Pediatric Radiology (PEDIATR RADIOL )

Publisher: Springer Verlag

Description

Official Journal of the European Society of Pediatric Radiology and The Society for Pediatric Radiology Pediatric Radiology informs its readers of new findings and progress in all areas of pediatric imaging and in related fields. This is achieved by a blend of original papers complemented by reviews that set out the present state of knowledge in a particular area of the specialty or summarize specific topics in which discussion has led to clear conclusions. Advances in technology methodology apparatus and auxiliary equipment are presented and modifications of standard techniques are described.

  • Impact factor
    1.57
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    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    1.63
  • Cited half-life
    7.10
  • Immediacy index
    0.24
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    0.49
  • Website
    Pediatric Radiology website
  • Other titles
    Pediatric radiology
  • ISSN
    0301-0449
  • OCLC
    1696630
  • Material type
    Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Author's pre-print on pre-print servers such as arXiv.org
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website immediately
    • Author's post-print on any open access repository after 12 months after publication
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set phrase to accompany link to published version (see policy)
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • Pediatric Radiology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Concavity in the central portion of the distal humerus is referred to as fishtail deformity. This entity is a rare complication of distal humeral fractures in children. The purpose of this study is to describe imaging features of post-traumatic fishtail deformity and discuss the pathophysiology. We conducted a retrospective analysis of seven cases of fishtail deformity after distal humeral fractures. Seven children ages 7-14 years (five boys, two girls) presented with elbow pain and history of distal humeral fracture. Four of the seven children had limited range of motion. Five children had prior grade 3 supracondylar fracture treated with closed reduction and percutaneous pinning. One child had a medial condylar fracture and another had a lateral condylar fracture; both had been treated with conservative casting. All children had radiographs, five had CT and three had MRI. All children had a concave central defect in the distal humerus. Other imaging features included joint space narrowing with osteophytes and subchondral cystic changes in four children, synovitis in one, hypertrophy or subluxation of the radial head in three and proximal migration of the ulna in two. Fishtail deformity of the distal humerus is a rare complication of distal humeral fractures in children. This entity is infrequently reported in the radiology literature. Awareness of the classic imaging features can result in earlier diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
    Pediatric Radiology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy with relatively good prognosis in children. However, unlike adults, children usually present with more advanced disease and have a higher local recurrence and distant metastases. Thus surveillance for recurrence is a major goal of long-term follow-up. Objective This retrospective study evaluates the diagnostic value of ultrasound (US) imaging in the post-therapy surveillance of children with differentiated thyroid cancer. Materials and methods We reviewed the charts of 54 children (40 girls; mean age 14.3 ± 3.6 years) with differentiated thyroid cancer treated with total or near-total thyroidectomy. Forty children (29 girls and 11 boys) who had routine follow-up US examinations (112 studies) were included for the evaluation of US accuracy in the follow-up of pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer. Histopathology, stimulated thyroglobulin determination, post-therapy whole-body iodine scan and clinical follow-up were used as the standards of reference. Results Mean period of follow-up was 34 months. The frequency of recurrence was 42% (17/40). Seventeen percent of the children had lung metastases either at presentation or on follow-up. In all cases of lung metastases, stimulated thyroglobulin level was greater than 10 ng/ml. The sensitivity was 85.7%, specificity 89.4%, negative predictive value 94.4% and positive predictive value 75% for US in detecting loco-regional recurrence in follow-up studies of pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer. In 17.3% (18/104) of studies, the results of stimulated thyroglobulin and US were discordant. Conclusion US showed very good sensitivity and specificity and a high negative predictive value for evaluation of loco-regional involvement in follow-up of pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer. Diagnostic whole-body iodine scan is indicated when serum anti-thyroglobulin Ab is high, or in cases of discordant findings between US and stimulated thyroglobulin levels, or when stimulated thyroglobulin levels are >10 ng/ml (to evaluate for lung metastasis).
    Pediatric Radiology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This essay depicts some of the diagnostic errors identified in a large academic pediatric imaging department during a 13-year period. Our aim is to illustrate potential situations in which errors are more likely to occur and more likely to cause harm, and to share our difficult cases so other radiologists might learn without having to experience those situations themselves.
    Pediatric Radiology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Error is a constant companion in any human endeavor where knowledge and skill play a role. Research on skilled performance in recent decades has shown that people make mistakes on a continual basis, regardless of education level [1].Interestingly, cognitive psychologists have found that professionals typically are not wired to understand this. Although everyone seems to agree with the generality that “nobody is perfect,” in the absence of data-driven feedback on performance, professionals tend to believe that their performance is excellent; the less the feedback, the greater their overconfidence [2].Given this, it should come as no surprise not only that error occurs on a regular basis in radiology but also that radiologists tend to be surprised when they learn this — especially radiologists who do not receive regular feedback about their performance.Of course, radiology is far from the first field of professionals to come to the unpleasant realization that mistakes happen more often t ...
    Pediatric Radiology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: There is heterogeneity in how pediatric voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) is performed. Some institutions, including our own, obtain a radiographic scout image prior to contrast agent instillation. To demonstrate that the radiographic scout image does not augment VCUG interpretation or contribute management-changing information but nonetheless carries a non-negligible effective dose. We evaluated 181 children who underwent VCUG in 2012, with an age breakdown of less than 1 year (56 children), 1-5 years (66 children), 6-10 years (43 children) and 11-18 years (16 children), with a mean age of 4.0 years. We investigated patient demographics, clinical indication for the examination, scout image findings and estimated effective radiation dose, as well as overall exam findings and impression. No clinically significant or management-changing findings were present on scout images, and no radiopaque urinary tract calculi or concerning incidental finding was identified. Scout image estimated effective radiation dose averaged 0.09 mSv in children younger than 1 y, 0.09 mSv in children age 1-5, 0.13 mSv in children age 6-10 and 0.18 mSv in children age 11-18. Total fluoroscopy time per examination averaged 36.7 s (range 34.8-39.6 s for all age group averages). Evaluation of known or suspected vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and urinary tract infection (UTI) were the most common clinical indications, stated in 40.9% and 37.0% of exams, respectively. Although the estimated effective dose is low for VCUG radiographic scout images, this step did not augment VCUG interpretation or contribute management-changing information. This step should be omitted or substituted to further reduce dose in pediatric VCUG.
    Pediatric Radiology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Living donor liver transplantation in children often results in venous complications, leading to portal hypertension. Spleen stiffness measurements have been recently proposed as a new, noninvasive parameter for portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients. Objective To evaluate the diagnostic value of spleen stiffness measurements by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging in diagnosing venous complications after pediatric living donor liver transplantation. Materials and methods We prospectively enrolled 69 patients after pediatric living donor liver transplantation using a left-side liver allograft. Around the time of the protocol liver biopsy examination, spleen stiffness measurements by ARFI imaging were performed via the left intercostal space at the center of the spleen parenchyma and repeated five times. Imaging examinations around the time of the spleen stiffness measurements were retrospectively reviewed. Regarding venous complications, significant portal and hepatic venous stenosis was defined as >50% stenosis on multiphasic computed tomography. Results After post hoc exclusion, 62 patients were studied. Portal and hepatic venous stenosis was identified in three and two patients, respectively. The median spleen stiffness values were 2.70 and 4.00 m/s in patients without and with venous complications, respectively (P Conclusion Spleen stiffness measurements by ARFI imaging might provide a useful quantitative index for venous complications after pediatric living donor liver transplantation.
    Pediatric Radiology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular anomalies can be detected in utero and should be considered in the setting of solid, mixed or cystic lesions in the fetus. Evaluation of the gray-scale and color Doppler US and MRI characteristics can guide diagnosis. We present a case-based pictorial essay to illustrate the prenatal imaging characteristics in 11 pregnancies with vascular malformations (5 lymphatic malformations, 2 Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, 1 venous-lymphatic malformation, 1 Parkes-Weber syndrome) and vascular tumors (1 congenital hemangioma, 1 kaposiform hemangioendothelioma). Concordance between prenatal and postnatal diagnoses is analyzed, with further discussion regarding potential pitfalls in identification.
    Pediatric Radiology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Doppler echocardiography (echo) is the reference standard for blood flow velocity analysis, and two-dimensional (2-D) phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the reference standard for quantitative blood flow assessment. However, both clinical standard-of-care techniques are limited by 2-D acquisitions and single-direction velocity encoding and may make them inadequate to assess the complex three-dimensional hemodynamics seen in congenital heart disease. Four-dimensional flow MRI (4-D flow) enables qualitative and quantitative analysis of complex blood flow in the heart and great arteries. Objectives The objectives of this study are to compare 4-D flow with 2-D phase-contrast MRI for quantification of aortic and pulmonary flow and to evaluate the advantage of 4-D flow-based volumetric flow analysis compared to 2-D phase-contrast MRI and echo for peak velocity assessment in children and young adults. Materials and methods Two-dimensional phase-contrast MRI of the aortic root, main pulmonary artery (MPA), and right and left pulmonary arteries (RPA, LPA) and 4-D flow with volumetric coverage of the aorta and pulmonary arteries were performed in 50 patients (mean age: 13.1 ± 6.4 years). Four-dimensional flow analyses included calculation of net flow and regurgitant fraction with 4-D flow analysis planes similarly positioned to 2-D planes. In addition, 4-D flow volumetric assessment of aortic root/ascending aorta and MPA peak velocities was performed and compared to 2-D phase-contrast MRI and echo. Results Excellent correlation and agreement were found between 2-D phase-contrast MRI and 4-D flow for net flow (r = 0.97, P r = 0.88, P P = 0.032) and MPA (P P = 0.001) or similar (MPA: P = 0.98) peak velocities relative to echo. Conclusion Excellent flow parameter agreement between 2-D phase-contrast MRI and 4-D flow and the improved volumetric 4-D flow velocity analysis relative to echo suggests that 4-D flow has the potential to become a clinical alternative to 2-D phase-contrast MRI.
    Pediatric Radiology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JORRP) is a rare disease associated with the human papilloma virus (HPV) in which papillomas form along the aerodigestive tract in children. Pulmonary involvement is uncommon, but associated with worse clinical outcomes, including the rare complication of malignant transformation. We present a patient with JORRP in which lung disease underwent malignant transformation during adolescence. Our goal is to raise awareness of the potential for malignant transformation in children, as well as to familiarize pediatric radiologists with imaging features of malignant lung disease in JORRP. We advocate for the identification of the subgroup of JORPP patients with pulmonary disease who, due to increased risk for malignant transformation, may benefit from closer clinical and imaging surveillance by a multidisciplinary team.
    Pediatric Radiology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Fragmentary ossification of the inferior patella is often dismissed as a normal variant in children younger than 10 years of age. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fragmentary inferior patellar pole ossification is a normal variant or is associated with symptoms or signs of pathology using MRI and clinical exam findings as reference. A retrospective review was performed on 150 patients ages 5-10 years who underwent 164 knee radiography and MRI exams (45.1% male, mean age: 7.8 years). The presence or absence of inferior patellar pole fragmentation on radiography was correlated with the presence or absence of edema-like signal on MR images. Clinical notes were reviewed for the presence of symptoms or signs referable to the inferior patellar pole. These data were compared with a 1:1 age- and sex-matched control group without inferior pole fragmentation. Statistical analysis was performed using two-tailed t-tests. Forty of 164 (24.4%) knee radiographs showed fragmentary ossification of the inferior patella. Of these 40 knees, 62.5% (25/40) had edema-like signal of the inferior patellar bone marrow compared with 7.5% (3/40) of controls (P = 0.035). Patients with fragmentary ossification at the inferior patella had a significantly higher incidence of documented focal inferior patellar pain compared with controls (20% vs. 2.5%, P = 0.015). Inferior patellar pole fragmentation in children 5 to 10 years of age may be associated with localized symptoms and bone marrow edema-like signal and should not be routinely dismissed as a normal variant of ossification.
    Pediatric Radiology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Ear abnormalities in oculo-auricular-vertebral spectrum commonly present with varying degrees of external and middle ear atresias, usually in the expected locations of the temporal bone and associated soft tissues, without ectopia of the external auditory canal. We present the unique imaging of a 4-year-old girl with right hemifacial microsomia and ectopic location of an atretic external auditory canal, terminating in a hypoplastic temporomandibular joint containing bony structures with the appearance of auditory ossicles. This finding suggests an early embryological dysfunction involving Meckel's cartilage of the first branchial arch.
    Pediatric Radiology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The cornerstone of child abuse imaging is the skeletal survey, but initial imaging with radiographs may not demonstrate acute and non-displaced fractures, especially those involving the ribs. Given the high mortality of undiagnosed non-accidental trauma, timely diagnosis is crucial. CT is more sensitive in assessing rib fractures; however the effective radiation dose of a standard chest CT is high. We retrospectively identified four children (three boys, one girl; age range 1-4 months) admitted between January 2013 and February 2014 with high suspicion for non-accidental trauma from unexplained fractures of the long bones; these children all had CT of the chest when no rib fractures were evident on the skeletal survey. The absorbed radiation dose estimates for organs and tissue from the four-view chest radiographs and subsequent CT were determined using Monte Carlo photon transport software, and the effective dose was calculated using published tissue-weighting factors. In two children, CT showed multiple fractures of the ribs, scapula and vertebral body that were not evident on the initial skeletal survey. The average effective dose for a four-view chest radiograph across the four children was 0.29 mSv and the average effective dose for the chest CT was 0.56 mSv. Therefore the effective dose of a chest CT is on average less than twice that of a four-view chest radiograph. Our protocol thus shows that a reduced-dose chest CT may be useful in the evaluation of high specificity fractures of non-accidental trauma when the four-view chest radiographs are negative.
    Pediatric Radiology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Acute appendicitis is a common pediatric surgical emergency. Successful surgical appendectomy requires removal of the appendix and its contents. A retained appendicolith is a complication that occurs when the appendicolith is expulsed from the appendix as a result of perforation or failure of removal during surgery. An ectopic appendicolith can migrate to a variety of ectopic locations, acting as a nidus for abscess. Clinical presentation may be delayed by days, weeks or even months after surgery. We present and discuss an unusual case of empyema caused by migration of an appendicolith into the chest cavity. Management of these retained appendicoliths requires drainage of the abscess and extraction of the appendicolith.
    Pediatric Radiology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Rapid and accurate diagnosis of appendicitis, particularly with respect to the presence or absence of perforation, is essential in guiding appropriate management. Although many studies have explored sonographic findings associated with acute appendicitis, few investigations discuss specific signs that can reliably differentiate perforated appendicitis from acute appendicitis prior to abscess formation. The purpose of our study was to identify sonographic findings that improve the specificity of US in the diagnosis of perforated appendicitis. Our assessment of hepatic periportal echogenicity, detailed analysis of intraperitoneal fluid, and formulation of select constellations of sonographic findings expands upon the literature addressing this important diagnostic challenge. We retrospectively reviewed 116 abdominal US examinations for evaluation of abdominal pain in children ages 2 to 18 years from January 2008 to September 2011 at a university hospital pediatric radiology department. The study group consisted of surgical and pathology proven acute appendicitis (n = 51) and perforated appendicitis (n = 22) US exams. US exams without a sonographic diagnosis of appendicitis (n = 43) confirmed by follow-up verbal communication were included in the study population as the control group. After de-identification, the US exams were independently reviewed on a PACS workstation by four pediatric radiologists blinded to diagnosis and all clinical information. We recorded the presence of normal or abnormal appendix, appendicolith, appendiceal wall vascularity, thick-walled bowel, dilated bowel, right lower quadrant (RLQ) echogenic fat, increased hepatic periportal echogenicity, bladder debris and abscess or loculated fluid. We also recorded the characteristics of intraperitoneal fluid, indicating the relative quantity (number of abdominal regions) and quality of the fluid (simple fluid or complex fluid). We used logistic regression for correlated data to evaluate the association of diagnosis with the presence versus absence of each US finding. We conducted multivariable analysis to identify constellations of sonographic findings that were predictive of perforated appendicitis. The individual US findings of abscess/loculated fluid, appendicolith, dilated bowel and increased hepatic periportal echogenicity were significantly associated with perforated appendicitis when compared with acute appendicitis (P < 0.01). The sonographic observation of increased hepatic periportal echogenicity demonstrated a statistically significant association with perforated appendicitis compared with acute appendicitis (P < 0.01). The presence of complex fluid yielded a specificity of 87.7% for perforated appendicitis compared with the acute appendicitis group. The US findings of ≥2 regions or ≥3 regions with fluid had specificity of 87.3% and 99.0%, respectively, for perforated appendicitis compared with the acute appendicitis group. Select combinations of sonographic findings yielded high specificity in the diagnosis of perforated appendicitis compared with acute appendicitis. These constellations yielded higher specificity than that of each individual finding in isolation. The constellation of dilated bowel, RLQ echogenic fat, and complex fluid had the highest specificity (99.5%) for perforated appendicitis (P < 0.01). Our study demonstrates that identification of select constellations of findings using abdominal sonography, in addition to focused US examination of the right lower quadrant, can improve sonographic diagnosis of perforated appendicitis in the pediatric population.
    Pediatric Radiology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Thickened corpus callosum is a rare finding and its pathophysiology is not well known. An anomalous supracallosal bundle has been depicted by fiber tracking in some cases but no diffusion tensor imaging metrics of thickened corpus callosum have been reported. Objective To use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in cases of thickened corpus callosum to help in understanding its clinical significance. Materials and methods During a 7-year period five children (ages 6 months to 15 years) with thickened corpus callosum were studied. We determined DTI metrics of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity, and axial (λ1) and radial (λ2, λ3) diffusivity and performed 3-D fiber tracking reconstruction of the thickened corpus callosum. We compared our results with data from the literature and 24 age-matched controls. Results Brain abnormalities were seen in all cases. All children had at least three measurements of corpus callosum thickness above the 97th percentile according to age. In all children 3-D fiber tracking showed an anomalous supracallosal bundle and statistically significant decrease in FA (P = 0.003) and λ1 (P = 0.001) of the corpus callosum compared with controls, but no significant difference in mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity. Conclusion Thickened corpus callosum was associated with abnormal bundles, suggesting underlying axonal guidance abnormality. DTI metrics suggested abnormal fiber compactness and density, which may be associated with alterations in cognition.
    Pediatric Radiology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Editorial Board for Pediatric Radiology is listed in the front of each issue of the journal. Individuals are invited to serve on the journal’s Editorial Board because of their expertise and experience in subject matter, their established record of excellence, availability and reliability in reviewing, and in recognition of other contributions to the journal.Editorial Board membership is not honorary. The Editorial Board of Pediatric Radiology is a working editorial board. Editorial Board members do a greater number of reviews and provide reviews on papers that are challenging, controversial or obscure in nature. In addition to reviews, members of the Editorial Board contribute as subject matter experts. Editorial Board members assist the editors as consultants and by identifying new reviewers to add to our team. Editorial Board members are occasionally asked to contribute commentaries on important and controversial articles. Editorial Board members are asked to contribute to the jo ...
    Pediatric Radiology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Sir,I read with great interest the article “Expert opinion: what are the greatest challenges and barriers to applying evidence-based and practical approaches to preclinical and clinical research in the field of pediatric radiology?” [1]. The article sought opinions from researchers in continents and subcontinents throughout the world. One continent was not included. Despite being the seventh-largest country by landmass, Australia is ranks 53rd in size by population [2] and therefore often forgotten in world opinion. Despite this, we are regular contributors to Pediatric Radiology. In the current edition, the review article of perianal disease in pediatric Crohn disease [3] and original article analysing MRI compliance in young children [4] are both Australian. This is not an isolated occurrence. From 2001 to 2010, Australia’s health and medical research sector ranked sixth internationally in terms of citations per publication [5].The valid challenges outlined in the article by Offiah e ...
    Pediatric Radiology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Radiation-induced lung disease is a known complication of therapeutic lung irradiation, but the features have not been well described in children. We report the clinical, radiologic and histologic features of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in a 4-year-old child who had previously received lung irradiation as part of successful treatment for metastatic Wilms tumor. Her radiologic abnormalities and clinical symptoms developed in an indolent manner. Clinical improvement gradually occurred with corticosteroid therapy. However, the observed radiologic progression from interstitial and reticulonodular opacities to diffuse cystic lung disease, with subsequent improvement, is striking and has not been previously described in children.
    Pediatric Radiology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Shaken baby syndrome/abusive head trauma is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. The presence of a diffuse subdural hematoma without evidence of accident is a key diagnostic clue. The hematoma is typically attributed to rupture of the cerebral bridging veins due to violent shaking, with or without impact. Dating the incident, however, remains controversial. The aim of this article is to review the most reliable features used for dating the incident, based on both legal statements by perpetrators and medical documentation. The key points are: 1) The high (yet likely underestimated) frequency of repeated shaking is around 50%, 2) Children do not behave normally immediately after shaking, and the time of onset of even mild symptoms appears to be the best clue for dating the incident and 3) Brain imaging provides strong indicators of "age-different" injuries but the ranges for dating the causal event are wide. The density pattern in a single subdural hematoma location provides no reliable clues for assessing repeated violence. Only the finding of different density in two distant subdural hematomas argues in favor of "age-different" injuries, i.e. repeated violence. MRI is difficult to interpret in terms of dating subdural hemorrhages and must be analyzed in conjunction with CT. Most importantly, all of the child's previous clinical and radiological data must be carefully studied and correlated to provide accurate information on the date and repetition of the trauma.
    Pediatric Radiology 12/2014; 44(Supplement 4):578-588.