Hydrometallurgy (HYDROMETALLURGY )

Publisher: Elsevier

Journal description

Hydrometallurgy aims to compile studies on novel processes, process design, chemistry, modelling, control, economics and interfaces between unit operations, and to provide a forum for discussions on case histories and operational difficulties. Topics covered include: leaching of metal values by chemical reagents or bacterial action at ambient or elevated pressures and temperatures; separation of solids from leach liquors; removal of impurities and recovery of metal values by precipitation, ion exchange, solvent extraction, gaseous reduction, cementation, electro-winning and electro-refining; pre-treatment of ores by roasting or chemical treatments such as halogenation or reduction; recycling of reagents and treatment of effluents.

Current impact factor: 2.22

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 2.224
2012 Impact Factor 2.169
2011 Impact Factor 2.027
2010 Impact Factor 1.917
2009 Impact Factor 2.078
2008 Impact Factor 1.747
2007 Impact Factor 1.324
2006 Impact Factor 1.227
2005 Impact Factor 1.163
2004 Impact Factor 1.088
2003 Impact Factor 1.14
2002 Impact Factor 1.087
2001 Impact Factor 0.654
2000 Impact Factor 0.846
1999 Impact Factor 0.693
1998 Impact Factor 0.662
1997 Impact Factor 0.575
1996 Impact Factor 0.483
1995 Impact Factor 0.555
1994 Impact Factor 0.59
1993 Impact Factor 1.255
1992 Impact Factor 0.811

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.34
Cited half-life 8.00
Immediacy index 0.22
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.54
Website Hydrometallurgy website
Other titles Hydrometallurgy (Online)
ISSN 0304-386X
OCLC 38901127
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print allowed on any website or open access repository
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on authors' personal website, arXiv.org or institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository, without embargo, where there is not a policy or mandate
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months .
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sodium was removed from alumina-extracted coal fly ash (CFA) by using diluted NaOH solution. The effects of reaction temperature, reaction time, and NaOH concentration on sodium removal were studied. Result shows that the sodium (Na2O) content of the alumina-extracted CFA was decreased from 20 wt.% to 0.6 wt.% under optimal conditions: temperature of 185 °C, NaOH concentration of 50 g/L, residence time of 2 h, and liquid-to-solid ratio of 40 for water washing. The possible mechanism of sodium removal was also investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results indicated that NaCaHSiO4 in the residue was decomposed by NaOH to form NaSiO3 and Ca(OH)2, and then converted into tobermorite [Ca5Si6O16(OH)2·nH2O] and NaOH. The sodium obtained through the reaction in the residue was mainly combined with the silanol group and then washed with water.
    Hydrometallurgy 03/2015; 153.
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the kinetics of selenium and tellurium reduction by cuprous ions were reviewed and a comprehensive model capable of predicting the rate constants for various Cu+ 2–H2SO4 compositions and temperatures is presented. The rate constant data were fitted to the relationship: , where k1 is in M− 1 s− 1 and [Cu2 +] and [H2SO4] are in molar at temperature T (K), and A to F are empirical constants. The model was validated using different rate constant data points obtained during the reduction of SeVI and TeVI under different solution conditions. The rate constant k1 given by the comprehensive model was within a ± 3.3% for SeVI and ± 5.1% for TeVI reduction reactions compared to the rate constant determined using the experimental data. The model was used to estimate the selenium and tellurium reduction reaction times under Vale's (Sudbury, Canada) Electrowinning Department (ED) plant conditions. As a result, potential factors that may affect the selenium and tellurium removal rate at the ED plant of Vale were proposed and discussed.
    Hydrometallurgy 03/2015; 153.
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    ABSTRACT: For the recovery of rare earth elements, we previously synthesized an adsorbent consisting of silica gel particles modified with diglycol amic acid groups. In the present study, we optimized the amount of diglycolic anhydride used for the synthesis of the adsorbent and evaluated the utility of the adsorbent in terms of its selectivity for rare earth metal ions, the rate of metal ion adsorption, and the desorption behavior of the ions. We also analyzed the adsorption isotherms of the metal ions. The optimum amount of diglycolic anhydride was 4.0 mmol/gram of amino silica gel, and this amount resulted in the introduction of 1.04 mmol of diglycol amic acid groups per gram of adsorbent. The introduction of the diglycol amic acid groups had little effect on the specific surface area and average pore size of the silica gel particles, and we attributed the high adsorption rate to the large pore size. Acid concentration strongly influenced the adsorbability of rare earth metal ions, which were readily desorbed by 1 mol/L mineral acid. The adsorption isotherms for the lanthanoids at an initial pH of 1.0 were determined with the Langmuir equation. The adsorption capacities of the adsorbent for the heavy rare earth metal ions were higher than those for the light ones.
    Hydrometallurgy 02/2015; 152.
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    ABSTRACT: The extraction of uranium and iron (III) from mixed sulfate/chloride media with Cyanex 272 was studied, and a mechanism proposed involving cation exchange of UO22 + and Fe(OH)2+. Cyanex 272 exhibited good selectivity for uranium over iron (III), with βU/Fe = 129 at pH 1. An antagonistic effect was observed with the addition of Alamine 336 to Cyanex 272, causing a decrease in the extraction of iron (III). In contrast, synergism was observed for the extraction of uranium with the Cyanex 272/Alamine 336 combination. Based on the results obtained, a new chloride tolerant process for uranium recovery from acidic sulfate liquors is proposed, based on Cyanex 272 alone. McCabe–Thiele analysis of the uranium extraction isotherm for 0.1 M Cyanex 272 showed 99% uranium extraction with 3 equilibrium stages, from a sulfate feed liquor containing 1 g/L U, 2 g/L Fe(III), and 20 g/L Cl at pH 1.75. High uranium loadings were achieved (9 g/L U), with 0.2 g/L Fe co-extracted. Sulfuric acid stripping with 4 M H2SO4 was effective, with the McCabe–Thiele diagram indicating that a 5 stage strip circuit would produce a loaded strip containing approximately 45 g/L U.
    Hydrometallurgy 02/2015; 152.
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    ABSTRACT: The adsorption of lanthanum, cerium and praseodymium onto microcapsules containing 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (EHPNA) was investigated. Through scanning electron microscopy imaging of the microcapsule-surface and neutralization titration estimation of the amount of EHPNA extractant remaining in the microcapsule, the microencapsulated extractant was characterized. As a result, it was found that the microcapsules with a mean particle diameter of 143 μm contained the extractant of 1.63 × 10− 3 mol/g-microcapsule. The adsorption behavior for each of the metals was measured from the metal adsorption equilibrium and the metal adsorption rates, from which it was estimated that the formation of a metal complex contributes to the overall adsorption rate of the metals. The separation of each of the metals was examined using a column packed with the microcapsules. It was found that the separation of the metals was most enhanced under the conditions of the microcapsule-packed column of 10 cm, the flow rate of 0.002 L/min, and the initial metal feed solution at pH 2.0. The separation of lanthanum, cerium and praseodymium from a La–Ce–Pr mixed solution was then examined in detail, with effective separation of these metals achieved within eight repetitions of the adsorption–desorption step.
    Hydrometallurgy 02/2015; 152.
  • Hydrometallurgy 02/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Dumping of low-grade chalcopyrite encompasses several environmental problems. Despite slow dissolution rate, meso-acidophilic bioleaching is preferred for the extraction of copper from such ores. In the present study, meso-acidophilic bioleaching of a low-grade chalcopyrite in presence of an acid-processed waste newspaper (PWp) is discussed for the first time. The study illustrated a strong catalytic response of PWp with enhanced bio-recovery of copper from acid-conditioned chalcopyrite. A maximum of 99.13% copper recovery (0.36% Cu dissolution/day) was obtained in 6 days of bioleaching in presence of 2 gL- 1 PWp in contrast to only 5.7% copper in its absence. FTIR analysis of bioleached residues revealed similar spectral patterns to the original acid-conditioned ore in presence of PWp, thus indicating less development of passivation layer which was also confirmed through a complementary raman characterization of the bioleached residues. Further, a reaction mechanism (chemistry) was proposed suggesting the possible role of PWp as the electron donor under oxygen limiting conditions which facilitated microbial reduction of Fe (III). The resulting biochemical changes provided an energy source for the bacteria, thus allowing free flow of electrons through the ore surface, thus contributing towards enhanced bioleaching of copper.
    Hydrometallurgy 02/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: An algorithm-based method for synthesis of hydrometallurgical processes using limited amounts of experimental data is presented. The method enables simultaneous selection and sequencing of unit operations and optimization of operating parameters. An ant colony optimization (ACO) based algorithm is used to identify the most economic process alternative in an iterative manner. Key performance indicators are used for comparison of candidate processes: a purification performance index measures purity improvement and a separation cost indicator is used as an objective function in process optimization. Computational times were reduced significantly with the suggested method compared to an algorithm which evaluates all the possible process options. The practical applicability of the method to hydrometallurgy is demonstrated by investigating zinc recovery from argon oxygen decarburization dust with two alternative leaching methods and recovery of lanthanides from nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries. In the first zinc recovery process, 150 min normal batch leaching with 0.5 M H2SO4 is used, and in the other one 270 min batch leaching with H2SO4 is done by controlling the pH (> 3.0). In both cases the leachate is extracted with D2EHPA at pH 4.27, and stripped with circulating solution from zinc electrolysis. For lanthanides recovery the algorithm suggested a process in which the raw material is leached with 1.3 M HCl, the leachate is extracted with D2EHPA at pH 2.2, organic phase is stripped with 2.0 M HCl and 99% pure Ln-oxalates are precipitated with oxalic acid at pH 0.6. Compared to previously suggested process for the same raw material, the algorithm suggests operating the leaching step such that higher selectivity is achieved by sacrificing some yield.
    Hydrometallurgy 02/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Pressure alkaline leaching of a Ni-Mo ore for selective extraction of Mo was investigated. Thermodynamic analysis of Mo-S-H2O and Ni-S-H2O indicated that pressure alkaline leaching of Ni-Mo ore is technically feasible for selective extraction of Mo. The effects of NaOH concentration, temperature, leaching duration, liquid/solid ratio and particle size on the leaching of Mo and Ni were studied. The results showed that Mo extraction was improved significantly by NaOH concentration, temperature or leaching duration, but not by liquid/solid ratio or particle size. The optimum parameters were: NaOH concentration of 100 g/L, temperature of 120 °C, leaching duration of 5 h, liquid/solid ratio of 3 mL/g and particle size of 74-98 μm. Under these conditions, about 95.7% of Mo and 1.3% of Ni could be extracted.
    Hydrometallurgy 02/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the success of reductive atmospheric acid leaching (RAAL) of limonitic nickel laterite ores in recent studies limited attempt has been made to apply this method to smectite/nontronite ores of different mineralogies. A comparative study of four smectite/nontronite ores in this study showed that the use of 700 kg H2SO4/ton dry ore leaches only 74-86% Ni, 37-76% Co, 47-58% Fe and 24-66% Mn at 90 °C from slurries of 20-35% (w/w) pulp density even after 10 h, depending upon the mineralogy. These values increased to 90-97% Ni, 94-97% Co, 92-98% Mn and 72-85% Fe in the presence of Cu(II)/SO2. The first order dependence of initial fraction of iron, aluminium and nickel leached from a typical smectite ore in the first 0.5 h on the initial acid concentration provides evidence for the involvement of hydrogen ions in the surface reaction. Low activation energy of 10 kJ/mol based on the fraction of nickel leached in the first 0.5 h indicates a diffusion controlled reaction. This is supported by the applicability of a shrinking core kinetic model for metal dissolution over the first 2 h, with different apparent rate constants (kap) depending upon the iron oxide content, mineralogy and porosity. A log-log plot of kap for ores with high iron content as a function of acid concentration agrees reasonably well with the correlation already established for the leaching of nickel from limonitic laterite and manganese nodules. Thus, initial fast leaching can be related to the higher porosity and a rate controlling step which involves the diffusion of H+ through a thickening solid layer. The slow leaching at latter stages is a result of low remnant acid, thickening solid layer and changes in mineral composition.
    Hydrometallurgy 02/2015; 152:44-54.
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    ABSTRACT: The performance of extraction and stripping of Fe(III) using N,N,N′,N′-tetrabutyl succinamide (TBSA) in different diluents from hydrochloric acid solutions was investigated. The effects of hydrochloric acid concentration, extractant concentration and temperature on the extraction of Fe(III) were studied. The extraction ability of TBSA in different diluents follows the order: kerosene/octanol(v:v = 7:3) < cyclohexane < toluene. The extraction distribution ratio increases with an increase in hydrochloric acid concentration and extractant concentration. The extraction reaction is exothermic and the extraction distribution ratio of Fe(III) with TBSA decreases gradually with increasing temperature. The composition of the Fe(III) extracted species was obtained. The partition of Cu(II) was also investigated and the separation factor of Fe(III) relative to Cu(II) is nearly 140 under the studied conditions, which indicates that TBSA is a good extractant for the separation of Fe(III) from CuCl2 liquor in copper hydrometallurgy.
    Hydrometallurgy 02/2015; 152:1-6.
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    ABSTRACT: The leaching of sodium (Na+) and Fe2 +,3 +, ions from the soda-ash roasted ilmenite (FeO-TiO2) or anatase minerals has been examined as a chemical method for beneficiating titani-ferous minerals for the production of pigment grade TiO2. In the leaching step, the roles of catalytic aeration, dilute concentrations of organic liquids (methanol) in the range of 0.5% (v/v) in 1.5% (w/v) ammonium chloride are explained. The results of leaching experiments are also compared in the presence of inorganic acid with that of ammonium salt and acetic acid for retaining the particle size. The role of pH in the removal of sodium and iron ion is also explained based on Eh-pH diagram. The paper also explains the selective separation of rare earth oxides during the processing of synthetic rutile. The data obtained at each step of processing is explained and interpreted on the basis of results obtained through XRD, SEM and EDX. Rare earth oxides are separated unattacked by the processing steps.
    Hydrometallurgy 02/2015; 152:113-119.
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    ABSTRACT: Electronic waste (e-waste) contains a wide range of elements, many of which are highly toxic to environmental and human health. On the other hand e-waste represents a significant potential source of valuable metals. This study used microbial oxidation of pyrite to generate a biolixiviant. Its efficiency in the dissolution of metals from printed circuit boards (PCBs) was evaluated as well as the effects of metals and PCB concentrations on microbial activity. The addition of elemental metals (Cu, Cr, Ni, Sn, Zn) had an immediate inhibitory effect on pyrite oxidation, though leaching recovered after a period of adaptation. Bioleaching was inhibited initially by the addition of 1 % (w/v) ground PCB, but recovered rapidly, whereas pulp densities of ≥ 5 % had sustained negative impacts on culture activity and viability. The loss of culture viability meant that only abiotic copper dissolution occurred at ≥ 5 % PCB. Final copper recoveries declined with increasing PCB pulp density. The relatively high content of elemental iron caused a lag period in copper solubilisation possibly due to displacement reactions. Leptospirillum ferriphilum was primarily responsible for pyrite oxidation, and most affected by both the pure metals (particularly Ni and Cu) and PCB.
    Hydrometallurgy 02/2015; 152:33-43.
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    ABSTRACT: A new method is presented for the rapid dissolution of enargite enhanced by the addition of pyrite as catalyst in acidic ferric sulfate media. At atmospheric conditions the effects of the ratio of pyrite (FeS2) to enargite (Cu3AsS4), temperature, solution potential, iron concentration, sulfuric acid concentration, particle size, and pulp density were evaluated. The best conditions were found to be at 80 °C with a pyrite to enargite ratio (Py:En) of 4, which gave complete copper extraction within 24 hours. The dissolution rate appears to be insensitive to changes in iron and acid concentrations. Elemental sulfur formed a porous layer on the surface of enargite particles, while pyrite surfaces remained clean. Arsenic presented the same dissolution rate as copper and all of the arsenic reported to solution, predominantly in the form of As(III).
    Hydrometallurgy 02/2015; 152:149-158.
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    ABSTRACT: The Effect of organophosphorous moieties of three acid ligands, D2EHPA, PC88A and Cyanex272, dissolved in light liquid paraffin, on extraction of U(VI) and mineral acid was studied using Bulk-Liquid Membrane (BLM) technique. . A kinetic model was developed to predict concentration of acid and U(VI) in the feed, organic and the strip phase during extraction. Acid extraction by complexing ligands was found to be significant. The extraction of U(VI) by these three acidic ligands in different mineral acids followed the order HNO3 > HCl > H2SO4. . The distribution coefficient for acid and U(VI) extraction increased with increase in ‘–OR’ moieties in the acid ligands i.e. in the order D2EHPA > PC88A > Cyanex 272. Suitability of a ligand for Liquid Emulsion Membrane (LEM) application depends upon the ratio of rates of extraction of U(VI) and acid (HNO3). The study showed that the ratios are in the order D2EHPA > PC88A > Cyanex 272.
    Hydrometallurgy 01/2015; 152.
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    ABSTRACT: For the homogeneous recycling of actinides from spent nuclear fuels, within the future nuclear fuel cycle based on a transition to fast neutron reactors, a new GANEX (Grouped Actinide Extraction) process is under development. This potentially provides a simpler, more proliferation resistant hydrometallurgical process for recycling actinides. The so-called EURO-GANEX process is based on liquid-liquid extraction into an organic phase comprising 0.2 mol/L TODGA and 0.5 mol/L DMODHEMA in an odourless kerosene diluent. Before testing the EURO-GANEX process with dissolved fast reactor spent fuel, data are required on the distribution ratios of likely problematic fission products (Fe, Sr, Zr, Mo, Tc, Ru, Pd) under typical extraction and scrubbing conditions. Also, suitable conditions must be defined for the selective backwashing of the transuranic actinides (specifically plutonium and americium) in the presence of extracted lanthanide elements.
    Hydrometallurgy 01/2015; 152.