressed cells at 60°C for 10 min increased by 5 log CFU/ml (D 60°C-values nearly doubled) compared with the nonstressed control cells. Sublethal heat stress at 48°C for 60 or 90 min increased the lag phase of L. monocytogenes in tryptic soy broth supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract at room temperature by 3 to 5 h compared with nonstressed control cells. The heat stress adaptation in L. monocytogenes was reversed after 2 h at room temperature but was maintained for up to 24 h at 4°C. Our results indicate a high diversity in heat tolerance among strains of L. monocytogenes, and once acquired this heat stress adaptation persists after cooling, which should be taken into account while conducting risk analyses for this pathogen.
    Journal of food protection 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common mycotoxin produced by Fusarium sp. in cereals and foods. Ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs can cause digestive disorders in various animals. Many researchers focus on its toxicity and the pathological damage and absorptive function in the intestines. However, the effect of DON on gastric function is still unclear. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the impact of DON on gastric secretion. Rats were gavaged with DON at the dose of 0, 1, 5, and 25 mg/kg of body weight (bw). Gastric fluids were gathered by pylorus ligation 0.5 h after DON exposure. The results indicate that the volume of gastric fluid decreased by 25, 51, and 61% compared with the control, respectively. The pH increased to 3.2, 3.81, and 6.65 in the 1, 5, and 25 mg/kg bw DON group, compared with the control (1.9). To examine the mucosal injuries, the stomach tissues were made into hematoxylin and eosin slides. Histopathology observations suggest that no mucosal lesions were observed until DON exposure at 25 mg/kg bw. Additionally, the gastrin secretion in the fluids and mRNA expression in tissues were determined by the radioimmunoassay and real-time PCR assay, respectively. The results indicated that both significantly decreased in DON-exposed rats compared with the control. Taken together, DON exposure reduced gastric secretion in rats. Low gastrin secretion and mRNA expression play a major role, unless mucosal lesions by high DON exposure are present.
    Journal of food protection 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In the last 20 years, the use of microbial reduction models has expanded significantly, including inactivation (linear and nonlinear), survival, and transfer models. However, a major constraint for model development is the impossibility to directly quantify the number of viable microorganisms below the limit of detection (LOD) for a given study. Different approaches have been used to manage this challenge, including ignoring negative plate counts, using statistical estimations, or applying data transformations. Our objective was to illustrate and quantify the effect of negative plate count data management approaches on parameter estimation for microbial reduction models. Because it is impossible to obtain accurate plate counts below the LOD, we performed simulated experiments to generate synthetic data for both log-linear and Weibull-type microbial reductions. We then applied five different, previously reported data management practices and fit log-linear and Weibull models to the resulting data. The results indicated a significant effect (α = 0.05) of the data management practices on the estimated model parameters and performance indicators. For example, when the negative plate counts were replaced by the LOD for log-linear data sets, the slope of the subsequent log-linear model was, on average, 22% smaller than for the original data, the resulting model underpredicted lethality by up to 2.0 log, and the Weibull model was erroneously selected as the most likely correct model for those data. The results demonstrate that it is important to explicitly report LODs and related data management protocols, which can significantly affect model results, interpretation, and utility. Ultimately, we recommend using only the positive plate counts to estimate model parameters for microbial reduction curves and avoiding any data value substitutions or transformations when managing negative plate counts to yield the most accurate model parameters.
    Journal of food protection 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Recent research has shown that mild milk thermization treatments routinely used in traditional Greek cheese production are efficient to inactivate Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogenic or undesirable bacteria, but they also inactivate a great part of the autochthonous antagonistic microbiota of raw milk. Therefore, in this study, the antilisterial activity of raw or thermized (63°C, 30 s) milk in the presence or absence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris M104, a wild, novel, nisin A–producing (Nis-A+) raw milk isolate, was assessed. Bulk milk samples were taken from a local cheese plant before or after thermization and were inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes (approximately 4 log CFU/ml) or with the cocktail, as above, plus the Nis-A+ strain (approximately 6 log CFU/ml) as a bioprotective culture. Heat-sterilized (121°C, 5 min) raw milk inoculated with L. monocytogenes was used as a control treatment. All milk samples were incubated at 37°C for 6 h and then at 18°C for an additional 66 h. L. monocytogenes grew abundantly (>8 log CFU/ml) in heat-sterilized milk, whereas its growth was completely inhibited in all raw milk samples. Conversely, in thermized milk, L. monocytogenes increased by 2 log CFU/ml in the absence of strain M104, whereas its growth was completely inhibited in the presence of strain M104. Furthermore, nisin activity was detected only in milk samples inoculated with strain M104. Thus, postthermal supplementation of thermized bulk milk with bioprotective L. lactis subsp. cremoris cultures replaces the natural antilisterial activity of raw milk reduced by thermization.
    Journal of food protection 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term survival of heat-stressed Salmonella Tennessee, Salmonella Typhimurium DT104, and Enterococcus faecium was evaluated in four model peanut paste formulations with a combination of two water activity (aw) levels (0.3 and 0.6) and two fat levels (47 and 56%) over 12 months at 20 ± 1°C. Prior to storage, the inoculated peanut paste formulations were heat treated at 75°C for up to 50 min to obtain an approximately 1.0-log reduction of each organism. The cell population of each organism in each formulation was monitored with tryptic soy agar plate counts, immediately after heat treatment, at 2 weeks for the first month, and then monthly for up to 1 year. The log reductions (log CFU per gram) following 12 months of storage were between 1.3 and 2.4 for Salmonella Tennessee, 1.8 and 2.8 for Salmonella Typhimurium, and 1.1 and 2.1 for E. faecium in four types of model peanut paste formulations. Enhanced survivability was observed in pastes with lower aw for all organisms, compared with those with higher aw (P P > 0.05). Whereas survivability of Salmonella Tennessee and Typhimurium DT104 did not differ significantly (P > 0.05), E. faecium demonstrated higher survivability than Salmonella (P Salmonella survived in the model peanut pastes well over 12 months, which is longer than the expected shelf life for peanut butter products. The information from this study can be used to design safer food processing and food safety plans for peanut butter processing.
    Journal of food protection 08/2014;

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