Phytoparasitica (PHYTOPARASITICA )

Publisher: Merkaz Ṿolḳani; Phytopathological Society of Israel; Agudah ha-yisreʹelit le-madaʹ ha-asavim ha-raʹim, Springer Verlag


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    Phytoparasitica, Israel journal of plant protection sciences
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A leaf blight on oil palm, caused by Alternaria longipes, was found in an Elaeis guineensis plantation for the first time in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. The fungus was isolated from the lesions and its pathogenicity was confirmed. The fungus was identified based on morphological characteristics and confirmed using comparisons of DNA sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions 1 and 2 plus 5.8S rDNA. This report is the first on oil palm leaf blight disease caused by A. longipes.
    Phytoparasitica 02/2015; 43(1).
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    ABSTRACT: An age-stage two-sex life table was constructed in order to investigate the differences in population characteristics between Bradysia odoriphaga Yang and Zhang individuals reared on artificial diet, Chinese chive [Allium tuberosum], Welsh onion [Allium cepa], cucumber [Cucumis sativus], lettuce [Lactuca sativa], and Chinese cabbage [Brassica rapa pekinensis]. A population projection was also used to determine the potential trend of populations. The intrinsic rates of increase (r) of B. odoriphaga reared on artificial diet, Chinese chive, Welsh onion, cucumber, lettuce, and Chinese cabbage were 0.1477, 0.1545, 0.1295, 0.1405, 0.1294, and 0.0732 d-1, respectively. The highest net reproductive rate was 61.26 offspring per individual reared on Chinese chive, followed by 53.19, 49.90, 38.15, 30.54, and 16.20 offspring per individual for populations reared on artificial diet, Welsh onion, cucumber, lettuce, and Chinese cabbage, respectively. The mean generation times of B. odoriphaga ranged from 25.88 days when reared on cucumber to 37.86 days when reared on Chinese cabbage. B. odoriphaga feeding on Chinese cabbage had the longest total preoviposition period of female insects from birth (TPOP), larval and pupal period, and the lowest fecundity, and this insect reared on Chinese chive had the highest survival rate and reproductive value. The population projection revealed B. odoriphaga had explosive population growth in a relatively short time when reared on Chinese chive. These findings demonstrated that B. odoriphaga can successfully survive on artificial diet and five host plants, and our results showed the superiority of mass rearing B. odoriphaga on Chinese chives and the laboratory-prepared diet. These findings obtained under laboratory conditions also lay the basis for further studies of the population development of B. odoriphaga in the different host plants fields.
    Phytoparasitica 02/2015; 43(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Clematis manshurica Pupr. is a perennial herb in the Ranunculaceae family, which has been used as a valuable traditional Chinese medicine. Between 2012 and 2013, a powdery mildew causing significant damage to plants of C. manshurica occurred in the Medicinal Herb Garden in Shenyang Agricultural University, Liaoning province, China. The fungus from symptomatic tissues was identified as Erysiphe aquilegiae based on morphological characteristics and rDNA ITS sequence analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first formal report of powdery mildew on C. manshurica caused by E. aquilegiae in China.
    Phytoparasitica 02/2015; 43(1).
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    ABSTRACT: The solenopsis mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) has emerged as an aggressive pest on a wide range of host plants in many countries. Mealybug demes were found on young tender leaves, twigs, inflorescence panicles and fruit peduncles of cashew Anacardium occidentale L. (Family: Anacardiaceae). Drying and curling of inflorescences, tender leaves and twigs were observed due to sucking of sap or saliva injection by nymphs and adults of mealybugs. The mealybugs were identified as Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley. The peak infestation of 20.73 mealybugs/ 5 cm twig was recorded in the months of April and May during 2012. The endoparasitoid Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) was also recorded from mummies of P. solenopsis. This is the first report of P. solenopsis infestation on cashew, which may emerge as a sporadic pest of A. occidentale in India.
    Phytoparasitica 02/2015; 43(1).
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus awamori and Pseudomonas fluorescens on the wilt–leaf spot disease complex of tomato caused by Meloidogyne javanica, Ralstonia solanacearum and Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria were observed. Inoculation of B. subtilis, A. awamori and P. fluorescens caused a significant increase in plant growth and chlorophyll contents of pathogen-inoculated plants. Inoculation of P. fluorescens caused a greater increase in plant growth and chlorophyll contents of pathogen-inoculated plants than that caused by A. awamori. Application of P. fluorescens with B. subtilis caused a greater increase in plant growth and chlorophyll contents of pathogen-inoculated plants, but the maximum increase was observed when all the three biocontrol agents were inoculated together. P. fluorescens colonized tomato roots more than colonization by B. subtilis. Root colonization by P. fluorescens and B. subtilis was reduced when pathogens were inoculated with rhizobacteria. Inoculation of P. fluorescens caused a greater reduction in galling and nematode reproduction, followed by B. subtilis and A. awamori. Maximum reduction in galling, nematode reproduction, wilt and leaf spot disease indices was observed when all three biocontrol agents were used together.
    Phytoparasitica 02/2015; 43(1).
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    ABSTRACT: A one-step RT-PCR was used to identify Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) (Crinivirus members) infections on some Tunisian cultures. Results provided evidence that the ToCV is the most prevalent virus on Tunisian tomato crops. Findings were validated with specific primers. Genetic analysis of ToCV isolates was explored based on sequence data of viral segments within the coat protein (CP), the heat shock protein (HSP70h) and the polymerase protein (RdRp). Synonymous (dS) and non-synonymous (dN) substitution rates and their ratio were analyzed. The patterns of mutations were shaped depending on the considered fragment from the three viral regions. Selective neutrality test was significantly negative, suggesting a recent expansion of ToCV isolates. Pairwise mismatch distribution gave a bimodal pattern and pointed to the clustering of ToCV isolates into two distinct geographical clades. Genetic haplotype network provided evidence of the existence of two distinct clusters. The star-like shaped pattern confirmed recent expansion of ToCV isolates.
    Phytoparasitica 02/2015; 43(1).
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    ABSTRACT: One effective method for the management of soilborne pathogens is soil disinfestation. The basic idea is to treat the soil by drastic means, before planting, in order to eliminate the pathogens surviving there, thereby ensuring the health of the subsequent crop. There are two basic approaches to soil disinfestation: chemical, using fumigants, and physical, by heating the soil (mainly by steam). These approaches were developed in 1870, in the early days of plant pathology, and the chemical approach has dominated ever since.
    Phytoparasitica 02/2015; 43(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Phytoplasma belonging to subgroup 16SrII-A and identified as “Candidatus Phytoplasma australasiae”- was found constantly associated with phyllody of Pedalium murex, a common medicinal cum succulent weed in coconut ecosystem prevalent in South India. Infected P. murex showed stunted growth with reduced leaf size, shortened internodes and the characteristic transformation of floral parts into leafy structures typical to that of phytoplasma disease. This weed could possibly serve as a reservoir of sesamum phyllody in this region but no link with root (wilt) disease in coconut could be established based on molecular characterization studies. This is the first report of the association of 16SrII-A group phytoplasma with pedalium phyllody from the world.
    Phytoparasitica 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Intensive surveys were conducted in the main viticultural areas of Turkey in 2009-2010. Two hundred eighty nine symptomatic and 20 non-symptomatic plant samples were collected and subjected to nucleic acid extraction followed by PCR, nested PCR and RFLP analyses to detect phytoplasma presence and for their identification. The incidence rate of phytoplasma infection was 18.33% and the majority of the symptomatic grapevines were infected with grapevine yellows phytoplasmas belonging to 16SrXII-A subgroup (“bois noir”). Phytoplasmas of 16SrV group, aster yellows (16SrI-B) and pigeon pea witches’ broom (16SrIX) groups were also detected in the surveyed vineyards. Phytoplasma-associated infections were present more on wine grapevine cultivars (73.6%), such as Alphonse Lavallée, Alicante Bouschet, Chardonnay, Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Sauvignon Blanc and Pinot Noir, compared to table grapes (26.4%), such as Bogazkere, Sirfani, Tahannebi and Emir.
    Phytoparasitica 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3(GLRaV-3) is the most destructive virus causing leaf roll disease in grapevine. ELISA has been widely used to screen the propagating materials for indexing of this virus at nursery stage. But the uneven distribution of GLRaV-3 in vines, its confinement to phloem tissues and impact of seasonal influences on its concentration limit the scope of ELISA. RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction), is a more sensitive technique, but not feasible for large scale screening purpose because of the tedious process of RNA isolation. Furthermore, location of virus particles and the presence of inhibitory compounds in the woody tissues of grapevine make RNA isolation problematic. Immunocapture-RT-PCR (IC-RT-PCR), more sensitive than ELISA and RT-PCR alone, is a technique where the virus can be detected without isolating the RNA. In this study, IC-RT-PCR was performed using different combinations of three virus extraction buffers and two virus nucleic acid releasing buffers along with one virus RNA releasing condition for the detection of GLRaV-3. The modified extraction and RNA release protocol developed in this study was validated for specific detection of the virus in the vines of five infected grapevine cultivars. This protocol can help in complementing the GLRaV-3 specific certification program of the country.
    Phytoparasitica 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Sweet cherry is a major commercial crop in Turkey, the most important producer of the fruit worldwide. Sweet cherry decline was observed in an orchard in Ankara province of Turkey. Affected young trees exhibited reduced tree vigor, yellowing and wilting of leaves, and dieback symptoms resulted in tree death. A Phytophthora sp. was consistently isolated from necroses that appeared on taproots and crowns. The pathogen was identified as Phytophthora cryptogea based on several morphological features and DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. P. cryptogea was pathogenic on excised shoots and 1-year-old cherry rootstocks. This is the first report of P. cryptogea causing disease of sweet cherry in Turkey.
    Phytoparasitica 12/2014; 42(5).
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    ABSTRACT: BiographyJoseph M. Bové was born in Luxemburg, 1929. French citizen since 1968. Higher education: School of Agronomy and University, Paris, France (1950-1955), University of California, Berkeley (1956-1955). Doctorate on in vitro synthesis of plant viral RNA (1967). Researcher at the French Institute for Citrus and Tropical fruit Research (1959-1970) at Versailles, France. Director of research at INRA (French National Institute for Agricultural Research), at INRA campus of Bordeaux, France (1971-1975) and professor of microbiology at University of Bordeaux (1976-1997). Head of Laboratory for Cellular and Molecular Plant Biology (1974-1994). President of INRA-Bordeaux (1984-1994). FAO consultant for citrus diseases (1981-1993). Consultant at Fundecitrus, São Paulo State, Brazil, for graft-transmissible diseases of citrus (1998-2014).Research. (i) Photosynthetic phosphorylation, laboratory of Prof. D.I. Arnon, University of California at Berkeley (1956-1959). (ii) Replication of plant vi ...
    Phytoparasitica 12/2014; 42(5).
  • Phytoparasitica 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reliable and early molecular detection of phytopathogenic fungi is crucial in an era where the expansion of global trade in plant material is undoubtedly increasing the risk of invasive outbreaks, with devastating effects in crop production. Genetic variation within and between fungal species or strains is also important for screening isolates regarding various resistance attributes. Until today many approaches have been employed in fungal diagnostics which are either labour and time-consuming or costly and of reduced sensitivity. Here, we demonstrate and review recent advances on high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis as a rapid, accurate and powerful tool, capable of differentiating even closely related fungal isolates. HRM technique is based on monitoring the melting of PCR amplicons, using saturating concentrations of a fluorescent intercalating dye that binds to double-stranded DNA. Additionally, we discuss the four case studies inferring applications of HRM analysis towards either genotyping of closely related fungal species or screening for fungicide resistance. We focus on the promising results of these studies, giving some technical considerations and describing the advantages of the application of this approach. Finally, we discuss current prospects and applications for research and development related to this innovative HRM technique in plant fungal diagnostics.
    Phytoparasitica 10/2014; In press.
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    ABSTRACT: The heterotrimeric G proteins and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) conserved signaling pathways are involved in the development, reproduction and pathogenicity in filamentous fungi. The two-component histidine kinase, known also as the HOG MAPK pathway, regulates a similar complex set of responses and is known to mediate the phenylpyrrole fludioxonil fungicide response in fungi. We used Cochliobolus heterostrophus mutant strains deficient in G-protein α (cga1) and/or β (cgb1) subunits or MAPK (chk1, mps1 and hog1) to uncover their role in the mediation of this fungicide’s activity and resistance. The results revealed complex interactions between the G-protein subunits and the MAPK in response to osmotic/ionic and fludioxonil stresses. Under normal conditions, the Hog1 pathway restricts glycerol accumulation since its disruption leads to hyperosmosensitivity and very high cellular glycerol accumulation. The hog1 mutants were also relatively resistance to fludioxonil. Moreover, our results suggest that cgb1, chk1 and mps1 are also weak repressors of this response since mutation in these genes caused relatively high elevation in glycerol levels in the cells. Supporting this is the finding that these three strains exhibit resistance to KCl stress. In contrast, the cga1 strain has only moderate levels of cellular glycerol (higher than those of the wild type, but lower than those of the other mutants) that are little affected by KCl or fludioxonil stress. Indeed, these mutants are highly sensitive to KCl stress. This suggests that Cga1 is a moderate repressor of cellular glycerol under normal conditions and an enhancer of glycerol accumulation under osmotic/ionic stress conditions. Together these findings reveals that the sensitivity to fludioxonil is not only positively controlled by the Hog1 pathway, but also mediated by the Chk1, Mps1, Cga1 and Cgb1 pathways. This study provides insight into the roles of G-protein in mediating the anti-fungal fludioxonil response. A model is proposed for the interactions between the G-protein and MAPK signaling pathways.
    Phytoparasitica 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A selective agar medium based on macerated date fruits was developed for the isolation, enumeration and morphological identification of Fusarium proliferatum from soil and from infected tissues of various plants (including: onion bulbs, corn ears and stems, and various weed tissues). The selective date medium enhances the formation of polyphialide and longer chains of conidia for better separation from other related Fusarium species which also grow and proliferate on this medium. Furthermore, the date medium enables microscopic distinction among other closely related Fusarium species, e.g. F. oxysporum and F. verticillioides. Fruits of the date cultivars Medjoul and Deglet Noor provided the most useful results as compared with other cultivars tested. The date medium can serve as a selective medium for direct isolation and enumeration of F. proliferatum, as it suppresses the development of other soil fungi and plant pathogens such as Macrophomina phaseolina, Sclerotium rolfsii and Rhizoctonia solani, as well as bacteria.
    Phytoparasitica 09/2014; 42(4).
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    ABSTRACT: N.Duran-Vila, J.Juarez, J.M.Arregui, M.I.Molins. 1987. Production of viroid-free grapevines by shoot-tip culture. IX Meeting of the International Council for the study of viruses and virus diseases of the grapevine. Israel, Septiembre 1987. Abstract P.18.
    Phytoparasitica 08/2014; 17(1).