Pathology - Research and Practice (Pathol Res Pract )

Publisher: Elsevier

Description

Pathology, Research and Practice provides accessible coverage of the most recent developments across the entire field of pathology: Reviews focus on recent progress in pathology, while Comments look at interesting current problems and at hypotheses for future developments in pathology. Original Papers present novel findings on all aspects of general, anatomic and molecular pathology. Rapid Communications inform readers on preliminary findings that may be relevant for further studies and need to be communicated quickly. Teaching Cases look at new aspects or special diagnostic problems of diseases and at case reports relevant for the pathologist's practice.

  • Impact factor
    1.21
    Show impact factor history
     
    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    1.27
  • Cited half-life
    8.50
  • Immediacy index
    0.11
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.35
  • Website
    Pathology, Research & Practice website
  • Other titles
    Pathology, research and practice (Online)
  • ISSN
    0344-0338
  • OCLC
    51232024
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Elsevier

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Voluntary deposit by author of pre-print allowed on Institutions open scholarly website and pre-print servers
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository
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    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PMC after 12 months
    • Authors who are required to deposit in subject repositories may also use Sponsorship Option
    • Pre-print can not be deposited for The Lancet
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between STAT5 gene polymorphisms and glioblastoma (GBM) risk predisposition. We undertook a case-control study to analyze two STAT5 polymorphisms (STAT5a rs11079041 and STAT5b rs2293157) in a Han Chinese population, by extraction of genomic DNA from the peripheral blood of 328 patients with glioma and 342 control participants, and performed STAT5 genotyping using DNA sequencing. The obtained results indicated that overall, no statistically significant association was observed in STAT5a rs11079041. Nevertheless, STAT5b rs2293157 G/T genotype was at increased risk of glioma (P=0.001). Furthermore, rs2293157T allele was more significantly prognostic in patients suffering from glioblastoma compared to other subtypes of gliomas (P<0.001; odds ratio (OR)=5.14, CI 95%: 2.70-9.79). These findings led us to conclude that polymorphism in STAT5b rs2293157 G/T was observed to be associated with susceptibility of glioblastoma. Nevertheless, further investigation with a later confirmation in another ethnical or geographical cohort is required.
    Pathology - Research and Practice 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: C-kit overexpression has previously been described in chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (cpRCC) and renal oncocytoma (RO). However, so far no KIT mutations have been found. The objective of our study was to analyse c-kit in a large cohort of renal tumors and to perform KIT mutation analysis in a subset cpRCC and RO cases with overexpression of c-kit.
    Pathology - Research and Practice 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Malakoplakia is an unusual chronic inflammatory condition characterized by the presence of Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. Patients with malakoplakia often have an immunodeficiency state. It is believed that malakoplakia results from a defective macrophage response to phagocytosed bacteria. Malakoplakia most commonly affects the genitourinary tract. Cases confined to the liver are rare, with only 5 cases described in the literature. We report two cases of malakoplakia of liver; both were incidental autopsy findings. The first case involves a 53-year-old man with systemic lupus erythematosus and chronic refractory pancytopenia who presented with febrile neutropenia. His blood culture was positive for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Enterococcus faecium, and he subsequently developed invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The second case involves a 60-year-old man who presented with a mass in periorbital tissue which, on biopsy, showed inflammation and Treponema-like spirochetes. He died unexpectedly at home. Autopsy revealed adrenal gland chronic inflammation and abscess. Both cases had grossly normal livers with microscopic findings of calcified targetoid structures consistent with Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. In these cases, malakoplakia was an incidental finding confined to liver. Although asymptomatic in these cases, diagnosis in the liver may be useful to initiate a search for hepatic or non-hepatic infections.
    Pathology - Research and Practice 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background A problem in the management of patients with Barrett's esophagus-related pT1 esophageal adenocarcinoma is to distinguish those who should be treated conservatively (Endoscopic mucosal resection and/or radiofrequency ablation) from those who require esophago-gastrectomy. Recently, lymphovascular invasion (LVI) has emerged as one of the best predictors of regional lymph node metastasis (LNM) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) in pT1 EAC. However, LVI may be underestimated, both because of interobserver variability and incomplete sampling. The aim of our study was to correlate the presence of LVI, with the immunohistochemical expression of IMP3 in pT1 EAC and assess their role in further stratifying these lesions into high and low risk groups based on the potential for lymph node metastasis and poor outcome. Design Depth of invasion, assessed in five sublevels (m2, m3, sm1, sm2, and sm3), LVI, and expression of IMP3 were studied in 30 patients who underwent esophagogastrectomy for pT1 EAC (2001-2010) at Hartford Hospital, and correlated with LNM and RFS. IMP3 was considered positive when expressed in >50% of the malignant cells with an intensity of stain of 2-3+. Results 10 of 18 (55.5%) cases with IMP3 expression demonstrated LVI and 2/10 (20%) showed LNM and died of disease. In contrast, none of the 12 IMP3 negative cases showed LVI (p < 0.004; 2-tailed Fisher exact test) or had LNM/DOD. Conclusions In pT1 EAC, 1) Based on IMP3 expression, pT1 EAC may be divided into high risk (LVI+/IMP3 + ) and low risk (LVI-/IMP3-) categories. 2) Absence of IMP3 expression is associated with a significantly reduced risk of LVI (Negative Predictive Value: 100%). 3) Since identifying lymphovascular invasion and other morphological parameters is prone to significant inter-observer variation, IMP3 may be useful as an ancillary marker especially in these pT1 lesions in predicting their clinical behavior, the risk stratification and potentially on the type of treatment.
    Pathology - Research and Practice 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to explore ERG immunoreactivity in a series of sarcomas, GIST and malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT), considering the not fully elucidated specificity and sensitivity of this antibody. Paraffin-embedded tissue microarrays from those tumors were stained with anti-ERG against the C-terminus [(EPR3864(2)] and N-terminus (Clone 9FY). EPR3864(2) was positive in almost all angiosarcomas, and MRT.GIST were positive in a large proportion of cases (38.4%), and more than half the synovial sarcomas (52.7%) revealed EPR3864(2) staining. Several chondrosarcomas, osteosarcomas, rhabdomyosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) presented EPR3864(2) expression in a lower number of cases. 9FY was positive in most of the angiosarcomas; however, only sporadic ESFT and synovial sarcoma were positive and the other tumors tested were negative. Fourteen ESFT with EWSR1/Fli-1 gene fusion presented positive nuclear staining for EPR3864(2). Similarly, 5 ESFT with EWSR1/Fli-1 gene fusion presented positive staining for 9FY. We must stress that the difference between the present and previous studies may be due to the source of the anti-ERG employed, anti-ERG against C or N-terminus, protein cross-reactivity and dilution. In conclusion, specificity for ERG staining in sarcomas should be considered with caution apnd the immunoexpression is undoubtedly influenced by clone and antibody selection.
    Pathology - Research and Practice 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Sirenomelia, a developmental defect involving the caudal region of the body, is associated with several internal visceral anomalies. We report a detailed spectrum of anomalies in an autopsy study of four fetuses with sirenomelia (gestational ages–20, 21, 22.4, and 22.5 weeks). Three of the fetuses had single umbilical artery, with genitourinary and gastrointestinal anomalies. Central nervous system anomalies were evident in two of the fetuses, with alobar holoprosencephaly in one and lumbar meningomyelocele in another. The most common gastrointestinal anomaly was blind ended gut (imperforate anus), while esophageal atresia and omphalocele were noted in one case each. Renal hypoplasia was seen in two fetuses, agenesis in one and cystic renal dysplasia was noted in one case. Literature regarding pathogenesis of this condition is briefly discussed.
    Pathology - Research and Practice 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: GISTs originating multifocally at different GI sites, in patients lacking familial syndromes, could be interpreted as recurrent/metastatic disease. MiR-221/222 have recently been identified as regulators of KIT expression in GISTs. We report the first case of synchronous GISTs in the stomach and duodenum concomitant with an ampullary adenocarcinoma. Different CD117 expression patterns could be related to different KIT mutational status in the two lesions: gastric GIST showed a dot-like pattern and lacked KIT mutations; duodenal GIST had a strong membranous expression pattern, likely due to KIT exon 9 duplication, which is associated with lower response to Imatinib. MiR-221/222 were downregulated in GISTs as compared with normal tissue (p < 0.05) and expressed increased levels in the gastric GIST as compared with duodenal one (p < 0.05). Our data support an independent origin of the two GISTs. Determining whether these tumors are multiple primaries or recurrencies is helpful to predict their malignancy and to select proper treatment.
    Pathology - Research and Practice 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is an uncommon tumor regarded as “intermediate malignancy”. We present the clinical, pathological and molecular features of a mesenteric inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in a 9-month-old male infant. The patient was referred to Anna Meyer Children Hospital of Florence, Italy, for an asymptomatic abdominal mass measuring about 7 cm. The lesion was radically excised, and the postoperative course was uneventful. Histologically, the tumor was composed of spindle cells immunopositive for vimentin and desmin admixed with an inflammatory infiltrate. Rearrangement of ALK gene was demonstrated by FISH and immunohistochemistry (cytoplasmic, perinuclear and punctate immunocoloration). The peculiar punctate ALK immunocoloration suggested a possible unusual ALK gene rearrangement involving the CLTC gene.
    Pathology - Research and Practice 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background NUT (nuclear protein in testis) midline carcinoma (NMC) is a recently described aggressive malignancy that is genetically defined by rearrangements of the NUT locus at 15q14. In approximately two-thirds of cases, the characteristic t(15;19) results in the fusion oncogene BRD4-NUT. Only 10 sinonasal NMCs have been documented, none of which were Japanese cases. Case presentation: An 18-year-old woman was admitted because of a rapidly progressing tumor in the nasal cavity. A biopsy revealed an undifferentiated neoplasm without squamous differentiation. The tumor cells had round to oval nuclei with vesicular chromatin, prominent nucleoli, and scant cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated a strong positivity for vimentin and NUT, with focal CD138 and only spotty EMA and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 staining. Cytogenetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses revealed a t(15;19) and BRD4-NUT gene rearrangement. Direct sequencing identified the in-frame fusion of exon11 of BRD4 with exon2 of NUT. The patient was transferred to another hospital for chemoradiotherapy. Conclusion We herein describe the first Japanese case with an NMC of the sinonasal cavity, providing detailed and unambiguous cyto- and molecular genetic information on BRD4-NUT -rearrangement. The accumulation of cases with well-documented genetic data should provide clues to the treatment of this tumor entity.
    Pathology - Research and Practice 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type among thyroid cancers. The diagnosis of PTC may be challenging when follicular variant (FVPTC) of this disease is present due to the resemblance of nuclear properties of the classical type (CVPTC). However, making use of ancillary molecular markers in the diagnosis of PTC may help. In our study, we aimed to evaluate the SEPT7 protein expression in PTC. A total of 55 paraffin block tissue samples comprising encapsulated FVPTC (FVPTC(e), n = 25), and CVPTC (n = 15), and benign hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules (HypN, n = 15) were used in this study. Nuclear, cytoplasmic, and overall (total) SEPT7 protein expression levels were determined by using immunohistochemistry. Nuclear, cytoplasmic, and overall SEPT7 expressions (p = 0.02, p = 0.001, p = 0.002, respectively) were significantly lower in FVPTC(e) tissues when compared to HypN. In CVPTC group, nuclear expression was significantly lower (p = 0.004) while overall and cytoplasmic expressions were not changed (p > 0.05). In HypN group, highest nuclear (mean = 2.73), cytoplasmic (mean = 2.86), and overall (mean = 2.86) expression scores were detected. Significantly lower SEPT7 expression in all expressional categories in FVPTC(e) group may be a sign of different molecular signature in this type of tissue.
    Pathology - Research and Practice 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease. Immunohistochemistry has given rise to triple-negative carcinoma (TNC). Concomitantly, biological origins of neoplasia and its heterogeneity has been strongly debated in cancer stem cells (CSC) theme. This study investigates the prevalence of basal (BCC) and penta-negative carcinomas (5NC) in TNC and establishes associations with CSC (CD44CD24). Materials and Methods 94 TNC were tested for CK5/6, HER1, CD44 and CD24, evaluated by a simple immunohistochemistry score and correlated with clinicopathological and survival data. Results BCC had higher tumor grades than 5NC (p = 0.004). CD44 negativity (p = 0.007) and CD44-CD24+ phenotype (p = 0.013) were associated with less vascular invasion amongst TNC. CD44 expression was associated with BCC (p = 0.007). CD44-CD24-/low phenotype was associated with 5NC. None of the variables were associated with clinical outcome. Conclusion BCC and 5NC are closely related tumor subtypes. CD44-CD24-/low phenotype was associated with 5NC and CD44-CD24+ phenotype was associated with vascular invasion. These results require histogenetic confirmation in larger studies.
    Pathology - Research and Practice 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Neurogenic heterotopic ossification (NHO) is a common complication in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although there are many reports regarding the etiology, pathophysiology, and medical management, few studies elaborate the anatomical details of NHO, which leads to ankylosis of the hip joint. A prospective study on surgical resection of NHO in patients with hip ankylosis was conducted. Radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to assess the relationship of the NHO block with the blood vessels, peripheral nerve, and surrounding muscles and bones. The anatomical relationships were also assessed and documented during the surgical procedures. NHO, which is anterior to the hip and causes hip ankylosis, settles into tissue planes without involving the tissue itself and does not disrupt the femoral neurovascular structures. The NHO bone block can then fuse to the cortex of adjacent bone. During resection, the normal bony contour should be exposed as a marker to guide the resection in order to avoid iatrogenic fracture.
    Pathology - Research and Practice 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To explore asthmatic rat airway epithelial cells mitochondrial ultrastructure changes. Methods Six female Wistar rats of the same weight (60 ∼ 80 g) were randomly divided into two groups: the asthmatic group and the control group. According to the OVA inhaled method, the asthmatic airway remodeling rat model was established. Epithelial tissue of the rat trachea was taken from the two groups for transmission electron microscopy (TEM); we counted the number of mitochondria and observed the airway ciliated epithelium, intercellular collagen deposition in the two rat groups and mitochondrial ultrastructure change. Results Airway multilayer ciliated epithelium develops, with cilia fallen off; goblet cells increased and irregular, mitochondrial basement membrane density is decreased, mitochondrial crista is reduced, and the nucleus has more incisures and irregular shape in asthmatic rats; airway epithelial cell matrix collagen deposition increased; and lamellar body and mitochondrial cavity formation. Conclusions In the asthmatic rat airway, epithelial cells undergo apoptosis and the numbers of mitochondria increased compared with the ones in normal rat airway but lose normal structure.
    Pathology - Research and Practice 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a rare, but highly aggressive cancer. The most common type of gallbladder cancer is adenocarcinoma (AC), while squamous cell/adenosquamous carcinoma (SC/ASC) is a rare type of gallbladder cancer. The clinicopathologic and biological characteristics of SC/ASC have not been well documented. In this study, the protein expression of N-cadherin and P-cadherin in 46 SC/ASCs and 80 ACs was measured using immunohistochemistry. We demonstrated that positive N-cadherin and P-cadherin expression were significantly associated with large tumor size, invasion, and lymph node metastasis of both SC/ASC and AC. In contrast, positive N-cadherin and P-cadherin expression were significantly associated with differentiation and TNM stage in only AC. Univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that positive N-cadherin and P-cadherin expression, differentiation, tumor size, TNM stage, invasion, lymph node metastasis, and surgical curability were significantly associated with overall survival in both SC/ASC and AC patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that positive N-cadherin and P-cadherin expression are independent poor-prognostic factors in both SC/ASC and AC patients. Our study suggested that positive N-cadherin and P-cadherin expression closely correlated with clinicopathological biological behaviors, and poor-prognosis of gallbladder cancer.
    Pathology - Research and Practice 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Clinically, Parkinson's disease (PD)-related neuronal lesions commonly occur. The purpose of this study is to investigate potential therapeutic effect of curcumin against hippocampal damage of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-PD rat model. These results showed that curcumin significantly increased the body weight of 6-OHDA-impaired rats (P < 0.01), and reversed the anhedonia in rats induced by 6-OHDA impairment (P < 0.01). Meanwhile, behavioral manifestations of curcumin-treated PD rats were effectively ameliorated as shown in open field test (P < 0.01). In addition, curcumin increased the contents of monoaminergic neurotransmitters (P < 0.01), such as dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE), in hippocampal homogenate through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay. Curcumin effectively alleviated the 6-OHDA-induced hippocampal damage as observed in hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining. Furthermore, curcumin obviously up-regulated hippocampal brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), TrkB, phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3 K) protein expressions, respectively. as shown in Western blot analysis. These findings demonstrated that curcumin mediated the neuroprotection against 6-OHDA-induced hippocampus neurons in rats, which the underlying mechanism is involved in activating BDNF/TrkB-dependent pathway for promoting neural regeneration of hippocampal tissue.
    Pathology - Research and Practice 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We proposed to evaluate the association between serum indirect bilirubin levels and liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) genotype 1b. Biopsy proven CHC genotype 1b patients’ demographics, clinical and histopathological characteristics were evaluated. Logistic regression analysis was done to evaluate the clinical, laboratory and demographic features of the histologically proven liver fibrosis in CHC patients. A total of 112 biopsy proven CHC genotype 1b patients were enrolled into the study. Liver fibrosis scores were measured by using Ishak fibrosis scores and were divided in to two groups; fibrosis scores ≤ 2 were categorized as mild fibrosis, 82 patients (73.2%), whereas fibrosis scores > 2 were categorized as advanced fibrosis group, 30 patiens (26.8%). Patients with advanced fibrosis had lower indirect bilirubin levels than the mild fibrosis group (0.28 ± 0.02 mg/dl vs. 0.44 ± 0.032 mg/dl, p < 0.001, respectively). Indirect bilirubin level was negatively correlated with advanced fibrosis scores (r= -0.416 and p < 0.001).In multivariate logistic regression analysis, low indirect bilirubin level was an independent predicting factor of advanced liver fibrosis (OR: 0.001, 95% CI: 0.0-0.005, p < 0.001). There is an inverse relationship between indirect bilirubin levels and advanced liver fibrosis caused by CHC genotype 1b.
    Pathology - Research and Practice 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Notch signaling plays diverse roles not only in physiologic processes, including development and differentiation but also in tumorigenesis, either as a tumor promoter or suppressor depending on the cellular context, level of expression and cross-talk with other signaling pathways. In this study we investigated the expression of Notch3 and MUC proteins and their clinicopathological significance in small intestinal adenocarcinoma (SIAC). Methods Surgically resected 191 SIACs and their clinical data were collected. Immunohistochemistry for Notch3, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6 using tissue microarrays from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded normal and matched tumor tissues was performed. Results Notch3 expression was found in 52 (29.9%) cases of the tumors. MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6 were expressed in 52 (27.5%), 51 (31.9%), and 42 (22.0%) cases of the tumor, respectively. Notch3 expression was correlated with the absence of lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.009), lower T stage (p = 0.038), and histological subtype of tubular adenocarcinoma (p = 0.01), respectively. MUC2 was correlated with large tumor size (p = 0.013) and mucinous and signet ring cell adenocarcinomas (p = 0.01). MUC5A was correlated with proximal tumor location (p < 0.0001) and tumor differentiation (p = 0.027). MUC6 was correlated with proximal tumor location (p < 0.0001) and lower pT stage (p = 0.009), and absence of lymphovascular invasion, respectively. A significant correlation was noted between Notch3 and MUC5AC expression (p = 0.019). Notch3 expression was a relatively favorable prognostic factor in SIACs by univariate (p = 0.05) and multivariate analysis (p = 0.08, Cox Hazard ratio 0.841). Conclusion Our findings indicate that Notch3 signaling, associated with MUC5AC expression, could be a more favorable prognostic factor in SIACs.
    Pathology - Research and Practice 01/2014;

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