Gerontology (GERONTOLOGY )

Publisher: Blackwell Publishing

Description

As the ratio of people over sixty-five continues to rise, understanding the basic mechanisms of aging and age-related diseases has become a matter of urgent necessity. ëGerontologyí responds to this need by drawing experimental contributions from diverse medical, biological and behavioral disciplines to provide a primary source of high-quality papers covering all aspects of aging in man and animals. Recent research on the clinical problems of aging and the practical applications of laboratory results is also included to support the fundamental goals of extending active life and enhancing its quality. Informative reviews and an open debate section for stimulating, speculative articles carry strong reader approval.

  • Impact factor
    2.68
    Show impact factor history
     
    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    2.76
  • Cited half-life
    8.10
  • Immediacy index
    0.44
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    0.87
  • Website
    Gerontology website
  • Other titles
    Gerontology (Online)
  • ISSN
    0304-324X
  • OCLC
    44723306
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Blackwell Publishing

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • Some journals impose embargoes typically of 6 or 12 months, occasionally of 24 months
    • no listing of affected journals available as yet
  • Conditions
    • See Wiley-Blackwell entry for articles after February 2007
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On author's server, institutional server or subject-based server
    • Server must be non-commercial
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged with set statement ("The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com")
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • 'Blackwell Publishing' is an imprint of 'Wiley'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • Gerontology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Exergames are increasingly used as an exercise intervention to reduce fall risk in elderly. However, few exergames have been designed specifically for elderly, and we lack knowledge about the characteristics of the movements elicited by exergames and thereby about their potential to train functions important for fall risk reduction. Objective: This study investigates game elements and older players' movement characteristics during stepping exergames in order to inform exergame design for movement quality in the context of fall preventive exercise. Methods: Fourteen senior citizens (mean age 73 years ± 5.7, range 65 - 85) played 3 stepping exergames in a laboratory. Each of the exergames was described with respect to 7 game elements (physical space, sensing hardware technology, game graphics and sound, model of user, avatar/mapping of movements, game mechanism and game narrative). Five movement characteristics (weight shift; variation in step length, speed, and movement direction; visual independency) were scored on a 5-point Likert scale based on video observations of each player and each game. Disagreement between raters was resolved by agreement. Differences in scores for the 3 exergames were analyzed with a multivariate one-way ANOVA. Results: The Mole received the highest sum score and the best score on each of the 5 movement characteristics (all p values <0.0005). LightRace scored the lowest of the 3 exergames on weight shift and variation in movement direction (both p values <0.0005), while DanceDanceRevolution scored lowest on step length variation and visual independency (p < 0.03 and p < 0.0005, respectively), and lower than The Mole on speed variation (p < 0.05). The physical space players used when exergaming and the on-screen representation of the player, affected movement quality positively as indexed by multiple weight shifts and variation in stepping size, direction, and speed. Furthermore, players' movements improved when playing speed-affected game progression and when the game narrative was related to a natural context. Conclusion: Comparing differences in game elements with associated differences in game movement requirements provides valuable insights about how to design for movement quality in exergames. This provided important lessons for the design of exergames for fall-preventive exercise in senior citizens and illustrates the value of including analyses of movement characteristics when designing such exergames. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gerontology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The aging immune system is unable to optimally respond to pathogens and generate long-term immunological memory against encountered antigens. Amongst the immune components most affected by aging are T lymphocytes. T lymphocytes are cells of the cell-mediated immune system, which can recognize microbial antigens and either directly kill infected cells or support the maturation and activation of other immune cells. When activated, T cells undergo a metabolic switch to accommodate their changing needs at every stage of the immune response. Here we review the different aspects of metabolic regulation of T cell activation, focusing on the emerging role of mitochondrial metabolism, and discuss changes that may contribute to age-related decline in T cell potency. Better understanding of the role of mitochondrial metabolism in immune cell function could provide insights into mechanisms of immune senescence with the potential for developing novel therapeutic approaches to improve immune responses in aged individuals. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gerontology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Frailty and body mass index (BMI) are known to be predictive of late life mortality, but little is known about the combined effects of frailty and BMI on mortality. Objective: This study investigated the influence of frailty status and BMI category on mortality in older adults. Methods: Data were from the Living Profiles of Older People Survey, a national survey of community-dwelling older people in Korea, with a baseline study of 11,844 Koreans aged 65 years and older in 2008 and a 3-year follow-up for mortality. Frailty was categorized as not frail, prefrail, and frail, based on five indicators (weight loss, exhaustion, physical activity, walking speed, and grip strength). BMI (kg/m(2)) was classified as underweight (<18.5), normal (18.5-24.9), overweight (25.0-29.9), or obese (≥30.0). A Cox proportional model was used to analyze the association of the combined frailty and BMI categories with all-cause mortality, adjusting for sociodemographics and health-related factors. Results: Adjusting for covariates, compared with the normal-weight nonfrail counterpart, the underweight or normal-weight prefrail/frail status demonstrated significantly increased rates of death. The obese frail respondents showed a significantly higher mortality risk (hazard ratio, 3.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-13.28). The overweight prefrail/frail group, however, exhibited no significant association with mortality. Conclusion: Among older people who were of normal weight or underweight, greater frailty was associated with poorer survival. Whereas being overweight tended to be neutral of the influence of frailty on mortality, the obese frail exhibited a significantly elevated rate of death. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gerontology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Chronic administration of D-galactose (D-gal) results in oxidative stress and chronic inflammatory aging. Age-related changes in the brain result in neurovascular damage and blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. However, little is known regarding D-gal-induced neurovascular damage, as well as the protective effects of huperzine A. Objective: The purpose of this study was to utilize a D-gal-induced rat model to investigate the activation of neurovascular inflammatory damage and apoptosis in the rat hippocampus and to understand whether huperzine A alleviates D-gal-induced neuronal and vascular inflammatory injury. Methods: Aging rats were treated with D-gal (300 mg/kg s.c. for 8 weeks), were coadministered D-gal and huperzine A (D-gal 300 mg/kg and huperzine A 0.1 mg/kg s.c. for 8 weeks) or served as the saline-treated control group rats (same volume of saline given subcutaneously for 8 weeks). Changes in hippocampal morphology and biomarkers of inflammatory damage were analyzed. Results: Our study revealed that chronic administration of D-gal resulted in the activation of glia and vascular endothelial cells and upregulation of mRNA and protein levels of cell-associated adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines via nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibitor degradation and NF-κB nuclear translocation. The inflammatory injury caused significant BBB dysfunction, decreased density of tight junctions (TJs) and apoptosis in the rat hippocampus. Coadministration of huperzine A not only markedly inhibited the D-gal-induced increase in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, but also alleviated D-gal-induced neurovascular damage by inhibiting D-gal-induced NF-κB activation, improving cerebrovascular function and suppressing the D-gal-induced decrease in the density and protein levels of TJs and cell apoptosis. Conclusions: Our findings provided evidence that D-gal induced a proinflammatory phenotype mediated by NF-κB in the rat hippocampus. Moreover, huperzine A suppressed D-gal-induced neurovascular damage and BBB dysfunction, partly by preventing NF-κB nuclear translocation. The inhibiting effect of huperzine A on AChE activity might play an important role in attenuating D-gal-induced inflammatory damage. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gerontology 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The identification of patients at high risk for adverse outcomes [death, unplanned readmission to emergency department (ED)/hospital, functional decline] plays an important role in emergency medicine. The Identification of Seniors at Risk (ISAR) instrument is one of the most commonly used and best-validated screening tools. As to the authors' knowledge so far there are no data on any screening tool for the identification of older patients at risk for a negative outcome in Germany. Objectives: To evaluate the validity of the ISAR screening tool in a German ED. Design: This was a prospective single-center observational cohort study in an ED of an urban university-affiliated hospital. Participants were 520 patients aged ≥75 years consecutively admitted to the ED. Measurements: The German version of the ISAR screening tool was administered directly after triage of the patients. Follow-up telephone interviews to assess outcome variables were conducted 28 and 180 days after the index visit in the ED. The primary end point was death from any cause or hospitalization or recurrent ED visit or change of residency into a long-term care facility on day 28 after the index ED visit. Results: The mean age ± SD was 82.8 ± 5.0 years. According to ISAR, 425 patients (81.7%) scored ≥2 points, and 315 patients (60.5%) scored ≥3 points. The combined primary end point was observed in 250 of 520 patients (48.1%) on day 28 and in 260 patients (50.0%) on day 180. Using a continuous ISAR score the area under the curve on day 28 was 0.621 (95% confidence interval, CI 0.573-0.669) and 0.661 (95% CI 0.615-0.708) on day 180, respectively. Conclusion: The German version of the ISAR screening tool acceptably identified elderly patients in the ED with an increased risk of a negative outcome. Using the cutoff ≥3 points instead of ≥2 points yielded better overall results. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gerontology 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Knowledge about the molecular pathomechanisms of sarcopenia is still sparse, especially with regard to nutritional risk factors and the subtype of sarcopenic obesity. Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize diet-induced and age-related changes on the quality and quantity of the quadriceps muscle in a rat model of sarcopenia by different magnetic resonance (MR) techniques. Methods: A total of 36 6-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly subdivided into 2 groups and received either a high-fat diet (HFD) or a control diet (CD). At the age of 16 months, 15 HFD and 18 CD rats underwent MR at 1.5 T. T1-weighted images as well as T2 relaxation time maps were acquired perpendicular to the long axis of the quadriceps muscles. Maximum cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps muscle was measured on T1-weighted images, and T2 relaxation times of muscle were assessed in a region without visible intramuscular fat (T2lean muscle) and across the complete CSA (T2muscle). Furthermore, (1)H-MR spectroscopy was performed to evaluate the relative lipid content of the quadriceps muscles. These measurements were repeated 5 months later in the surviving 8 HFD and 14 CD rats. Results: HFD rats revealed significantly decreased CSA and CSA per body weight (BW) as well as prolonged T2 relaxation times of muscle. A higher weight gain (upper tertile during the first 6 months of diet in CD rats) resulted in a significant change of T2muscle, but had no relevant impact on CSA. Advancing age up to 21 months led to significantly decreased BW, CSA and CSA/BW, significantly prolonged T2muscle and T2lean muscle and enlarged lipid content in the quadriceps muscle. Conclusions: In an experimental setting a chronically fat-enriched diet was shown to have a relevant and age-associated influence on both muscle quantity and quality. By translational means the employed MR techniques give rise to the possibility of an early detection and noninvasive quantification of sarcopenia in humans, which is highly relevant for the field of geriatrics. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gerontology 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: It was found that age and female gender are predisposing factors for hyponatremia in patients taking thiazides. Objective: To investigate whether a relationship exists between age and gender and serum sodium and potassium as well as the prevalence rates in a large population of patients presenting to the emergency department of a university hospital. Methods: In this retrospective analysis we gathered data on age, gender and current diuretic medication of all patients admitted to the emergency department of a large university hospital with measurement of serum sodium and potassium between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2010. Prevalence rates of and risk factors for electrolyte disorders were calculated on the basis of these data. Results: A total of 20,667 patients were included in the analysis. Serum sodium levels declined significantly with increasing age while serum potassium rose, independent of diuretic medication at presentation. The prevalence rates of hyponatremia and hyperkalemia increased from 2.3% for hyponatremia in patients aged 16-21 years to 16.9% in patients aged >80 years and from 0.8% for hyperkalemia to 10.4%. In the regression analysis, age >60 years was a predictor for the presence of hyponatremia and hyperkalemia as was current use of diuretic medication. Male gender was associated with a decreased prevalence of hyponatremia and hypokalemia, while it was a predictor of hyperkalemia. Conclusions: Sodium levels were lower with increasing age, independent of diuretic intake, while potassium levels were higher. We found dramatically increasing prevalences of hyponatremia and hyperkalemia with increasing age, while no such effect could be found for hypernatremia and hypokalemia. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gerontology 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Age-related differences in standing balance are not detected by testing the ability to maintain balance. Quality of standing balance might be more sensitive to detect age-related differences. Objective: To study age-related differences in quality of standing balance, center of pressure (CoP) movement was evaluated using a wide range of CoP parameters in several standing conditions in healthy young and old participants. Methods: In 35 healthy young (18-30 years) and 75 healthy old (70-80 years) participants, CoP movement was assessed in eight standing conditions on a force plate, including side-by-side, one-leg, semi-tandem and tandem stance, both with eyes open and eyes closed. Direction-specific CoP composite scores were calculated from standardized single CoP parameters (mean amplitude, amplitude variability, mean velocity, velocity variability and range) in anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) direction. Linear regression analysis was used to detect age-related differences in single CoP parameters and composite scores - adjusted for gender, height and weight. Results: Overall, single CoP parameters were higher in old compared to young participants, but no single CoP parameter consistently demonstrated the largest effect size for all standing conditions. Age-related differences were demonstrated for CoP composite scores in AP direction (tandem eyes open; semi-tandem eyes closed; p < 0.001). CoP composite scores in ML direction were consistently higher for all standing conditions in old compared to young participants (p < 0.001). Conclusion: CoP composite scores in ML direction were the most consistent parameters to detect age-related differences in quality of standing balance in healthy participants and might be of clinical value to detect subtle changes in quality of standing balance. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gerontology 01/2014; 60(4):306-14.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Age-related differences in standing balance are not detected by testing the ability to maintain balance. Quality of standing balance might be more sensitive to detect age-related differences. Objective: To study age-related differences in quality of standing balance, center of pressure (CoP) movement was evaluated using a wide range of CoP parameters in several standing conditions in healthy young and old participants. Methods: In 35 healthy young (18-30 years) and 75 healthy old (70-80 years) participants, CoP movement was assessed in eight standing conditions on a force plate, including side-by-side, one-leg, semi-tandem and tandem stance, both with eyes open and eyes closed. Direction-specific CoP composite scores were calculated from standardized single CoP parameters (mean amplitude, amplitude variability, mean velocity, velocity variability and range) in anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) direction. Linear regression analysis was used to detect age-related differences in single CoP parameters and composite scores - adjusted for gender, height and weight. Results: Overall, single CoP parameters were higher in old compared to young participants, but no single CoP parameter consistently demonstrated the largest effect size for all standing conditions. Age-related differences were demonstrated for CoP composite scores in AP direction (tandem eyes open; semi-tandem eyes closed; p < 0.001). CoP composite scores in ML direction were consistently higher for all standing conditions in old compared to young participants (p < 0.001). Conclusion: CoP composite scores in ML direction were the most consistent parameters to detect age-related differences in quality of standing balance in healthy participants and might be of clinical value to detect subtle changes in quality of standing balance. (c) 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel
    Gerontology 01/2014; 60(4):306-314.
  • Gerontology 01/2012; 11(2):238.
  • Gerontology 01/2009; 55(4):477-477.
  • Gerontology 01/2008; 54(2):129-129.
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroinflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels have been reported in the brain and cerebro-spinal fluid of individuals affected by this neurodegenerative disorder. These same cytokines, including interleukin -1, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, are also believed to be involved in thermoregulation. Furthermore, their effects are thought to be mediated through the induction of cyclooxygenases resulting in increased production of inflammatory prostaglandins. Such increases have been observed in AD brains. We hypothesized that these increased levels of inflammatory mediators could lead to an increase in core body temperature in AD patients. To determine whether clinical signs of AD are accompanied by an increase in core body temperature. Analysis of the scientific literature identified six studies that used continuous rectal measurements of core body temperature in AD and control patients. Meta-analysis was performed on these published data. Meta-analysis showed that the mean core body temperature in AD patients was significantly increased by 0.10 degrees C when compared to healthy elderly subjects. The two-sided p value was 0.0355, and the 95% confidence interval was 0.0068-0.1950. The severity of AD pathology did not appear to contribute significantly (p = 0.235) to the heterogeneity in the core body temperature among different groups of AD patients. The significant increase in core body temperature in AD patients could be a direct consequence of local inflammatory reactions in the brain. Although the changes observed are probably too small to be of any diagnostic value, these observations lend further support to the neuroinflammatory hypothesis of AD pathology.
    Gerontology 02/2007; 53(1):7-11.
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    ABSTRACT: Nowadays the term mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is used to fill the gap between cognitive changes associated with normal ageing and those associated with dementia. Despite some agreement in general definitions, MCI is still a heterogeneous clinical syndrome for which no DSM-IV criteria have yet been established. Criteria by Petersen et al. are presently the most applied in clinical practice. Moreover, little attention has been paid to the specific relation between MCI and depression. This review highlights some concerns about the concept of MCI and provides guidelines within the field of neuropsychology to solve them. In a second part, the paper focuses on the specific relationship between depression in the elderly and MCI. We hypothesize that certain test instruments can be used to operationalize the criteria proposed by Petersen et al. Moreover, we suggest that cued recall might be of help to differentiate between progressive and non-progressive MCI. Concerning the specific relation between depression and MCI, we assume that elderly depression with concomitant cognitive problems can be seen as an MCI. The proposed adjustments and additions (neuropsychological instruments and the incorporation of depressive symptoms) in the diagnostic flowchart of Petersen may serve as useful tools for clinicians when making a diagnosis of MCI.
    Gerontology 02/2007; 53(1):28-35.
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    ABSTRACT: Changes in the proteoglycan metabolism of the intima of arteries belong to the initial lesions of atherosclerosis (AS). The accumulation of proteoglycans, alterations of pericellular glycoproteins and modulations of collagen turnover also play a fundamental role in the progression of AS. They influence lipid retention, cell behavior and calcinosis. The decisive role played by the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibiting factors (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases [TIMPs]) in these processes is not yet fully understood and therefore the subject of this overview. The causes of the abrupt change of a long-term existing stabile AS to a vulnerable plaque as well as the participation of age-related vascular wall remodeling in the progression of AS also remain open questions. Apart from the well-known risk factors for AS, less well-known influences like the disturbances of gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells affect an MMP/TIMP imbalance. The various consequences of this imbalance range from intima cell proliferation as an early change in AS as well as accelerated progression to the destabilization of fibrous plaques by increased collagenolysis as well as the formation of aneurysms. Infectious or toxic influences may trigger these mechanisms; an involvement of age-related vessel wall changes should also be considered. The prognostic significance of circulating MMP concentrations for the existence of instabile plaques are of great interest, as is the plaque stabilizing effect of statins by suppression of MMPs. MMPs navigate the behavior of vascular wall cells in different AS stages, in adaptive remodeling, in normal aging and in non-atherosclerotic vessel disease. The clinical relevance of a disturbance in the MMP/TIMP balance is demonstrated firstly by the initiation of AS due to migration and proliferation of intima cells and secondly in the collagenolysis, necrotic transformation and apoptosis of existing fibrous lesions resulting in instabile rupture proned plaques. Investigations into the genetic typing of MMPs and the results of experimental gene deficiency models have significantly contributed to the clarification of these facts.
    Gerontology 02/2007; 53(2):63-73.