Nucleic Acids Research (NUCLEIC ACIDS RES )

Publisher: Oxford University Press

Description

Nucleic Acids Research (NAR) publishes the results of leading edge research into physical, chemical, biochemical and biological aspects of nucleic acids and proteins involved in nucleic acid metabolism and/or interactions. It enables the rapid publication of papers under the following categories: RNA, molecular biology, chemistry, genomics, computational biology and structural biology. A Survey and Summary section provides a format for brief reviews. The first issue of each year is devoted to biological databases.

  • Impact factor
    8.81
    Hide impact factor history
     
    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    8.06
  • Cited half-life
    7.50
  • Immediacy index
    2.21
  • Eigenfactor
    0.33
  • Article influence
    3.28
  • Website
    Nucleic Acids Research website
  • Other titles
    Nucleic acids research
  • ISSN
    0305-1048
  • OCLC
    1791693
  • Material type
    Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Oxford University Press

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo on science, technology, medicine articles
    • 2 years embargo on arts and humanities articles
    • Some titles may have different embargoes
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print can only be posted prior to acceptance
    • Pre-print must be accompanied by set statement (see link)
    • Pre-print must not be replaced with post-print, instead a link to published version with amended set statement should be made
    • Pre-print on author's personal website, employer website, free public server or pre-prints in subject area
    • Post-print in Institutional repositories or Central repositories
    • Publisher version cannot be used except for Nucleic Acids Research articles
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set phrase to accompany archived copy (see policy)
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • Eligible UK authors may deposit in OpenDepot
    • Publisher will deposit on behalf of NIH funded authors to PubMed Central, Nucleic Acids Research authors must pay their fee first
    • Some titles may use different policies
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Controllable gene delivery via vector-based systems remains a formidable challenge in mammalian synthetic biology and a desirable asset in gene therapy applications. Here, we introduce a methodology to control the copies and residence time of a gene product delivered in host human cells but also selectively disrupt fragments of the delivery vehicle. A crucial element of the proposed system is the CRISPR protein Cas9. Upon delivery, Cas9 guided by a custom RNA sequence cleaves the delivery vector at strategically placed targets thereby inactivating a co-expressed gene of interest. Importantly, using experiments in human embryonic kidney cells, we show that specific parameters of the system can be adjusted to fine-tune the delivery properties. We envision future applications in complex synthetic biology architectures, gene therapy and trace-free delivery. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
    Nucleic Acids Research 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: RNA performs a diverse array of important functions across all cellular life. These functions include important roles in translation, building translational machinery and maturing messenger RNA. More recent discoveries include the miRNAs and bacterial sRNAs that regulate gene expression, the thermosensors, riboswitches and other cis-regulatory elements that help prokaryotes sense their environment and eukaryotic piRNAs that suppress transposition. However, there can be a long period between the initial discovery of a RNA and determining its function. We present a bioinformatic approach to characterize RNA motifs, which are critical components of many RNA structure-function relationships. These motifs can, in some instances, provide researchers with functional hypotheses for uncharacterized RNAs. Moreover, we introduce a new profile-based database of RNA motifs-RMfam-and illustrate some applications for investigating the evolution and functional characterization of RNA. All the data and scripts associated with this work are available from: https://github.com/ppgardne/RMfam. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
    Nucleic Acids Research 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg) excises 8-oxoguanine (oxoG) from DNA but ignores normal guanine. We combined molecular dynamics simulation and stopped-flow kinetics with fluorescence detection to track the events in the recognition of oxoG by Fpg and its mutants with a key phenylalanine residue, which intercalates next to the damaged base, changed to either alanine (F110A) or fluorescent reporter tryptophan (F110W). Guanine was sampled by Fpg, as evident from the F110W stopped-flow traces, but less extensively than oxoG. The wedgeless F110A enzyme could bend DNA but failed to proceed further in oxoG recognition. Modeling of the base eversion with energy decomposition suggested that the wedge destabilizes the intrahelical base primarily through buckling both surrounding base pairs. Replacement of oxoG with abasic (AP) site rescued the activity, and calculations suggested that wedge insertion is not required for AP site destabilization and eversion. Our results suggest that Fpg, and possibly other DNA glycosylases, convert part of the binding energy into active destabilization of their substrates, using the energy differences between normal and damaged bases for fast substrate discrimination. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
    Nucleic Acids Research 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Thousands of non-coding SNPs have been linked to human diseases in the past. The identification of causal alleles within this pool of disease-associated non-coding SNPs is largely impossible due to the inability to accurately quantify the impact of non-coding variation. To overcome this challenge, we developed a computational model that uses ChIP-seq intensity variation in response to non-coding allelic change as a proxy to the quantification of the biological role of non-coding SNPs. We applied this model to HepG2 enhancers and detected 4796 enhancer SNPs capable of disrupting enhancer activity upon allelic change. These SNPs are significantly over-represented in the binding sites of HNF4 and FOXA families of liver transcription factors and liver eQTLs. In addition, these SNPs are strongly associated with liver GWAS traits, including type I diabetes, and are linked to the abnormal levels of HDL and LDL cholesterol. Our model is directly applicable to any enhancer set for mapping causal regulatory SNPs. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
    Nucleic Acids Research 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Using sedimentation and cryo electron tomography techniques, the conformations of eukaryotic polyribosomes formed in a long-term cell-free translation system were analyzed over all the active system lifetime (20-30 translation rounds during 6-8 h in wheat germ extract at 25°C). Three distinct types of the conformations were observed: (i) circular polyribosomes, varying from ring-shaped forms to circles collapsed into double rows, (ii) linear polyribosomes, tending to acquire planar zigzag-like forms and (iii) densely packed 3D helices. At the start, during the first two rounds of translation mostly the circular (ring-shaped and double-row) polyribosomes and the linear (free-shaped and zigzag-like) polyribosomes were formed ('juvenile phase'). The progressive loading of the polyribosomes with translating ribosomes induced the opening of the circular polyribosomes and the transformation of a major part of the linear polyribosomes into the dense 3D helices ('transitional phase'). After 2 h from the beginning (about 8-10 rounds of translation) this compact form of polyribosomes became predominant, whereas the circular and linear polyribosome fractions together contained less than half of polysomal ribosomes ('steady-state phase'). The latter proportions did not change for several hours. Functional tests showed a reduced translational activity in the fraction of the 3D helical polyribosomes. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
    Nucleic Acids Research 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The predictable 3D structure of double-stranded DNA renders it ideally suited as a template for the bottom-up design of functionalized nucleic acid-based active sites. We here explore the use of a 14mer DNA duplex as a scaffold for the precise and predictable positioning of catalytic functionalities. Given the ubiquitous participation of the histidine-based imidazole group in protein recognition and catalysis events, single histidine-like modified duplexes were investigated. Tethering histamine to the C5 of the thymine base via an amide bond, allows the flexible positioning of the imidazole function in the major groove. The mutual interactions between the imidazole and the duplex and its influence on the imidazolium pKaH are investigated by placing a single modified thymine at four different positions in the center of the 14mer double helix. Using NMR and unrestrained molecular dynamics, a structural motif involving the formation of a hydrogen bond between the imidazole and the Hoogsteen side of the guanine bases of two neighboring GC base pairs is established. The motif contributes to a stabilization against thermal melting of 6°C and is key in modulating the pKaH of the imidazolium group. The general features, prerequisites and generic character of the new pKaH-regulating motif are described. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
    Nucleic Acids Research 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The cellular function of the cancer-associated RNA-binding protein La has been linked to translation of viral and cellular mRNAs. Recently, we have shown that the human La protein stimulates IRES-mediated translation of the cooperative oncogene CCND1 in cervical cancer cells. However, there is little known about the underlying molecular mechanism by which La stimulates CCND1 IRES-mediated translation, and we propose that its RNA chaperone activity is required. Herein, we show that La binds close to the CCND1 start codon and demonstrate that La's RNA chaperone activity can change the folding of its binding site. We map the RNA chaperone domain (RCD) within the C-terminal region of La in close proximity to a novel AKT phosphorylation site (T389). Phosphorylation at T389 by AKT-1 strongly impairs its RNA chaperone activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the RCD as well as T389 is required to stimulate CCND1 IRES-mediated translation in cells. In summary, we provide a model whereby a novel interplay between RNA-binding, RNA chaperoning and AKT phosphorylation of La protein regulates CCND1 IRES-mediated translation. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
    Nucleic Acids Research 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fanconi anemia (FA) patients exhibit bone marrow failure, developmental defects and cancer. The FA pathway maintains chromosomal stability in concert with replication fork maintenance and DNA double strand break (DSB) repair pathways including RAD51-mediated homologous recombination (HR). RAD51 is a recombinase that maintains replication forks and repairs DSBs, but also rearranges chromosomes. Two RecQ helicases, RECQL5 and Bloom syndrome mutated (BLM) suppress HR through nonredundant mechanisms. Here we test the impact deletion of RECQL5 and BLM has on mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells deleted for FANCB, a member of the FA core complex. We show that RECQL5, but not BLM, conferred resistance to mitomycin C (MMC, an interstrand crosslinker) and camptothecin (CPT, a type 1 topoisomerase inhibitor) in FANCB-defective cells. RECQL5 suppressed, while BLM caused, breaks and radials in FANCB-deleted cells exposed to CPT or MMC, respectively. RECQL5 protected the nascent replication strand from MRE11-mediated degradation and restarted stressed replication forks in a manner additive to FANCB. By contrast BLM restarted, but did not protect, replication forks in a manner epistatic to FANCB. RECQL5 also lowered RAD51 levels in FANCB-deleted cells at stressed replication sites implicating a rearrangement avoidance mechanism. Thus, RECQL5 and BLM impact FANCB-defective cells differently in response to replication stress with relevance to chemotherapeutic regimes. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
    Nucleic Acids Research 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Lentiviral vectors almost universally use heterologous internal promoters to express transgenes. One of the most commonly used promoter fragments is a 1.2-kb sequence from the human ubiquitin C (UBC) gene, encompassing the promoter, some enhancers, first exon, first intron and a small part of the second exon of UBC. Because splicing can occur after transcription of the vector genome during vector production, we investigated whether the intron within the UBC promoter fragment is faithfully transmitted to target cells. Genetic analysis revealed that more than 80% of proviral forms lack the intron of the UBC promoter. The human elongation factor 1 alpha (EEF1A1) promoter fragment intron was not lost during lentiviral packaging, and this difference between the UBC and EEF1A1 promoter introns was conferred by promoter exonic sequences. UBC promoter intron loss caused a 4-fold reduction in transgene expression. Movement of the expression cassette to the opposite strand prevented intron loss and restored full expression. This increase in expression was mostly due to non-classical enhancer activity within the intron, and movement of putative intronic enhancer sequences to multiple promoter-proximal sites actually repressed expression. Reversal of the UBC promoter also prevented intron loss and restored full expression in bidirectional lentiviral vectors. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
    Nucleic Acids Research 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: NFYA5 is an important drought-stress inducible transcription factor gene that is targeted by miR169 in Arabidopsis. We show here that the cis-natural antisense transcript gene of NFYA5, NFYA5 Enhancing RING FINGER (NERF), can produce siRNAs from their overlapping region (OR) and affect NFYA5 transcripts by functioning together with miR169. The NERF protein functions as an E3 ligase for ubiquitination. Overexpression of NERF or OR cDNA leads to siRNANERF accumulation, miR169 repression, and NFYA5 transcript enhancement; knock-down of NERF transcripts by an artificial miRNA enhances miR169 abundance and reduces NFYA5 transcripts. Overexpression of NFYA5 does not affect the NERF mRNA level. Deep sequencing of the small RNA library from 35S::OR plants identifies 960 sequences representing 323 unique siRNAs that originate from OR; the sequences of some siRNANERF are similar/complementary to those of miR169. Overexpression of the 195- to 280-bp OR cDNA-containing siRNAs similar/complementary to miR169 also leads to the accumulation of NFYA5 transcripts. Analysis of NERF knock-down plants and NERF overexpression lines showed that, like NFYA5, NERF is important for controlling stomatal aperture and drought resistance. This regulatory model might apply to other natural antisense transcripts with positively correlated expression patterns. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
    Nucleic Acids Research 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PhosphoSitePlus(®) (PSP, http://www.phosphosite.org/), a knowledgebase dedicated to mammalian post-translational modifications (PTMs), contains over 330 000 non-redundant PTMs, including phospho, acetyl, ubiquityl and methyl groups. Over 95% of the sites are from mass spectrometry (MS) experiments. In order to improve data reliability, early MS data have been reanalyzed, applying a common standard of analysis across over 1 000 000 spectra. Site assignments with P > 0.05 were filtered out. Two new downloads are available from PSP. The 'Regulatory sites' dataset includes curated information about modification sites that regulate downstream cellular processes, molecular functions and protein-protein interactions. The 'PTMVar' dataset, an intersect of missense mutations and PTMs from PSP, identifies over 25 000 PTMVars (PTMs Impacted by Variants) that can rewire signaling pathways. The PTMVar data include missense mutations from UniPROTKB, TCGA and other sources that cause over 2000 diseases or syndromes (MIM) and polymorphisms, or are associated with hundreds of cancers. PTMVars include 18 548 phosphorlyation sites, 3412 ubiquitylation sites, 2316 acetylation sites, 685 methylation sites and 245 succinylation sites. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
    Nucleic Acids Research 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: VectorBase is a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases supported Bioinformatics Resource Center (BRC) for invertebrate vectors of human pathogens. Now in its 11th year, VectorBase currently hosts the genomes of 35 organisms including a number of non-vectors for comparative analysis. Hosted data range from genome assemblies with annotated gene features, transcript and protein expression data to population genetics including variation and insecticide-resistance phenotypes. Here we describe improvements to our resource and the set of tools available for interrogating and accessing BRC data including the integration of Web Apollo to facilitate community annotation and providing Galaxy to support user-based workflows. VectorBase also actively supports our community through hands-on workshops and online tutorials. All information and data are freely available from our website at https://www.vectorbase.org/. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
    Nucleic Acids Research 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In Gram-negative bacteria, the multi-domain protein S1 is essential for translation initiation, as it recruits the mRNA and facilitates its localization in the decoding centre. In sharp contrast to its functional importance, S1 is still lacking from the high-resolution structures available for Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus ribosomes and thus the molecular mechanism governing the S1-ribosome interaction has still remained elusive. Here, we present the structure of the N-terminal S1 domain D1 when bound to the ribosome at atomic resolution by using a combination of NMR, X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy. Together with biochemical assays, the structure reveals that S1 is anchored to the ribosome primarily via a stabilizing π-stacking interaction within the short but conserved N-terminal segment that is flexibly connected to domain D1. This interaction is further stabilized by salt bridges involving the zinc binding pocket of protein S2. Overall, this work provides one hitherto enigmatic piece in the 'ribosome puzzle', namely the detailed molecular insight into the topology of the S1-ribosome interface. Moreover, our data suggest novel mechanisms that have the potential to modulate protein synthesis in response to environmental cues by changing the affinity of S1 for the ribosome. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
    Nucleic Acids Research 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: NCBI RefSeq genome collection http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome represents all three major domains of life: Eukarya, Bacteria and Archaea as well as Viruses. Prokaryotic genome sequences are the most rapidly growing part of the collection. During the year of 2014 more than 10 000 microbial genome assemblies have been publicly released bringing the total number of prokaryotic genomes close to 30 000. We continue to improve the quality and usability of the microbial genome resources by providing easy access to the data and the results of the pre-computed analysis, and improving analysis and visualization tools. A number of improvements have been incorporated into the Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline. Several new features have been added to RefSeq prokaryotic genomes data processing pipeline including the calculation of genome groups (clades) and the optimization of protein clusters generation using pan-genome approach. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
    Nucleic Acids Research 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: G-quadruplexes (G4) are intricate RNA structures found throughout the transcriptome. Because they are associated with a variety of biological cellular mechanisms, these fascinating structural motifs are seen as potential therapeutic targets against many diseases. While screening of chemical compounds specific to G4 motifs has yielded interesting results, no single compound successfully discriminates between G4 motifs based on nucleotide sequences alone. This level of specificity is best attained using antisense oligonucleotides (ASO). Indeed, oligonucleotide-based strategies are already used to modulate DNA G4 folding in vitro. Here, we report that, in human cells, the use of short ASO to promote and inhibit RNA G4 folding affects the translation of specific mRNAs, including one from the 5'UTR of the H2AFY gene, a histone variant associated with cellular differentiation and cancer. These results suggest that the relatively high specificity of ASO-based strategies holds significant potential for applications aimed at modulating G4-motif folding. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
    Nucleic Acids Research 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli has served as the archetypal organism on which the overwhelming majority of biochemical characterizations of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) have been focused; the properties of E. coli RNAP have been accepted as generally representative for all bacterial RNAPs. Here, we directly compare the initiation properties of a mycobacterial transcription system with E. coli RNAP on two different promoters. The detailed characterizations include abortive transcription assays, RNAP/promoter complex stability assays and DNAse I and KMnO4 footprinting. Based on footprinting, we find that promoter complexes formed by E. coli and mycobacterial RNAPs use very similar protein/DNA interactions and generate the same transcription bubbles. However, we find that the open promoter complexes formed by E. coli RNAP on the two promoters tested are highly stable and essentially irreversible (with lifetimes much greater than 1 h), while the open promoter complexes on the same two promoters formed by mycobacterial RNAP are very unstable (lifetimes of about 2 min or less) and readily reversible. We show here that CarD, an essential mycobacterial transcription activator that is not found in E. coli, stabilizes the mycobacterial RNAP/open promoter complexes considerably by preventing transcription bubble collapse. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
    Nucleic Acids Research 12/2014;