Phytoparasitica (PHYTOPARASITICA )

Publisher: Merkaz Ṿolḳani; Phytopathological Society of Israel; Agudah ha-yisreʹelit le-madaʹ ha-asavim ha-raʹim, Springer Verlag


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    Phytoparasitica, Israel journal of plant protection sciences
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3(GLRaV-3) is the most destructive virus causing leaf roll disease in grapevine. ELISA has been widely used to screen the propagating materials for indexing of this virus at nursery stage. But the uneven distribution of GLRaV-3 in vines, its confinement to phloem tissues and impact of seasonal influences on its concentration limit the scope of ELISA. RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction), is a more sensitive technique, but not feasible for large scale screening purpose because of the tedious process of RNA isolation. Furthermore, location of virus particles and the presence of inhibitory compounds in the woody tissues of grapevine make RNA isolation problematic. Immunocapture-RT-PCR (IC-RT-PCR), more sensitive than ELISA and RT-PCR alone, is a technique where the virus can be detected without isolating the RNA. In this study, IC-RT-PCR was performed using different combinations of three virus extraction buffers and two virus nucleic acid releasing buffers along with one virus RNA releasing condition for the detection of GLRaV-3. The modified extraction and RNA release protocol developed in this study was validated for specific detection of the virus in the vines of five infected grapevine cultivars. This protocol can help in complementing the GLRaV-3 specific certification program of the country.
    Phytoparasitica 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Sweet cherry is a major commercial crop in Turkey, the most important producer of the fruit worldwide. Sweet cherry decline was observed in an orchard in Ankara province of Turkey. Affected young trees exhibited reduced tree vigor, yellowing and wilting of leaves, and dieback symptoms resulted in tree death. A Phytophthora sp. was consistently isolated from necroses that appeared on taproots and crowns. The pathogen was identified as Phytophthora cryptogea based on several morphological features and DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. P. cryptogea was pathogenic on excised shoots and 1-year-old cherry rootstocks. This is the first report of P. cryptogea causing disease of sweet cherry in Turkey.
    Phytoparasitica 12/2014; 42(5).
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    ABSTRACT: BiographyJoseph M. Bové was born in Luxemburg, 1929. French citizen since 1968. Higher education: School of Agronomy and University, Paris, France (1950-1955), University of California, Berkeley (1956-1955). Doctorate on in vitro synthesis of plant viral RNA (1967). Researcher at the French Institute for Citrus and Tropical fruit Research (1959-1970) at Versailles, France. Director of research at INRA (French National Institute for Agricultural Research), at INRA campus of Bordeaux, France (1971-1975) and professor of microbiology at University of Bordeaux (1976-1997). Head of Laboratory for Cellular and Molecular Plant Biology (1974-1994). President of INRA-Bordeaux (1984-1994). FAO consultant for citrus diseases (1981-1993). Consultant at Fundecitrus, São Paulo State, Brazil, for graft-transmissible diseases of citrus (1998-2014).Research. (i) Photosynthetic phosphorylation, laboratory of Prof. D.I. Arnon, University of California at Berkeley (1956-1959). (ii) Replication of plant vi ...
    Phytoparasitica 12/2014; 42(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Among the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) species complex, the Middle East–Asia Minor I (MEAMI) and the Mediterranean (Med) species are the most invasive and widespread agricultural pests worldwide. Currently, only Tunisia and a few other countries are reported to still “host” these two competing species. The objective was thus to improve our knowledge on the factors, particularly the host plant, which contribute to this unusual situation. To that end, we analyzed 47 samples collected from protected and outdoor plants (ten vegetables and ornamentals) in the two main crop-producing regions of Tunisia to (i) better document the co-occurrence of several B. tabaci species and populations, and (ii) confirm the role of the host plant in the distribution pattern of each species. B. tabaci specimens were identified using at least two molecular diagnostic tests. Taken together, the tests confirmed the equivalent prevalence of Med and MEAMI species and, for the first time, the presence of some Sub-Saharan Africa 2 B. tabaci, in Tunisia. The regional cooccurrence between Med and MEAM1 was based on spatial and host-plant partitioning. Our results indicate that Med species are closely associated with ornamentals and MEAM1 with vegetables. Med displayed a higher level of genetic diversity than MEAM1, and another Med specimen characterized by a mtCOI haplotype which perfectly matched the ancestral Gennadius specimen was discovered. The role of host plant type and possible associated factors in the distribution patterns of MEAM1 and Med is discussed in the context of the co-occurrence of cryptic species.
    Phytoparasitica 11/2014;
  • Phytoparasitica 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reliable and early molecular detection of phytopathogenic fungi is crucial in an era where the expansion of global trade in plant material is undoubtedly increasing the risk of invasive outbreaks, with devastating effects in crop production. Genetic variation within and between fungal species or strains is also important for screening isolates regarding various resistance attributes. Until today many approaches have been employed in fungal diagnostics which are either labour and time-consuming or costly and of reduced sensitivity. Here, we demonstrate and review recent advances on high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis as a rapid, accurate and powerful tool, capable of differentiating even closely related fungal isolates. HRM technique is based on monitoring the melting of PCR amplicons, using saturating concentrations of a fluorescent intercalating dye that binds to double-stranded DNA. Additionally, we discuss the four case studies inferring applications of HRM analysis towards either genotyping of closely related fungal species or screening for fungicide resistance. We focus on the promising results of these studies, giving some technical considerations and describing the advantages of the application of this approach. Finally, we discuss current prospects and applications for research and development related to this innovative HRM technique in plant fungal diagnostics.
    Phytoparasitica 10/2014; In press.
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    ABSTRACT: The heterotrimeric G proteins and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) conserved signaling pathways are involved in the development, reproduction and pathogenicity in filamentous fungi. The two-component histidine kinase, known also as the HOG MAPK pathway, regulates a similar complex set of responses and is known to mediate the phenylpyrrole fludioxonil fungicide response in fungi. We used Cochliobolus heterostrophus mutant strains deficient in G-protein α (cga1) and/or β (cgb1) subunits or MAPK (chk1, mps1 and hog1) to uncover their role in the mediation of this fungicide’s activity and resistance. The results revealed complex interactions between the G-protein subunits and the MAPK in response to osmotic/ionic and fludioxonil stresses. Under normal conditions, the Hog1 pathway restricts glycerol accumulation since its disruption leads to hyperosmosensitivity and very high cellular glycerol accumulation. The hog1 mutants were also relatively resistance to fludioxonil. Moreover, our results suggest that cgb1, chk1 and mps1 are also weak repressors of this response since mutation in these genes caused relatively high elevation in glycerol levels in the cells. Supporting this is the finding that these three strains exhibit resistance to KCl stress. In contrast, the cga1 strain has only moderate levels of cellular glycerol (higher than those of the wild type, but lower than those of the other mutants) that are little affected by KCl or fludioxonil stress. Indeed, these mutants are highly sensitive to KCl stress. This suggests that Cga1 is a moderate repressor of cellular glycerol under normal conditions and an enhancer of glycerol accumulation under osmotic/ionic stress conditions. Together these findings reveals that the sensitivity to fludioxonil is not only positively controlled by the Hog1 pathway, but also mediated by the Chk1, Mps1, Cga1 and Cgb1 pathways. This study provides insight into the roles of G-protein in mediating the anti-fungal fludioxonil response. A model is proposed for the interactions between the G-protein and MAPK signaling pathways.
    Phytoparasitica 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A selective agar medium based on macerated date fruits was developed for the isolation, enumeration and morphological identification of Fusarium proliferatum from soil and from infected tissues of various plants (including: onion bulbs, corn ears and stems, and various weed tissues). The selective date medium enhances the formation of polyphialide and longer chains of conidia for better separation from other related Fusarium species which also grow and proliferate on this medium. Furthermore, the date medium enables microscopic distinction among other closely related Fusarium species, e.g. F. oxysporum and F. verticillioides. Fruits of the date cultivars Medjoul and Deglet Noor provided the most useful results as compared with other cultivars tested. The date medium can serve as a selective medium for direct isolation and enumeration of F. proliferatum, as it suppresses the development of other soil fungi and plant pathogens such as Macrophomina phaseolina, Sclerotium rolfsii and Rhizoctonia solani, as well as bacteria.
    Phytoparasitica 09/2014; 42(4).
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    ABSTRACT: N.Duran-Vila, J.Juarez, J.M.Arregui, M.I.Molins. 1987. Production of viroid-free grapevines by shoot-tip culture. IX Meeting of the International Council for the study of viruses and virus diseases of the grapevine. Israel, Septiembre 1987. Abstract P.18.
    Phytoparasitica 08/2014; 17(1).
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    ABSTRACT: In 2011, a new Fusarium wilt of Papaver nudicaule was observed in a commercial nursery near Ventimiglia (Imperia province, northern Italy) as well as in the Regional Institute of Floriculture (I.R.F.) of Sanremo (Imperia province, northern Italy). Molecular analysis enabled identification of the causal agent as a new forma specialis called Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. papaveris. The origin of the infection was found on P. nudicaule seeds. However, disinfection with sodium hypochlorite was able to eliminate the pathogen infection. Virulence of ten isolates obtained from seeds was evaluated by pathogenicity assay. The more virulent strains were analyzed by phylogenetic analysis on the basis of the EF-1α, pg1 and pgx4 genes. Sequences obtained by PCR amplification were aligned with other formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum from the GenBank and used in the construction of the phylogenetic trees. Seed infections have been observed in the case of many vegetable crops; however, this phenomenon has been less studied in the case of ornamental crops. As a consequence of seed exchanges or transmission via infected seeds, new and old pathogenic species of Fusarium are continuously introduced into new areas and production systems.
    Phytoparasitica 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A total of 13 strains of oilseed Brassica genotypes were evaluated for their reaction to white rust pathogen Albugo candida Pers. Kuntze during crop seasons 2007–08, 2008–09 and 2009–10 at five agroclimatically diverse locations in India. Aided epiphytotic conditions were provided to ensure heavy disease pressure at all the locations. The disease reaction of different genotypes was recorded at 100 days after sowing (DAS) as per cent disease severity based on per cent leaf area affected by the pathogen. Genotypes exhibited variable disease reaction in space and time indicating the prevalence of different isolate(s) of the pathogen. However, some genotypes like PBC 9221, EC 414299 and GSL-1 exhibited resistant reaction to white rust pathogen across the locations consistently during the three cropping seasons. Some of the genotypes showed specific resistant disease reaction at a specific location indicating their suitability for cultivation at that particular location. For example, JMM 07-1, JMM 07-2 and JYM 10 have shown specific resistance reaction to isolate(s) of white rust at Morena location. It can be concluded from the study that some of the genotypes showed resistant reaction to prevalent isolates of an area. Thus, it is advised to test the genotypes for the reaction to a particular/range of diseases for the specificity in performance, if any, before release for general cultivation in a particular area.
    Phytoparasitica 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), an invasive pest species, has appeared on a large scale on cotton in India since 2006. Its distribution within the plant, and associated yield losses in cotton, were studied over 2 years. Distribution of P. solenopsis was observed within the cotton plant from vegetative to boll formation stage. In the vegetative and square formation stages, the highest mealybug population was recorded on the upper portion of the stem, followed by the middle leaves of the plant. In the boll formation stage, there was no significant difference in distribution of the insect among plant parts. Losses in cotton due to the mealybug varied between 14.9% at Grade 1 and 53.6% at Grade 4, on a 0 to 4 severity index, with a mean reduction of 35% and 32%, during 2008 and 2009, respectively. There was a significant relationship between severity of infestation and decrease in seed cotton yield. The information generated from this study will help in the early detection of mealybug infestation and estimation of yield losses corresponding to the severity grade of the damage.
    Phytoparasitica 07/2014; 42(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Omnivorous predatory Heteroptera are important biological control agents of pests in several crops. They can feed on plant food resources that may positively affect their biological characteristics. In the current paper, the influence of leaves and flowers on the predation rate of the omnivorous predator Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) (Hemiptera: Miridae) was investigated. Its predation rates were recorded on prey offered on (a) a single leaf of tomato, pepper or black nightshade (Solanum nigrum), or (b) a leaf of pepper or S. nigrum plus flowers of pepper or S. nigrum, respectively. In all cases the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) was used as prey at densities of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 nymphs of the second instar. The experiments were conducted in petri dishes at 25 ± 1°C and prey consumption was evaluated after 24 h. The predation rate of M. pygmaeus was significantly higher on leaves of S. nigrum than on those of pepper at the prey density of 20 prey items. Therefore, the hypothesis that increased predation rates should occur on plants of lower suitability for development or reproduction was not supported under our experimental conditions. The flower availability did not alter the prey consumption among the prey densities on S. nigrum. However, the presence of a pepper flower caused a significant decrease in the predation rates on pepper leaves, at prey densities higher than eight prey items. Thus, pepper flowers can provide the predator with nutrient sources that may partially substitute for prey consumption, with practical implications in biological control.
    Phytoparasitica 07/2014; 42(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Aphid control in Moroccan citrus orchards is based mainly on carbamate and neonicotinoid sprays, especially methomyl and imidacloprid. The extensive use of these insecticides may have side effects on natural enemies and environment quality and raises human health concerns. This research aimed to assess the control of aphids with insecticidal soap, kaolin and augmentative biological control using the indigenous predator Adalia decempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). The insecticides were applied and the predators were released in April 2009 and 2010. Under field experimentation, the methomyl and imidacloprid foliar pulverization were very effective against aphids. In contrast, the insecticidal soap and kaolin application were less efficient while A. decempunctata adults were effective only in the first week after release. The side effects on beneficial insects were also assessed and discussed. The possibility of employing A. decempunctata in an integrated pest management package in citrus groves is discussed in relation to effectiveness and side effects on beneficial arthropods.
    Phytoparasitica 07/2014; 42(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Pectolinaringenin was isolated from chloroform extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis L. and was evaluated at 12.5 to 100 ppm concentrations for its effects on total protein, esterase and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities of Earias vittella and Helicoverpa armigera. At 100 ppm, the compound reduced total protein content by 55.75% and 53.01% over control with IC50 values of 74.37 and 212.31 ppm in E. vittella and H. armigera, respectively. At 100 ppm it also reduced GST and esterase enzyme activities in E. vittella by 37.53% and 43.09% over control, with IC50 values of 133.00 and 111.76 ppm, respectively. It also reduced GST and esterase activities in H. armigera by 43.14% and 47.421% over control with IC50 values of 114.38 and 98.78 ppm, respectively. Data were analyzed for their normality using the Shapiro-Wilk test and Levene’s statistics to determine the significant deviation. Pectolinaringenin could be used for the management of agricultural pests.
    Phytoparasitica 07/2014; 42(3).
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    ABSTRACT: The nature of damage, seasonal incidence, developmental period and morphometrics of Cochlochila bullita (Stål) (Heteroptera: Tingidae) were studied on Ocimum sanctum L. in Jharkhand province of India. The infestation of C. bullita started in June and continued until December on O. sanctum. The highest population of C. bullita per twig was found to be 63.8 in 2011 and 71.2 in 2012, in the months of August and September, respectively. The highest per leaf population of C. bullita was observed in the month of September in both years. The adults and nymphs of C. bullita were found feeding gregariously on the tender leaf and shoot, and laid eggs – mostly single, but sometimes in groups. Pre-oviposition period, oviposition period and egg incubation period of the bug were 3.37, 15.56 and 6.06 days, respectively, whereas the nymphal period was 11.50 days and the adult period was 21.18 days. This is the first report of feeding of C. bullita on O. sanctum from Jharkhand, India.
    Phytoparasitica 07/2014; 42(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Secondary endosymbionts of Turkish Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) populations were determined by PCR-based DNA analysis. Experiments were conducted with B. tabaci samples collected from various host plants between 2007 and 2012. Four secondary endosymbionts, namely, Rickettsia, Hamiltonella, Arsenophonus and Wolbachia, were detected from two different B. tabaci species (B and Q). While Arsenophonus and Wolbachia were determined only from the Q, Hamiltonella was found only on the B. Rickettsia was determined on both B and Q. Forty percent of individuals were infected with Arsenophonus, followed by Hamiltonella (32.4 %), and Wolbachia (8 %). Infection rate of Rickettsia was found to be higher on B (29.7 %) than on Q (21.6 %). This study is the first report of endosymbionts of B. tabaci populations collected from Turkey, and studies should be continued to cover larger areas, more host plants and B. tabaci populations.
    Phytoparasitica 07/2014; 42(3).