Hydrometallurgy (HYDROMETALLURGY )

Publisher: Elsevier


Hydrometallurgy aims to compile studies on novel processes, process design, chemistry, modelling, control, economics and interfaces between unit operations, and to provide a forum for discussions on case histories and operational difficulties. Topics covered include: leaching of metal values by chemical reagents or bacterial action at ambient or elevated pressures and temperatures; separation of solids from leach liquors; removal of impurities and recovery of metal values by precipitation, ion exchange, solvent extraction, gaseous reduction, cementation, electro-winning and electro-refining; pre-treatment of ores by roasting or chemical treatments such as halogenation or reduction; recycling of reagents and treatment of effluents.

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    Hydrometallurgy website
  • Other titles
    Hydrometallurgy (Online)
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    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
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    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The extraction of uranium and iron (III) from mixed sulfate/chloride media with Cyanex 272 was studied, and a mechanism proposed involving cation exchange of UO22 + and Fe(OH)2+. Cyanex 272 exhibited good selectivity for uranium over iron (III), with βU/Fe = 129 at pH 1. An antagonistic effect was observed with the addition of Alamine 336 to Cyanex 272, causing a decrease in the extraction of iron (III). In contrast, synergism was observed for the extraction of uranium with the Cyanex 272/Alamine 336 combination. Based on the results obtained, a new chloride tolerant process for uranium recovery from acidic sulfate liquors is proposed, based on Cyanex 272 alone. McCabe–Thiele analysis of the uranium extraction isotherm for 0.1 M Cyanex 272 showed 99% uranium extraction with 3 equilibrium stages, from a sulfate feed liquor containing 1 g/L U, 2 g/L Fe(III), and 20 g/L Cl at pH 1.75. High uranium loadings were achieved (9 g/L U), with 0.2 g/L Fe co-extracted. Sulfuric acid stripping with 4 M H2SO4 was effective, with the McCabe–Thiele diagram indicating that a 5 stage strip circuit would produce a loaded strip containing approximately 45 g/L U.
    Hydrometallurgy 02/2015; 152.
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    ABSTRACT: The Effect of organophosphorous moieties of three acid ligands, D2EHPA, PC88A and Cyanex272, dissolved in light liquid paraffin, on extraction of U(VI) and mineral acid was studied using Bulk-Liquid Membrane (BLM) technique. . A kinetic model was developed to predict concentration of acid and U(VI) in the feed, organic and the strip phase during extraction. Acid extraction by complexing ligands was found to be significant. The extraction of U(VI) by these three acidic ligands in different mineral acids followed the order HNO3 > HCl > H2SO4. . The distribution coefficient for acid and U(VI) extraction increased with increase in ‘–OR’ moieties in the acid ligands i.e. in the order D2EHPA > PC88A > Cyanex 272. Suitability of a ligand for Liquid Emulsion Membrane (LEM) application depends upon the ratio of rates of extraction of U(VI) and acid (HNO3). The study showed that the ratios are in the order D2EHPA > PC88A > Cyanex 272.
    Hydrometallurgy 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: For the homogeneous recycling of actinides from spent nuclear fuels, within the future nuclear fuel cycle based on a transition to fast neutron reactors, a new GANEX (Grouped Actinide Extraction) process is under development. This potentially provides a simpler, more proliferation resistant hydrometallurgical process for recycling actinides. The so-called EURO-GANEX process is based on liquid-liquid extraction into an organic phase comprising 0.2 mol/L TODGA and 0.5 mol/L DMODHEMA in an odourless kerosene diluent. Before testing the EURO-GANEX process with dissolved fast reactor spent fuel, data are required on the distribution ratios of likely problematic fission products (Fe, Sr, Zr, Mo, Tc, Ru, Pd) under typical extraction and scrubbing conditions. Also, suitable conditions must be defined for the selective backwashing of the transuranic actinides (specifically plutonium and americium) in the presence of extracted lanthanide elements.
    Hydrometallurgy 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: One of the major problems of thiosulfate leaching was the high consumption of thiosulfate. In this work, additive was used to reduce thiosulfate consumption and simultaneously increase gold leaching. Thiosulfate leaching without additive was not effective to treat a refractory gold concentrate calcine with high iron, sulfur and arsenic due to its low gold extraction (72.7%) and high thiosulfate consumption (42.4%). Thus, several additives including sodium chloride, sodium sulfite, CMC (sodium carboxymethyl cellulose), CMS (sodium carboxymethyl starch) and HA (sodium humic acid) were used to improve the leaching. HA as a new kind of additive had the best performance, and it could improve gold extraction to 81.4%, which was obviously higher than the extraction by cyanidation (78.2%), and reduce thiosulfate consumption to 13.2%. As the XPS and SEM/EDS results indicated, there were less passivation species including copper sulfides, sulfur, iron hydroxide, etc. on the surface of calcine leached with the addition of HA. The role of the HA in the thiosulfate leaching was also preliminarily analyzed in this paper, and was proposed as follows: HA weakened the interaction between cupric ions and thiosulfate, and also eliminated the catalytic effects of iron minerals on thiosulfate decomposition; on the other hand, HA prevented passivation species from coating the surfaces of gold and gold–bearing minerals, and allowed extraction of some encapsulated gold.
    Hydrometallurgy 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: In the recent years, several silver leaching technologies have been investigated in order to find out an alternative and sustainable leaching process; one of these alternatives is the thiosulfate. The main research line is focused in the use of thiosulfate with copper as a catalyst and ammonia as a cupric ion stabilizer; however, the ammonia is also another toxic reagent. For that reason, an alternative-new leaching system using thiosulfate-nitrite and copper ions was investigated in this work. This new leaching system is able to dissolve silver without the use of cyanide or ammonia due to the cupric-ammonia complexes in-situ production, which is possible through the reaction of the nitrite and the cupric ions at neutral pH and NO2:Cu molar ratio of 30:1, according to silver leaching experiments and thermodynamic predictions.
    Hydrometallurgy 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of ferrous ion on the Bayer digestion of diasporic bauxite was studied under different conditions. Results showed that the digestion ratio of diasporic bauxite increased with increasing ferrous ion dosage, temperature, digestion time, and caustic alkali concentration. The product of the reaction between anatase and ferrous ion in synthetic Bayer liquor and the dissolution behavior of anatase in synthetic Bayer liquor in the presence of ferrous ion were further examined to probe the mechanism by which ferrous ion exerts its action. XRD results indicated that anatase reacted with the aluminate solution to form sodium titanate, which dissolved in solution and subsequently reacted with ferrous ion to form Fe2TiO4. Fe2TiO4 was found to be considerably less soluble than anatase or sodium titanate. Therefore, no re-precipitation of sodium titanate would coat the surface of diasporic bauxite, and the inhibitory effect of anatase on the digestion of diasporic bauxite was eliminated.
    Hydrometallurgy 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: A new method is presented for the rapid dissolution of enargite enhanced by the addition of pyrite as catalyst in acidic ferric sulfate media. At atmospheric conditions the effects of the ratio of pyrite (FeS2) to enargite (Cu3AsS4), temperature, solution potential, iron concentration, sulfuric acid concentration, particle size, and pulp density were evaluated. The best conditions were found to be at 80 °C with a pyrite to enargite ratio (Py:En) of 4, which gave complete copper extraction within 24 hours. The dissolution rate appears to be insensitive to changes in iron and acid concentrations. Elemental sulfur formed a porous layer on the surface of enargite particles, while pyrite surfaces remained clean. Arsenic presented the same dissolution rate as copper and all of the arsenic reported to solution, predominantly in the form of As(III).
    Hydrometallurgy 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The extraction of Pd(II) ions from automotive catalyst residue solutions in Cl− media was studied using 5,11,17,23,29,35-tert-butyl-37,38,39,40,41,42-(dimethylthiocarbamoyl)oxy thiacalix[6]arene (1) and 5,11,17,23-tert-butyl-25,26,27,28-(dimethylthiocarbamoyl)oxy thiacalix[4]arene (2). Compounds 1 and 2 were found to have higher Pd(II)-ion extraction abilities than p-tert-butylthiacalix[6]arene (3) and p-tertbutylthiacalix[ 4]arene (4) in Cl− media. The prepared compounds selectively extracted Pd(II) ions from the single-metal, simulated mixed-metal, and automotive catalyst leached solutions. Compound 1 extracts 99.5– 82% of Pd(II) from 0.1–2.0 M HCl media and 75–55% from 4.0–8.0 M HCl media. Compounds 1 and 2 have very high Pd(II)-loading capacities, which depend on the number of dimethylthiocarbamoyl moieties in 1 and 2. Pd(II) extraction efficiency of 1 and 2 was dependent on the Cl− concentration and independent of the H+ concentration. The acid durability test of the extractants was carried out with 2.0M HCl–1.0 M HNO3 solutions. The FT-IR results showed that compounds 1 and 2 are more durable than compounds 3 and 4 in acidic media and are suitable for metal extraction in highly acidic media. In addition, compounds 1 and 2 selectively extracted 99% of Pd(II) ions from an automotive catalyst residue leached solution composed of Rh, Pd, Pt, Zr, Ce, Ba, Al, La, and Y in 1.0 M Cl− media. Thus, 1 and 2 can be used as effective extractants for Pd(II) separation from secondary resources.
    Hydrometallurgy 01/2015; 151(01):133-140.
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    ABSTRACT: The leaching of gold and silver in a pH modified glycine solution in the presence of hydrogen peroxide was investigated. It was found that this lixiviant system can dissolve gold and/or silver under neutral and alkaline conditions at ambient to moderately elevated temperatures (23-60 °C). The gold leaching rate in solutions containing 0.5 M glycine and 1% peroxide at pH 11 after 48 hours of leaching was found to be 0.322 μmol/m2.s, which is comparable to gold leaching rate after six days in thiosulphate-EDTA or thiosulphate-oxalate systems in the presence of thiourea (0.22-0.25 μmol/m2.s). In alkaline glycine -hydrogen peroxide solutions, it has been found that gold leach rate from gold-silver (50% Ag) alloy is about 6 times higher than rate from pure gold and the silver leach rate was 0.247 μmol/m2.s. An induction period of 48 hours was noted for rolled precious metal foils, after which leaching rapidly accelerated. The reaction rate sensitivity to temperature can be explained by a mechanism that is chemical reaction controlling rather than mass transfer controlling as found for cyanide leaching. Precious metal dissolution rates increased with increased glycine concentration, increased silver content, and increasing pH (up to pH 11). The gold-glycinate complex was found to effectively load on activated carbon up to 13.2 gAu/kgcarbon in 4 hours.
    Hydrometallurgy 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This work has assessed factors affecting crystallization of copper sulfide (CuS) under batch conditions and in fed-batch fluidized bed reactor (FBR) using calcium-coated sands as a seed material. Compared with using sodium sulfide nonahydrate as a sulfidation reagent, larger CuS crystals were produced from sodium sulfide pentahydrate, most likely because of the lower surface charge. Due to the partial oxidation of sulfide in the pentahydrate form, the optimum molar ratio of Cu2 + to S2 − was found to be 1:2, higher than the theoretical ratio. Crystal growth and aggregation were further increased by using calcium ion as a cross-linker among the CuS fines (< 100 nm), resulting in an additional 30% decrease in Cu2 + concentrations from the effluent of fed-batch FBR. The efficacy of CuS crystallization was also remarkably dependent on the operating factors, i.e. the resting height of the seed material and recirculation rate. Under optimal conditions, > 95% of the initial Cu2 + (100 mg Cu2 +/L) was successfully transformed to CuS crystals within 120 min. The size and crystallinity of the star-shaped CuS crystals were confirmed by FEG-SEM and XRD analyses, respectively. Principal component analysis indicated that the resting height and the seed type were the primary parameters affecting CuS crystallization in the fed-batch FBR.
    Hydrometallurgy 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Ion exchange has not been extensively studied nor industrially used for recovering small amounts of silver from concentrated base metal-chloride solutions. A novel multistep process utilizing a weak anion exchanger with polyamine functionality is proposed and its performance investigated experimentally. Suitability of a silica based polyamine functional resin WP-1 to the task was demonstrated by comparing Ag uptake and selectivity of several ion exchange resins and adsorbents using batch equilibrium experiments. HCl was found to be the best choice for washing impurities, especially Cu, from the bed after the loading step. Tetrasodium salt of EDTA was found suitable especially for selective desorption of lead from the loaded bed, but also other impurities were scrubbed if still present after the wash. Both thiosulfate and thiourea were shown to be effective for elution of Ag from the WP-1 bed, but thiourea is preferred because of the slight affinity of thiosulfate towards the resin. Stability of the performance of the process was shown in several consecutive adsorption-elution cycles containing all the needed washing and scrubbing steps. With the developed process, 72% pure silver product was obtained. As the washing step can be designed such that no silver is lost, the recovery yield for Ag depends only on the length of the loading step, and even 100% recovery can thus be achieved for the whole process.
    Hydrometallurgy 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of activated carbon and/or surfactants on the bioleaching behavior of cobalt ore have been investigated in this paper. It was demonstrated that activated carbon and surfactants (Tween-20 and Tween-80) can significantly promote the dissolution rate of carrollite, either individually or in combination when coupled with ZY101 bacteria strain. The cobalt leaching efficiency increased from 71.3% to 90.8% when 1.0 g/L activated carbon was added, and such an improvement was ascribed to the galvanic interaction between activated carbon and carrollite. In addition, the leaching efficiency of cobalt increased from 71.3% to 92.4% by 0.1 g/L Tween-20 or to 93.2% by 0.1 g/L Tween-80, by changing the surface condition of the mineral and accelerating the bio-oxidation of formed elemental sulfur. When both activated carbon and surfactant were added, the leaching efficiency of cobalt increased by more than 22%, and meanwhile the leaching time decreased by more than 30%. It is shown that the catalytic effect of the combined catalyst was much more significant than that when only using a single catalyst. A similar trend was observed in the case of elemental copper extraction during the bioleaching process.
    Hydrometallurgy 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this research, the dissolution behavior and leaching kinetics of Sarcheshmeh chalcopyrite concentrate was investigated in oxidative ammonia/ammonium carbonate solution. Temperature, concentration of ammonia and ammonium carbonate, agitation speed, solid to liquid ratio, oxygen flow rate, pH and particle size were chosen as parameters in the experiments. About 70% of copper was effectively recovered at temperature 60 °C; ammonia/ammonium carbonate concentrations: 5 M NH3 + 0.3 M (NH4)2CO3; agitation speed: 1000 rpm; solid to liquid ratio: 1:20 g/mL; oxygen flow rate: 1 L/min; leaching times: 240 min and 80% passing size finer than 42 μm. Also kinetic results and morphology and elemental composition of residue at the most suitable conditions show that, the leaching process is controlled by the diffusion of reagents or products from iron oxide passive layer formed on chalcopyrite surface. Activation energy was determined to be 25 kJ/mol.
    Hydrometallurgy 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Caustic calcined magnesia (main component is MgO) can be used to produce Mg(OH)2 by ammonium-circulation method (reaction steps: (1) MgO + 2NH4+ Mg2 ++ 2NH3↑ + H2O and (2) Mg2 ++ 2NH3↑ + 2H2O → Mg(OH)2↓ + 2NH4+; Overall: MgO + H2O → Mg(OH)2↓). NH4Cl, NH4NO3 and (NH4)2SO4 have exhibited the ability to be used as a circulation medium. In this work, ammonium acetate (NH4Ac) was investigated as a circulation medium. The purity of the used caustic calcined magnesia (i.e., MgO content) is 85 wt %. The results show that NH4Ac is a much more efficient circulation medium than NH4Cl, NH4NO3 or (NH4)2SO4 is. The step (1) in the ammonium-circulation method can be significantly accelerated if NH4Ac is used as the circulation medium. The reason for the high efficiency of NH4Ac was also analyzed. By using NH4Ac as the circulation medium, rose petals-like Mg(OH)2 precipitate can be prepared in the presence of polyethylene glycol. The purity of the prepared Mg(OH)2 is more than 99 wt %.
    Hydrometallurgy 12/2014;