Phytoparasitica (PHYTOPARASITICA )

Publisher: Merkaz Ṿolḳani; Phytopathological Society of Israel; Agudah ha-yisreʹelit le-madaʹ ha-asavim ha-raʹim, Springer Verlag


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    Phytoparasitica, Israel journal of plant protection sciences
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A selective agar medium based on macerated date fruits was developed for the isolation, enumeration and morphological identification of Fusarium proliferatum from soil and from infected tissues of various plants (including: onion bulbs, corn ears and stems, and various weed tissues). The selective date medium enhances the formation of polyphialide and longer chains of conidia for better separation from other related Fusarium species which also grow and proliferate on this medium. Furthermore, the date medium enables microscopic distinction among other closely related Fusarium species, e.g. F. oxysporum and F. verticillioides. Fruits of the date cultivars Medjoul and Deglet Noor provided the most useful results as compared with other cultivars tested. The date medium can serve as a selective medium for direct isolation and enumeration of F. proliferatum, as it suppresses the development of other soil fungi and plant pathogens such as Macrophomina phaseolina, Sclerotium rolfsii and Rhizoctonia solani, as well as bacteria.
    Phytoparasitica 09/2014; 42(4).
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    ABSTRACT: N.Duran-Vila, J.Juarez, J.M.Arregui, M.I.Molins. 1987. Production of viroid-free grapevines by shoot-tip culture. IX Meeting of the International Council for the study of viruses and virus diseases of the grapevine. Israel, Septiembre 1987. Abstract P.18.
    Phytoparasitica 08/2014; 17(1).
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    ABSTRACT: A total of 13 strains of oilseed Brassica genotypes were evaluated for their reaction to white rust pathogen Albugo candida Pers. Kuntze during crop seasons 2007–08, 2008–09 and 2009–10 at five agroclimatically diverse locations in India. Aided epiphytotic conditions were provided to ensure heavy disease pressure at all the locations. The disease reaction of different genotypes was recorded at 100 days after sowing (DAS) as per cent disease severity based on per cent leaf area affected by the pathogen. Genotypes exhibited variable disease reaction in space and time indicating the prevalence of different isolate(s) of the pathogen. However, some genotypes like PBC 9221, EC 414299 and GSL-1 exhibited resistant reaction to white rust pathogen across the locations consistently during the three cropping seasons. Some of the genotypes showed specific resistant disease reaction at a specific location indicating their suitability for cultivation at that particular location. For example, JMM 07-1, JMM 07-2 and JYM 10 have shown specific resistance reaction to isolate(s) of white rust at Morena location. It can be concluded from the study that some of the genotypes showed resistant reaction to prevalent isolates of an area. Thus, it is advised to test the genotypes for the reaction to a particular/range of diseases for the specificity in performance, if any, before release for general cultivation in a particular area.
    Phytoparasitica 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Pectolinaringenin was isolated from chloroform extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis L. and was evaluated at 12.5 to 100 ppm concentrations for its effects on total protein, esterase and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities of Earias vittella and Helicoverpa armigera. At 100 ppm, the compound reduced total protein content by 55.75% and 53.01% over control with IC50 values of 74.37 and 212.31 ppm in E. vittella and H. armigera, respectively. At 100 ppm it also reduced GST and esterase enzyme activities in E. vittella by 37.53% and 43.09% over control, with IC50 values of 133.00 and 111.76 ppm, respectively. It also reduced GST and esterase activities in H. armigera by 43.14% and 47.421% over control with IC50 values of 114.38 and 98.78 ppm, respectively. Data were analyzed for their normality using the Shapiro-Wilk test and Levene’s statistics to determine the significant deviation. Pectolinaringenin could be used for the management of agricultural pests.
    Phytoparasitica 07/2014; 42(3).
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    ABSTRACT: The cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), an invasive pest species, has appeared on a large scale on cotton in India since 2006. Its distribution within the plant, and associated yield losses in cotton, were studied over 2 years. Distribution of P. solenopsis was observed within the cotton plant from vegetative to boll formation stage. In the vegetative and square formation stages, the highest mealybug population was recorded on the upper portion of the stem, followed by the middle leaves of the plant. In the boll formation stage, there was no significant difference in distribution of the insect among plant parts. Losses in cotton due to the mealybug varied between 14.9% at Grade 1 and 53.6% at Grade 4, on a 0 to 4 severity index, with a mean reduction of 35% and 32%, during 2008 and 2009, respectively. There was a significant relationship between severity of infestation and decrease in seed cotton yield. The information generated from this study will help in the early detection of mealybug infestation and estimation of yield losses corresponding to the severity grade of the damage.
    Phytoparasitica 07/2014; 42(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Secondary endosymbionts of Turkish Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) populations were determined by PCR-based DNA analysis. Experiments were conducted with B. tabaci samples collected from various host plants between 2007 and 2012. Four secondary endosymbionts, namely, Rickettsia, Hamiltonella, Arsenophonus and Wolbachia, were detected from two different B. tabaci species (B and Q). While Arsenophonus and Wolbachia were determined only from the Q, Hamiltonella was found only on the B. Rickettsia was determined on both B and Q. Forty percent of individuals were infected with Arsenophonus, followed by Hamiltonella (32.4 %), and Wolbachia (8 %). Infection rate of Rickettsia was found to be higher on B (29.7 %) than on Q (21.6 %). This study is the first report of endosymbionts of B. tabaci populations collected from Turkey, and studies should be continued to cover larger areas, more host plants and B. tabaci populations.
    Phytoparasitica 07/2014; 42(3).
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    ABSTRACT: The nature of damage, seasonal incidence, developmental period and morphometrics of Cochlochila bullita (Stål) (Heteroptera: Tingidae) were studied on Ocimum sanctum L. in Jharkhand province of India. The infestation of C. bullita started in June and continued until December on O. sanctum. The highest population of C. bullita per twig was found to be 63.8 in 2011 and 71.2 in 2012, in the months of August and September, respectively. The highest per leaf population of C. bullita was observed in the month of September in both years. The adults and nymphs of C. bullita were found feeding gregariously on the tender leaf and shoot, and laid eggs – mostly single, but sometimes in groups. Pre-oviposition period, oviposition period and egg incubation period of the bug were 3.37, 15.56 and 6.06 days, respectively, whereas the nymphal period was 11.50 days and the adult period was 21.18 days. This is the first report of feeding of C. bullita on O. sanctum from Jharkhand, India.
    Phytoparasitica 07/2014; 42(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Omnivorous predatory Heteroptera are important biological control agents of pests in several crops. They can feed on plant food resources that may positively affect their biological characteristics. In the current paper, the influence of leaves and flowers on the predation rate of the omnivorous predator Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) (Hemiptera: Miridae) was investigated. Its predation rates were recorded on prey offered on (a) a single leaf of tomato, pepper or black nightshade (Solanum nigrum), or (b) a leaf of pepper or S. nigrum plus flowers of pepper or S. nigrum, respectively. In all cases the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) was used as prey at densities of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 nymphs of the second instar. The experiments were conducted in petri dishes at 25 ± 1°C and prey consumption was evaluated after 24 h. The predation rate of M. pygmaeus was significantly higher on leaves of S. nigrum than on those of pepper at the prey density of 20 prey items. Therefore, the hypothesis that increased predation rates should occur on plants of lower suitability for development or reproduction was not supported under our experimental conditions. The flower availability did not alter the prey consumption among the prey densities on S. nigrum. However, the presence of a pepper flower caused a significant decrease in the predation rates on pepper leaves, at prey densities higher than eight prey items. Thus, pepper flowers can provide the predator with nutrient sources that may partially substitute for prey consumption, with practical implications in biological control.
    Phytoparasitica 07/2014; 42(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Aphid control in Moroccan citrus orchards is based mainly on carbamate and neonicotinoid sprays, especially methomyl and imidacloprid. The extensive use of these insecticides may have side effects on natural enemies and environment quality and raises human health concerns. This research aimed to assess the control of aphids with insecticidal soap, kaolin and augmentative biological control using the indigenous predator Adalia decempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). The insecticides were applied and the predators were released in April 2009 and 2010. Under field experimentation, the methomyl and imidacloprid foliar pulverization were very effective against aphids. In contrast, the insecticidal soap and kaolin application were less efficient while A. decempunctata adults were effective only in the first week after release. The side effects on beneficial insects were also assessed and discussed. The possibility of employing A. decempunctata in an integrated pest management package in citrus groves is discussed in relation to effectiveness and side effects on beneficial arthropods.
    Phytoparasitica 07/2014; 42(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Rhizoctonia damping-off and crown and root rot of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani are serious problems in Minnesota and North Dakota. Timely application of azoxystrobin fungicide effectively controls R. solani. Many growers use starter fertilizers at planting as an economic way to apply phosphate and will like to know if mixing azoxystrobin with starter fertilizers is safe and effective. The objective of this research was to determine the efficacy and safety of mixing azoxystrobin with starter fertilizers for controlling R. solani of sugar beet. Research was conducted in a greenhouse maintained at 20 ± 2° C. Three different starter fertilizers 10-34-0, 6-24-6 and Redline were each used at 28.05 L ha-1 and azoxystrobin was used at 167 g a.i. ha-1. Treatments were applied to ten sugar beet seeds planted in a furrow of Sunshine Mix 1 peat filled tray. There were 13 treatments including a non-inoculated and an inoculated control; starter fertilizers used without and with inoculation; azoxystrobin used alone without and with inoculation; and azoxystrobin mixed with each of the different starter fertilizers followed by inoculation. Plants were watered daily and evaluated 28 days after treatments. The non-inoculated control and treatments where only starter fertilizers were used resulted in significantly higher percentages of healthy surviving plants compared to the inoculated control. Azoxystrobin provided similar effective control of R. solani when used alone compared to when it was mixed with starter fertilizers and there was no phytotoxicity. This study suggests that mixtures of azoxystrobin with different starter fertilizers evaluated under greenhouse conditions resulted in no phytotoxicity observed in this study and effectively controlled R. solani.
    Phytoparasitica 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. is the most important pathogen of jute which primarily causes seedling blight, leaf spot and stem rot. We detected the pathogen from field samples by a simple method of direct PCR (dPCR) which obviates the steps of DNA extraction. The leaf bits were treated with a lysis buffer at 650C for 25 min, whereas the stem pieces were initially incubated at 650C for 5 min followed by incubation at 600C for 25 min. and the lysate was used as PCR template. Based on the type of tissue the composition and concentration of lysis buffer systems were optimized. For leaf samples the optimized buffer system composed of 20 mmol l-1 tris (hydroxymethyl aminomethane (Tris)-Cl (pH 8.0), 1.5 mmol l-1 ethylene diamine tetra acetate (EDTA) (pH 8.0), 1.4 mol l-1 Sodium acetate and 200 μg/mL Proteinase K. Further, 3 % PVP (w/v) and β-marcaptoethanol (1% w/v) were additionally added into the buffer. In case of stem samples, PVP was not applied and higher concentrations were used for other components. M. Phaseolina could be detected from both leaf and stem samples generating amplicon of 350 bp. It is the first report of detecting Macrophomina phaseolina by a direct PCR method without DNA extraction.
    Phytoparasitica 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The resistance of 28 Spanish olive cultivars to Verticillium dahliae was evaluated in an experiment conducted under greenhouse conditions, by impregnating plant roots with a semisolid fluid mass of a mixture of culture medium and the conidia and mycelium of the fungus. Five-month-old olive plants were inoculated with a cotton defoliating isolate of V. dahliae. ‘Frantoio’ and ‘Picual’ were used as resistant and susceptible reference cultivars, respectively. Cultivars were assessed on the basis of final values of the area under the disease progress curve, mean severity of symptoms, and mortality at 26 weeks following inoculation. Verticillium wilt disease developed more slowly and reached lower values of these parameters than those normally recorded in previous studies conducted in growth chambers, using root-dip inoculation in a conidial suspension of the pathogen. However, most of the evaluated cultivars exhibited susceptible or moderately susceptible reactions to the infections caused by V. dahliae. In particular, a group of eight cultivars, from the same group as ‘Picual’, such as ‘Manzanilla de Abla’, ‘Manzanilla del Centro’ and ‘Negrillo de Iznalloz’, were significantly more susceptible than ‘Frantoio’. Conversely, ‘Escarabajillo’, ‘Menya’ and ‘Sevillana de Abla’ exhibited a high level of resistance to the disease, no dead plants, and vegetative recovery. Field experiments are currently being carried out to confirm the level of resistance assigned to these last genotypes. If confirmed, these genotypes will act as potential resistant genitors for inclusion in current olive breeding programs or for use as resistant rootstocks.
    Phytoparasitica 04/2014; 42(2).

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