Hydrometallurgy Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Elsevier

Journal description

Hydrometallurgy aims to compile studies on novel processes, process design, chemistry, modelling, control, economics and interfaces between unit operations, and to provide a forum for discussions on case histories and operational difficulties. Topics covered include: leaching of metal values by chemical reagents or bacterial action at ambient or elevated pressures and temperatures; separation of solids from leach liquors; removal of impurities and recovery of metal values by precipitation, ion exchange, solvent extraction, gaseous reduction, cementation, electro-winning and electro-refining; pre-treatment of ores by roasting or chemical treatments such as halogenation or reduction; recycling of reagents and treatment of effluents.

Current impact factor: 1.93

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 1.933
2013 Impact Factor 2.224
2012 Impact Factor 2.169
2011 Impact Factor 2.027
2010 Impact Factor 1.917
2009 Impact Factor 2.078
2008 Impact Factor 1.747
2007 Impact Factor 1.324
2006 Impact Factor 1.227
2005 Impact Factor 1.163
2004 Impact Factor 1.088
2003 Impact Factor 1.14
2002 Impact Factor 1.087
2001 Impact Factor 0.654
2000 Impact Factor 0.846
1999 Impact Factor 0.693
1998 Impact Factor 0.662
1997 Impact Factor 0.575
1996 Impact Factor 0.483
1995 Impact Factor 0.555
1994 Impact Factor 0.59
1993 Impact Factor 1.255
1992 Impact Factor 0.811

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.57
Cited half-life 8.20
Immediacy index 0.30
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.59
Website Hydrometallurgy website
Other titles Hydrometallurgy (Online)
ISSN 0304-386X
OCLC 38901127
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Authors pre-print on any website, including arXiv and RePEC
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website immediately
    • Author's post-print on open access repository after an embargo period of between 12 months and 48 months
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months
    • Author's post-print may be used to update arXiv and RepEC
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Must link to publisher version with DOI
    • Author's post-print must be released with a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License
    • Publisher last reviewed on 03/06/2015
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Wastes originating fromcopper mining create a big problemregarding their quantity and toxicity. However, they are a source of valuable metals, and new hydrometallurgical technologies are becoming more economical in the recovery of thesemetals. In most cases, the leach liquor also contains uraniumwhich can be easily recovered. This paper reports on the results of a universal method for the extraction of uranium (with the possibility of other valuable metals) from different raw materials (ground ores and/or flotation wastes). An innovative process of uranium dioxide synthesis by the sol–gel technique has been developed as well. The synergistic effect of the application of both techniques (extraction and sol–gel) led to the elaboration of a consistent technology for the recovery of uranium from copper mining materials and wastes. The direct method (with the possibility of elimination the precipitation step) of uranium dioxide synthesis can be used to generate a nuclear fuel precursor for present and future generation nuclear reactors, e.g. pressurized heavy water reactors or fast breeder reactors.
    Hydrometallurgy 01/2016; 159(C):12-18. DOI:10.1016/j.hydromet.2015.10.017
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A huge number of nonlinear equations must be solved to simulate the multicomponent solvent extraction process for purification of rare earth metals using saponified PC88A. Typical approaches to solve them have not been successful due to the large number of initial guess values and numerical problems such as poor convergence and divergence. In this paper, the number of nonlinear equations to be solved simultaneously is dramatically reduced by a proposed model simplification technique, which reduces the number of initial guess values and overcomes the numerical problems. Furthermore, a thermodynamic equilibrium analysis algorithm using the model simplification technique is proposed to calculate the equilibrium concentrations. Finally, a new multicomponent solvent extraction process simulator is developed to calculate the equilibrium concentrations for all stages of the solvent extraction process.
    Hydrometallurgy 01/2016; 159:40-45. DOI:10.1016/j.hydromet.2015.11.001
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: High concentrations of iron represent a drawback in the hydrometallurgy of copper, since this metal cation could be co-extracted or entrained to the electrowinning step causing difficulties in obtaining pure copper. In this work, a pre-treatment step based on solvent extraction of iron using a hydrophobic imidazolium-based ionic liquid is proposed to overcome this drawback. The ionic liquid [bmim][Tf2N] was used as the diluent. The β-diketone TFA was used as the extractant. The results show that the combination extractant-ionic liquid is capable to remove iron(III) selectively from a pregnant leach solution (PLS) containing mainly copper(II) and iron(III) at low pH values. Furthermore, the use of this ionic liquid as diluent shows high extraction capacities. Finally, 97% of iron(III) can be stripped from the ionic liquid using a diluted solution of sulfuric acid (2 M).
    Hydrometallurgy 01/2016; 159:54-59. DOI:10.1016/j.hydromet.2015.11.003
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    ABSTRACT: Ionic liquids (ILs) have been presented as suitable candidates for metal extraction in the hydrometallurgy. It has already been proven that they have an adjustable selectivity towardsmetal ions. However, industrial applications of ILs are often limited due to their high price. Therefore, regeneration and reuse of ILs is necessary. In this study the regeneration of the fatty acid based IL tetraoctylammonium oleate was investigated, because in previous study excellent metal salt extraction efficiencies were obtained with this benign IL. Two methods for regeneration were investigated, i.e. electro-deposition and chemical regeneration. Electro-deposition turned out to be unfeasible for this IL. Chemical regeneration showed that the metal ions (Zn, Co and Mn) can be selectively back-extracted, so that metals can also be separated from each other in this step. The best stripping solution was aqueous sodium oxalate, which allowed the IL to be reused with no further treatment.
    Hydrometallurgy 12/2015; 158:56-60. DOI:10.1016/j.hydromet.2015.10.006
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    ABSTRACT: Solvent extraction is widely used as a universal method to extract and separate metals in industry. However solvent extraction has some disadvantages, for example, the use of a large amount of organic solvent which could be an environmental hazard. Therefore a solid-phase extraction method is proposed in this research. First of all, a silica gel modified with a nonionic surfactant (TritonX-100) micelle including 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (EHPNA) as a metal extractant has been prepared. The amount of extractant contained in the modified silica gel was measured to evaluate the characteristics of the modified silica gel. Then the stability of the modified silica gel was examined. Next, the adsorption equilibrium and the adsorption rate of the metals (aluminum, gallium and indium) were measured to estimate the adsorption mechanism of the metals. Finally, the mutual separation of aluminum, gallium and indium using the modified silica gel packed in a column was investigated. The amount of EHPNA impregnated in the modified silica gel was 0.205 mmol/g-silica gel. The modified silica gel can be used as a stable adsorbent below pH 2.0 without leaking EHPNA. The results of adsorption equilibrium showed that the higher the pH, the higher was the extent of metal adsorbed. And among aluminum, gallium and indium, only indium was recovered with a three-metal mixture solution ranging pH 1.0 to pH 1.5. In contrast, as a result of examination of the separation of each metal using the modified silica gel packed in a column, the mutual separation of aluminum, gallium and indium was achieved by repeating the adsorption and desorption processes.
    Hydrometallurgy 12/2015; 158:107-113. DOI:10.1016/j.hydromet.2015.09.030

  • Hydrometallurgy 12/2015; 158:101-106. DOI:10.1016/j.hydromet.2015.10.013
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    ABSTRACT: The pressure leaching of enargite in FeSO4-H2SO4-O2 media was studied with the aim to determine the role of the ferrous ions on the rate of arsenic dissolution in the temperature range of 140-200 °C. Thus, the effect of ferrous sulfate addition into the leaching of enargite was determined under partial pressure of oxygen in the range of 207-1379 kPa. The results showed that the addition of ferrous ions greatly enhanced the leaching rate of enargite, which confirmed that the ferric ion generated in the solution is the major oxidant of enargite while the role of the oxygen in this system was essentially to regenerate the ferric ion. It was also determined that the cupric ions from the enargite dissolution catalyzed the oxidation of ferrous ions to ferric. The kinetics data of the enargite dissolution in this system was analyzed by using the shrinking particle model for monosized particles considering a surface chemical reaction control. The apparent activation energy determined with this model was 111.8 kJ/mol for the temperature range 140 to 200 °C.
    Hydrometallurgy 12/2015; 158:49-55. DOI:10.1016/j.hydromet.2015.09.029
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The oxidative leaching of chalcopyrite demands extreme conditions of temperature and solution potential or non-aqueous solvents because of the formation of recalcitrant passivation layers. Chalcopyrite reduction suffers much less from this phenomenon and therefore could provide a starting point as a pretreatment to facilitate the subsequent leach. However, even though the electro-assisted reduction reactions occur at ambient temperature and pressure, the kinetics are slow, and consequently the power requirements are too high, to compete with conventional technology. A further decrease in passivation for a given reduction time should enhance the formation of chalcocite and metallic copper, which should result in an improved copper extraction in the subsequent oxidative leaching stage. This would directly impact the economy of the process. The use of complexing agents for iron(II), sulfide and copper(I) in sulfuric acid solutions increased the amount of chalcocite and metallic copper formed in the electro-assisted reduction pretreatment of chalcopyrite compared with the same leaching system with only H2SO4. The improvement in the copper extraction in the subsequent oxidative stage is probably due to the complexation of iron by the carboxylic acids and sulfur by the ethanolamines in the reductive pretreatment, thus avoiding the formation of a pyrrhotite (FeS) passivation layer on the chalcopyrite surface. On the other hand, ethylene glycol stabilizes copper as the cuprous ion, facilitating the chalcopyrite transformation and copper extraction; however, this action alone is not as effective as the carboxylic acids and the ethanolamines in diminishing passivation.
    Hydrometallurgy 12/2015; 158:35-41. DOI:10.1016/j.hydromet.2015.10.001
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The hydrometallurgical processes for zinc recycling from zinc leaching residues (ZLR) generate a huge volume of iron residues. Iron residues lead to serious losses of metal value and secondary pollution. Efficient separation of zinc and iron is an ideal idea for avoiding iron residues by control zinc and iron phase from ZLR. In this study, a novel process for separating zinc and iron present in ZLR is developed consisting of sulfates roasting and selective leaching. The extraction of zinc increased to 92.63% while iron decreased to 2.04%. Zinc was leached efficiently from ZLR for comprehensive recovery with iron concentration of zinc enriched leachate below 0.38 g/L, so that the effective separation of zinc and iron was achieved. The iron content from this new process was increased higher than 45% for a potential use as an iron-making material after the removing of lead, zinc and cadmium fromthe leached residue. The iron removal process and iron residues could be avoided in the hydrometallurgical process.
    Hydrometallurgy 12/2015; 158:42-48. DOI:10.1016/j.hydromet.2015.10.004
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    ABSTRACT: Pyrite is a mineral sulfide found extensively in acid mine drainage; this is one of the most serious environmental problems in the mining industry. Suppression of pyrite oxidation via carrier microencapsulation (CME) with silicon (Si) and organic carriers has been proposed. In the present study, use of the hydrothermal treatment liquid (HTL) produced from low-rank coal as a carrier in CME was investigated. In dissolution tests for 51 days with pyrite and iron-oxidizing bacteria, treatment with a mixture of HTL and a silicon reagent (Si-HTL) lowered the ferric ion concentration and limited bacterial attachment compared with untreated pyrite. This might be caused by catechol present in the HTL. A mixture of catechol and a silicon reagent (Si-Cat) was also used, and the coatings obtained using Si-HTL and Si-Cat were compared. The electrochemical behavior of the treated pyrite samples showed oxidative decomposition of the Si-Cat complex and formation of an encapsulating layer at 690 mV for Si-HTL and 550 mV for Si-Cat. The two semi-circular curves in the Nyquist plot simulations showed that the total impedances of the treated pyrite samples increased. Microscopic observations showed that the oxidative layer was silica rich. These data indicate that a silica-quinone coating is created and the pyrite oxidation rate can be suppressed by pretreatment with either Si-HTL or Si-Cat for 1 h.
    Hydrometallurgy 12/2015; 158:83-93. DOI:10.1016/j.hydromet.2015.09.028

  • Hydrometallurgy 12/2015; 158:149-156. DOI:10.1016/j.hydromet.2015.09.015

  • Hydrometallurgy 12/2015; 158:61-67. DOI:10.1016/j.hydromet.2015.10.010
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A new hydrometallurgical process was developed to synthesize metal-doped nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) and magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) from saprolite laterite ore. Selective extraction of Ni and Fe with a controlled Fe-to-Ni mole ratio (RFe/Ni) from saprolite laterite ore was investigated. It is shown that the leaching efficiencies of Ni and Fe were approximately 85.0% and 17.0% with an RFe/Ni of 2.6 after hydrothermal leaching at 200 °C with a liquid-to-solid ratio of 6:1 mL·g- 1 and HCl solution concentration of 2 mol·L- 1. After the leaching process, the hydrothermal coprecipitation method (200 °C, 2 h) was adopted to separate Ni, Co, Fe, Mn and Al from Mg ions in the leaching solution by controlling the initial pH value of 7.0. Under optimal conditions, metal-doped NiFe2O4 magnetic material with a cubic spinel structure was successfully synthesized directly from the precipitate; meanwhile, Mg(OH)2 (96.8 wt.%) was obtained from the filtrate. Moreover, it is estimated that 96.95 g of metal-doped NiFe2O4 and 278.6 g of Mg(OH)2 could be produced from 1000 g of processed saprolite laterite ore.
    Hydrometallurgy 12/2015; 158:27-34. DOI:10.1016/j.hydromet.2015.09.027
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A hydrometallurgical process is proposed in this paper to recover manganese from silicomanganese slag. The paper reports the digestion-leaching experiments and precipitation and electrowinning assays to recover Mn from this residue. Silicomanganese slag was first treated with sulfuric acid in a furnace at 200 °C. It was then leached with water, CaO and KOH, and finally filtered to dissolve the manganese. Sulfuric liquor needs a purification step in order to remove Zn, Ni, Co and Cu. Na2S was used to remove pollutants, a 5% excess with respect to the stoichiometric amounts of sulfide required for the reaction being employed for this purpose. The purified liquor is suitable for electrolysis. α-manganese is obtained with a purity of 99.99.
    Hydrometallurgy 12/2015; 158:68-73. DOI:10.1016/j.hydromet.2015.10.007