Electromyography and clinical neurophysiology (Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol)

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Incorporated into Clinical Neurophysiology (1388-2457)

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Website Electromyography & Clinical Neurophysiology website
Other titles Electromyography and clinical neurophysiology
ISSN 0301-150X
OCLC 2246609
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Slumped sitting is known to increase disc pressure and aggravate chronic low back pain. In addition, it has been recognized that co-contraction of the deep spine-stabilizing muscles enhances lumbar segmental stability and the sacro-iliac joint. The purpose of this study was to compare the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the trunk muscles and the muscle thickness of the transverse abdominis (TrA) during slumped sitting with the same parameters during co-contraction and investigate how co-contraction influences spinal curvature. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Nine healthy male volunteers participated in the study. EMG signals were recorded during both sitting postures. In order to measure the muscle thickness of the TrA, ultrasound images were captured. While the subjects performed both sitting postures, spinal curvature was measured using a hand-held device. RESULTS: Significantly more activity of the trunk muscles, with the exception of the rectus abdominis muscle, and significantly greater muscle thickness of the TrA were observed during co-contraction of the trunk muscles than during slumped sitting. Co-contraction also resulted in significantly increased lumbar lordosis and a greater sacral angle when compared to slumped sitting. CONCLUSION: In this study, it was demonstrated that the instructions given to the subjects on co-contraction of the trunk muscles during sitting increased muscle activity with the exception of the rectus abdominis muscle, muscle thickness of the TrA, and lumbar lordosis.
    Electromyography and clinical neurophysiology 07/2013; 50(3-4):187-92. DOI:10.3233/BMR-130419
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the influence of a regular Physical Therapy program with emphasis on proprioceptive stimulation, on the center pressure trajectory and muscle adjustments necessary to maintain balance on orthostatic position. After medical assessment, 29 subjects (63.06 +/- 2.84 years) were submitted to electromyographic and baropodometric evaluation and, subsequently, to a program of 12 weeks of physical therapy intervention focusing on proprioceptive stimulation. The oscillation of the pressure center (Pressure platform-MatScanTekscan) was evaluated concomitantly to electromyographic signal envelopment and median frequency assessment of anterior tibial and gastrocnemius muscles (signal conditioner module--MCS 1000-V2-LYNX ). The Wilcoxon test was used for comparison of means, with the significance level of 5%. The pressure center trajectory unipodal position with open eyes (UO) decreased significantly after physical therapy intervention. In this position, there was a reduction of the electromyographic signal envelopment and an increase on median frequency of the gastrocnemius muscle, while the anterior tibial muscle showed increased median frequency after intervention. For the unipodal position with closed eyes (UC), the anterior tibial muscle showed significant electromyographic signal envelopment decrease and increase of median frequency, which also increased for the gastrocnemius muscle. It is concluded that the physical therapy intervention promoted decrease of body oscillation, recruitment improvement and adjustment of the gastrocnemius and anterior tibial muscles, contributing to the postural balance improvement in orthostatic position on senior population.
    Electromyography and clinical neurophysiology 03/2010; 50(2):113-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Lack of sensitivity in clinical evaluation and imaging techniques often result in the potential misdiagnosis of the nerve root compromise in patients with non specific low back pain (NSLBP). H-reflex is reliable, valid, and sensitive electrophysiological procedure in detecting neural impingement in patients with low back pain of neurological origin and, thus, could be used to detect nerve root compromise in NSLBP To date, this has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to estimate the proportion of patients with NSLPB and neural compromise using the soleus H-reflex. Soleus H-reflex was measured bilaterally in 30 NSLBP patients with no radicular symptoms during prone lying and standing upright relaxed postures. Five traces were measured and averaged. Side-to-side amplitude (HIH) ratios were then calculated. Inference statistic estimated the proportion and 95% confidence intervals of patients with NSLBP and neural involvement. Soleus H-reflex asymmetry was detected in 17% and 20% of patients with NSLBP during lying and standing, respectively. In some patients, NSLBP may be associated with small degree of nerve root compromise, although the neural compromise is insufficient to cause distal radiculopathy. For these patients, treatment strategies to address such possible underlying mechanism of pain should be considered.
    Electromyography and clinical neurophysiology 03/2010; 50(2):67-73.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the behavior of the major chewing muscles (anterior temporalis, masseter and suprahyoid muscles) by using two commercial chewing gums (A and B) and two insipid materials (cotton ball and Parafilm M) through analysis of electromyographic signals. Ten female young adult subjects, aged from 18 to 27 years, with normal occlusion and no history of craniomandibular disorder were studied The masticatory activity was performed with the subjects comfortably sat so that the Frankfurt plane was parallel to the floor. Electromyographic exams were carried out using bipolar surface passive mini-electrodes positioned on the anterior temporalis, masseter, and suprahyoid muscles. The subjects were guided to chew bilaterally and simultaneously each one of the materials, in aleatory sequence. For the study of the masticatory activity the electromyographic signals were processed through rectification, linear envelope and normalization, so that the coefficient of variation obtained from the procedure was comparatively analyzed. All data were submitted to analysis of variance (uni- and multi-varied). The results of this study indicated that the best materials for electromyographic studies on the chewing were Parafilm and cotton ball because they demonstrated the smallest coefficients of variation. In addition, Parafilm showed the best palatability. In a general way, these materials are indicated for the accomplishment of electromyographic exams, since they demonstrated a smaller coefficient of variation as compared to the other materials.
    Electromyography and clinical neurophysiology 03/2010; 50(2):121-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Orofacial pain and pain in the muscles of mastication are frequent symptoms of temporomandibular disorder. The masseter is the closet masticatory muscle to the surface and has the function of raising and retracting the mandible. This muscle has considerable strength and is one of the main muscles involved in the shredding of food It is therefore of utmost importance in the masticatory cycle and generally the most affected by pain and spasms. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of manual therapy with transversal and circular movements on pain and spasm in the masseter muscle, using electromyography and a visual analogue pain scale (VAPS). Eight women who experienced pain upon palpation of the masseter greater than 6 on the VAPS were selected for participation in the study, which employed electromyography and a VAPS for assessment, followed by manual oral physiotherapy and reevaluation. The statistical analysis revealed a reduction in pain, but there was no significant difference in electromyographic activity (p < 0.05). It was concluded that massage therapy was effective on pain symptoms, but was not capable of altering the electrical activity of the masseter muscle.
    Electromyography and clinical neurophysiology 03/2010; 50(2):107-12.
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    ABSTRACT: The study of brain activity has been studied with the use of various techniques like electroencephalography (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission topography (PET) and magneto-encephalography (MEG). These techniques are unsuitable because of restriction of moving of subject's body while playing "shogi (Japanese Chess)" matching However, optical topography (OT) is possible to measure. Therefore, brain activity is here studied with use of OT. The measurement and analyses of the activity of brain is carried out by cerebral blood flow with use of OT. The equipment of OP is 16-channel maximum OMM-2000 device (Shimadzu, Tokyo, Japan). Two subjects play the game, and the cerebral blood flow of only one subject is measured, since the capacity of the equipment is limited. When the subject does decision-making for a matter of chance during the game, the right side of frontal part (Fp2) proves more activity than that of left side (Fp1), and proves that the activity of both parts of visual field (O1, O2) communicates each other. The present study with use of OT is highly useful for observing brain activity during play of shogi game.
    Electromyography and clinical neurophysiology 01/2010; 50(3-4):137-48.
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    ABSTRACT: Standing and walking balance decreases in many kinds of neuromuscular, musculoskeletal and sensory disorders, and in elderly people because of age-related physiologic diminution. Recent studies have shown that contact cues from a cane or a fingertip provide information that leads to reduced postural sway in subjects. The first purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of light and forceful fingertip contacts with a wall on the postural sway while standing upright. The second purpose was to investigate the influence of fingertip contact on the EMG activity of the soleus muscle. Twelve healthy male volunteers (20.8 +/- 0.7 years old) participated in this study. Standing balance or postural sway was measured by sway of the center of pressure (COP) under three conditions: (1) standing without touching a wall, (2) standing with the right index fingertip lightly touching (< 1N) to a wall (3), and standing with the right index fingertip forcefully touching (5 approximately 10N) to a wall. Bipolar surface electrodes were placed over the right soleus muscle to measure EMG activity associated with anterior-posterior sway. More significant length, and rectangular and environmental areas of the COP were observed while standing without touching a wall than while standing while lightly or forcefully touching a wall, but there was no significant difference between the two touching conditions. No significant difference in the EMG activity of the soleus muscle was observed among the three conditions. The results of this study suggested that the fingertip touch contact with a wall decreased sway during static standing but did not influence the EMG activity of the soleus muscle.
    Electromyography and clinical neurophysiology 01/2010; 50(5):229-33.
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    ABSTRACT: Mechanoreceptors from the foot sole likely contribute in the reflex regulations. Therefore, it was hypothesized that repetitive low threshold afferents stimulation would have an inhibitory effect on the soleus H-reflexes. Sixteen normal subjects voluntarily, participated in the study and were randomly allocated. Subjects were remained in prone position. The Cutaneous Mechanical Pressure (CMP equal to 50% of leg and foot weight) was applied to the ipsilateral lateral and Medial plantar surface by a designed instrument through a square plate (30 x 30 mm). H reflex as an indicator for excitability of motoneurones was bilaterally elicited before and after the application of the CMP. The H-reflex parameters were estimated. Mechanical pressure significantly depressed soleus H-reflex excitability in ipsilateral and contralateral feet in all subjects. The demonstration of a decrease in H-reflex excitability as a result of applied pressure to the foot sole suggests that the change in reflex excitability is the result of a common spinal mechanism. The results highlight the modulatory effects that natural stimulation of afferents can have on reflex excitability. The placement of a small flat plate, in order to apply pressure to the plantar eminence, may be useful for modulation of muscle tone. In addition, these findings might be useful for reducing spasticity; because spasticity is at least partially caused by hyperexcitability of the motorneuron pool.
    Electromyography and clinical neurophysiology 01/2010; 50(5):251-6.
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    ABSTRACT: The electromyographic (EMG) mean power frequency (MPF) and amplitude versus time relationships are commonly used to characterize localized muscle fatigue. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of epoch length on the individual and mean slope coefficients and y-intercepts resulting from the EMG MPF and amplitude versus time relationships of the vastus medialis (VM) muscle during fatiguing isometric muscle actions at 30 and 75% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC). Eight adults performed two continuous, isometric muscle actions of the leg extensors at 30 and 75% MVC to exhaustion. Six, 5.0 s epochs of the surface EMG signals were recorded from the VM during each minute. Epoch lengths of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 s were selected from the middle of each 5.0 s epoch. Linear regression was used to estimate the slope coefficient and y-intercept values for the EMG MPF and amplitude versus time relationships for each epoch length (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 s) and subject. There were no significant differences between epoch lengths for the individual or mean slope coefficients or y-intercepts (EMG MPF and amplitude versus time relationships). This study indicated that epochs of 0.5 - 5.0 s resulted in the same characterization of EMG (MPF and amplitude) versus time relationships during isometric muscle actions.
    Electromyography and clinical neurophysiology 01/2010; 50(5):219-27.
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    ABSTRACT: Visual processing in migraine has been targeted indicating that the visual pathways are involved in the migraine pathophysiology. We aimed to assess the nature of visual evoked potential (VEP) changes in migraine patients and to evaluate the role of VEP in the diagnosis of migraine. We examined 31 female and 10 male patients with a migraine headache diagnosis according to the criteria of the International Headache Society. Control subjects had neither migraine and other types of primary headache nor familial history. VEP were elicited using a checkerboard by monocular and binocular pattern reversal stimulation. The latencies of N75, P100 and N145 and peak-to-peak amplitude of N75-P100 were measured. We compared VEP latencies and amplitudes of the monocular and binocular stimulation within each population. The N75 and P100 latencies were found to be significantly longer in the study group than the control group (p = 0.014 and p = 0.034, respectively) while the amplitudes in the study group were lower (p = 0.014). N145 latency was found to be longer in patients with longer duration of disease (p < 0.05). P100 latency was found to be significantly longer in patients with aura than the patients without aura (p = 0.029). N75 latency, recorded by left monocular stimulation, was elongated and the amplitude was diminished with left hemicranial headache. Measurement of VEP latency and amplitude is a valuable and reliable test for the diagnosis of migraine. Our results reflect a persisting dysfunction of precortical visual processing which might be relevant in the pathogenesis of migraine.
    Electromyography and clinical neurophysiology 01/2010; 50(6):303-8.
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    ABSTRACT: The neurological manifestations of Crohn's disease are rare, dominated by multiple mononeuropathies, peripheral neuropathies (PN) of axonal and demyelinating types, myopathies and the abnormalities of the white matter. In our study, we aimed to report electrophysiological follow-up of a patient with chronic polyradiculoneuritis associated with newly diagnosed active Crohn's disease. A 32-year-old male patient was admitted with the complaints of abdominal pain and diarrhea for three years and an ascending weakness of all four extremities since two years. On his medical history he did not have any other disease and none of the members of his family had similar complaints. The neurological examination revealed a weakness of the especially distal muscles (2-3/5) with areflexia, hypotonia and distal atrophia in all extremities. He also had a glove and stocking hypoestesia. Routine biochemical and hematological examination were in normal ranges except C-reactive protein. The analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid showed an albumino-cytological dissociation. Our results suggest that peripheral neurological findings could be regarded as a possible extraintestinal manifestation of Crohn's disease. It is important to remember that inflammatory bowel diseases may be a reason for a newly diagnosed polyneuropathy (acute or chronic demyelinated polyneuropathy) and therefore detailed examinations are needed if the patients do not have the commonly observed reasons for the development of polyneuropathy and be careful in inflammatory disease patient to develop polyneuropathy.
    Electromyography and clinical neurophysiology 01/2010; 50(3-4):181-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Temperature affects distal sensory & motor latencies & nerve conduction velocity but not necessarily at the same degree. Purpose of this study is to see which one is affected less and thus could be more reliable in cold conditions. A total of 32 healthy individuals with age range of 18-28 years (mean 22.25 +/- 2.2) participated in this study. Skin Temperature was recorded at wrist. Distal median motor & sensory latencies and transcarpal median NCV were recorded before and after immersion in cold water. Statistical analysis was performed using paired t-test with SPSS. All parameters were affected by cold but the effect was less dramatic in transcarpal NCV. Transcarpal median NCV is least affected parameter by cold, so it may be more reliable than sensory & motor latencies at wrist.
    Electromyography and clinical neurophysiology 01/2010; 50(5):235-8.
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    ABSTRACT: The proposal of the present study is based on mobilizing the nervous system of the upper hemiplegic limb of stroke victims using the Upper Limb Neurodynamic Test (ULNT 1) and electromyographic analysis of the biceps brachii muscle. A pre-experimental study was carried out with pretest and posttest repeated measurements on five stroke victims (4 men and 1 woman; mean age: 52.8 +/- 11 years), with Grade 1 and + 1 spasticity, according to the modified Ashworth scale. Electromyographic analysis of the biceps brachii muscle was performed with the elbow flexed at 90 degrees, following by complete extension. The neurodynamic test led to a decrease in electromyographic activity in the biceps brachii muscle (p < or = 0.05). Neural mobilization was efficient in reducing myoelectric activity in the biceps brachii muscle in patients with stroke and may used by physiotherapists as an efficient method for treating patients with this pathology.
    Electromyography and clinical neurophysiology 01/2010; 50(1):55-60.
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    ABSTRACT: Hearing level in some children may be abnormal due to conductive or sensorineural causes. In Kuwait, the hearing screening test is not conducted for newborns at public hospitals. We evaluated the hearing level of 159 Kuwaiti school children (age 6-12 years) at the Audiology Clinic of Ahmadi hospital to determine the extent and causes of hearing loss in these children. Each child was evaluated by otoscopic examination, tympanogram, acoustic reflex threshold (ART), audiogram, and distortion product oto-acoustic emission (DPOAE). 120 children were found to have normal ear conditions, while 39 children had abnormal results. The abnormalities were 21 children with ear wax, 16 children with secretory otitis media (SOM), and 2 children with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). In the children with ear wax, 3 had normal hearing level, while 18 had mild conductive hearing loss in the 250-500 Hz frequency range. In the children with SOM, 3 had normal hearing level, 9 had mild conductive hearing loss in the 250-500 Hz frequency range, while 4 had moderate conductive hearing loss in the 250-2000 Hz frequency range. The children with SNHL had moderate hearing loss in the 4000-8000 Hz frequency range. Wax in the ear canal and SOM were the main factors associated with hearing loss in these Kuwaiti school children. It is necessary to establish a national program of school entry hearing screening in Kuwait.
    Electromyography and clinical neurophysiology 01/2010; 50(6):309-18.