Clinical nephrology Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Dustri-Verlag

Journal description

Clinical Nephrology appears monthly and publishes manuscripts containing original material with emphasis on the following topics: prophylaxis, pathophysiology, immunology, diagnosis, therapy, experimental approaches and dialysis and transplantation.

Current impact factor: 1.13

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 1.129
2013 Impact Factor 1.232
2012 Impact Factor 1.288
2011 Impact Factor 1.171
2010 Impact Factor 1.058
2009 Impact Factor 1.373
2008 Impact Factor 1.413
2007 Impact Factor 1.32
2006 Impact Factor 1.418
2005 Impact Factor 1.543
2004 Impact Factor 1.316
2003 Impact Factor 1.341
2002 Impact Factor 1.341
2001 Impact Factor 1.531
2000 Impact Factor 1.638
1999 Impact Factor 1.553
1998 Impact Factor 1.323
1997 Impact Factor 1.437
1996 Impact Factor 1.643
1995 Impact Factor 1.441
1994 Impact Factor 1.339
1993 Impact Factor 1.575
1992 Impact Factor 1.456

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.15
Cited half-life >10.0
Immediacy index 0.16
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.34
Website Clinical Nephrology website
Other titles Clinical nephrology
ISSN 0301-0430
OCLC 1747233
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Renal dysfunction in cholestatic liver disease is multifactorial. Acute kidney injury may develop secondary to renal vasoconstriction in the setting of peripheral vasodilation and relative hypovolemia, tubular obstruction by bile casts, and direct tubular toxicity from bile. Anabolic steroids are frequently used by athletes to boost endurance and increase muscle mass. These agents are a recently recognized cause of hepatotoxicity and jaundice and may lead to acute kidney injury. To increase awareness about this growing problem and to characterize the pathology of acute kidney injury in this setting, we report on a young male who developed acute kidney injury in the setting of severe cholestatic jaundice related to ingestion of anabolic steroids used for bodybuilding. Kidney biopsy showed bile casts within distal tubular lumina, filamentous bile inclusions within tubular cells, and signs of acute tubular injury. This report supports the recently re-emerged concept of bile nephropathy cholemic ephrosis.
    Clinical nephrology 11/2015; DOI:10.5414/CN108696
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Hyperkalemia is a common problem in hospitalized patients, especially those with underlying chronic kidney disease, but evidence-based guidelines for its treatment are lacking. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS), a cation exchange resin first approved by the FDA for the treatment of hyperkalemia in 1958, is frequently used alone or in conjunction with other medical therapies to lower serum potassium. Recently, the safety and efficacy of SPS have come into question based on multiple reported cases of bowel necrosis associated with SPS administration. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the use of SPS for the treatment of hyperkalemia, at a large tertiary community teaching hospital, to determine its effectiveness and the incidence of related adverse side effects. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on all adult inpatients receiving single-dose SPS at a 466-bed tertiary community teaching hospital over a 3-year period. Results: 501 patients received SPS for the treatment of hyperkalemia during their index hospital stay. Serum potassium levels decreased by 0.93 mEq/L on average at first recheck after SPS administration, with or without additional medical treatments. Our study identified 10 cases of hypernatremia (greater than 145 mEq/L), 31 cases of hypokalemia (less than 3.5 mEq/L), and 2 cases of bowel necrosis related to the administration of SPS. Conclusion: Our results suggest a serum potassium reduction of less than 1 mEq/L after administration of SPS for the treatment of acute hyperkalemia. Additionally, this study offers some evidence that the use of SPS may be associated with harm. We further note the need for standardized guidelines for the treatment of hyperkalemia at our institution.
    Clinical nephrology 11/2015; DOI:10.5414/CN108628
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of various renal diseases, however, there are limited data regarding their role in renal AL-amyloidosis. In the present study, we evaluated the glomerular expression of MMPs in renal-biopsy specimens containing AL-amyloid deposits. We also examined the association of MMPs with renal function at the time of diagnostic renal biopsy. Methods: We performed immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies against MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 in 19 kidney-biopsy specimens with AL-amyloidosis and 8 specimens from normal kidney tissue. We used clinical data of the patients at the time of kidney biopsy to evaluate the association between MMP expression and renal function. Results: We found increased MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression within the amyloid deposits and adjacent tissues in > 50% of the amyloid-positive biopsies, whereas MMP-1 and MMP-3 were negative in control samples. In contrast, we found no significant glomerular MMP-2 and TIMP-1 expression in amyloid-containing or normal kidneys. MMP-9 expression was found in the glomerular basement membrane equally in AL-amyloidosis and control specimens. The presence of MMP-1 and MMP-3 in the glomeruli of patients with AL-amyloidosis correlated with worse renal function at the time of kidney biopsy. Conclusion: The findings of this study show increased glomerular expression of MMP-1 and MMP-3 in patients with AL-amyloidosis which is associated with worse renal function at the time of the kidney biopsy. Our results suggest an important role for MMP-1 and MMP-3 in the pathogenesis of renal damage in AL-amyloidosis.
    Clinical nephrology 11/2015; DOI:10.5414/CN108670
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objectives: Currently, there is no consensus whether dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or quantitative computed tomography (QCT) can be used to screen for osteoporosis or osteopenia in CKD-5D patients. This study uses iliac bone histology, the "gold standard" for bone volume evaluation, to determine the utility of DXA and QCT for low bone mass screening in CKD-5D patients. Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study of patients with CKD-5D employing iliac crest bone biopsies to assess bone volume by histology and comparing results to bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of the hip and spine by DXA and QCT. Pearson's correlation, linear regression, and receiver operating characteristics curve analyses were performed. Results: 46 patients (mean age 51 years, 52% women, median dialysis vintage 46 months) had bone biopsies, DXA, and QCT scans. 37 patients (80%) had low bone volume by histology. DXA and QCT BMD values (g/cm2) were very highly correlated at the femoral neck (ρ = 0.97) and total hip (ρ = 0.97), and to a lesser degree at the spine (ρ = 0.65). DXA and QCT t-scores were also highly correlated, but QCT t-scores were systematically greater than DXA t-scores (1.1 S.D. on average at the femoral neck) leading to less recognition of osteopenia and osteoporosis by QCT. A t-score below -1 by DXA at the femoral neck (i.e., osteopenic or osteoporotic) showed 83% sensitivity and 78% specificity relative to low bone volume by histology. A QCT t-score below -1 did not reach acceptable diagnostic levels of sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions: DXA and QCT provide nearly identical areal BMD measures at the hip. However, QCT t-scores are consistently higher than DXA t-scores resulting in less diagnosis of osteoporosis or osteopenia. DXA results showed acceptable diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for low bone volume by histology and can be used for diagnosis of osteopenia and osteoporosis in patients with CKD-5D.
    Clinical nephrology 11/2015; DOI:10.5414/CN108708
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Ertapenem is a broad-spectrum and long-acting carbapenem which is predominantly eliminated by the kidneys, and it requires dose adjustment in renal failure. Although it is known that excessive doses of ertapenem can cause neurotoxicity, there are very few case reports of ertapenem-induced reversible peripheral neuropathy in the literature when used with renal adjusted doses. Study design and methods: We report 3 patients with a history of stage 4 or 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) who developed acute reversible peripheral neuropathy proven with electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG). All patients received renal adjusted doses of ertapenem for complicated urinary tract infection (UTI). We also discuss the incidence of carbapenem-related neurotoxicity, mechanisms, and risk factors with a review of the literature. Results: All patients developed acute peripheral, and additionally one acute central nervous system, neuropathy within 1 week of treatment with ertapenem, which was confirmed by EMG. Complete clinical recovery was obtained in all patients within 2 weeks of cessation of ertapenem treatment, and electromyography was confirmatory in all patients. Conclusion: Ertapenem is potentially neurotoxic in patients with CKD even when it is given with renal adjusted doses according to recommendations. Although carbapenem-related neurotoxicity most commonly manifests as seizures, our series indicates that acute and reversible peripheral neuropathy can also develop. Clinicians administering ertapenem for patients with a GFR of < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 should be cautious.
    Clinical nephrology 11/2015; DOI:10.5414/CN108652
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, a new glomerular filtration rate (GFR) equation for the Japanese population was proposed using measured inulin clearance. To expand its applicability to other Asian populations, we performed a comparative study in the Korean population. Inulin clearance was measured in 166 patients from seven participating medical centers in Korea. Patient's sera and urine were collected, and baseline clinical characteristics were measured to provide an estimated GFR (eGFR) by the Japanese GFR equation using inulin clearance (Japanese-GFR equation), the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study equation, and the Chronic Kidney Disease - Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. We compared the results to determine which equation best estimated the measured GFR (mGFR). Accuracy (95% CI) within 30% of mGFR by the Japanese-GFR equation, the CKD-EPI equation and the MDRD study equation were 66 (58 - 72), 51 (43 - 58), and 55 (47 - 62)%, respectively. Bias (mGFR minus eGFR) were 3.4 ± 22.4, -12.0 ± 22.1, and -9.7 ± 23.8 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. The accuracy of the Japanese-GFR equation was significantly better than MDRD study equation in subjects with mGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and in total subjects. The bias of the Japanese-GFR equation was significantly smaller compared with other two equations in total subjects. The Japanese-GFR equation has a higher accuracy with less bias than the other equations in estimating GFR in Korean populations. Further studies are required to determine if the current Japanese-GFR equation could represent the standard eGFR for other Asian populations.
    Clinical nephrology 11/2015; DOI:10.5414/CN108496

  • Clinical nephrology 11/2015; DOI:10.5414/CN108668
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    ABSTRACT: Thrombocytopenia in hemodialysis patients has recently been reported to be commonly caused by electron-beam sterilization of dialysis filters. We report the occurrence of thrombocytopenia in the first two patients of a newly established home hemodialysis program. The 2 patients switched from conventional hemodialysis using polysulfone electron-beam sterilized dialyzers to a NxStage system, which uses gamma sterilized polyehersulfone dialyzers incorporated into a drop-in cartridge. The thrombocytopenia resolved after return to conventional dialysis in both patients and recurred upon rechallenge in the patient who opted to retry NxStage. This is the first report of thrombocytopenia with the NxStage system according to the authors' knowledge. Dialysis-associated thrombocytopenia pathophysiology and clinical significance are not well understood and warrant additional investigations.
    Clinical nephrology 11/2015; DOI:10.5414/CN108485
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by renal phosphate wasting, hypophosphatemia, and osteomalacia. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, a phosphatonin i.e., phosphaturia-promoting hormone, is commonly implicated in the pathogenesis of TIO. However, very limited information is available about the circulating levels and clinical significance of other phosphatonins that are expressed by TIO-associated tumors. In addition, identification of the primary tumor constitutes a frequent major challenge in the management of TIO. Here, we report a patient with the clinical diagnosis of TIO with elevated blood levels of the phosphatonins FGF-23 and FGF-7; and extensive but unrewarding radiological search for the primary tumor. In selective venous sampling, both FGF-23 and FGF-7 displayed highest concentrations in the left femoral and iliac veins; although lateralization was much more pronounced for FGF-7 than FGF-23. This laboratory finding allowed us to focus on the left lower extremity as the likely location of the primary tumor. Our case is the first to show that FGF-7 can be analyzed in the circulation and used to assist in the diagnosis and localization of TIO-associated tumors.
    Clinical nephrology 11/2015; DOI:10.5414/CN108596
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the relationship between neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and inflammation in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD). Methods: 100 ESRD patients on maintenance HD (mean ± SD age: 52.3 ± 1.7 years, 52% were males) were included in this cross-sectional study. Data on patient demographics, dry weight, body mass index, duration of HD (months), etiology of ESRD, delivered dose of dialysis (spKt/V), complete blood count, blood biochemistry and inflammatory markers including hs-CRP (mg/L), TNF-α (pg/mL), NLR, and PLR were recorded in all patients and compared in patients with hs-CRP levels of ≤ 3 mg/L vs. > 3 mg/L. other study parameters were also recorded. Results: Compared to patients with lower hs-CRP levels, patients with hs-CRP levels of > 3 mg/L had significantly higher values for NLR (3.7 ± 0.2 vs. 2.7 ± 0.2, p < 0.01) and PLR (150.7 ± 6.9 vs. 111.8 ± 7.0, p < 0.001). Both NLR and PLR were positively correlated with hs-CRP (r = 0.333, p = 0.01 and r = 0.262, p = 0.001, respectively) and negatively correlated with transferrin saturation (%) (r = -0.418, p = 0.001 and r = -0.309, p = 0.002, respectively). Conclusion: Our findings in a cohort of ESRD patients on maintenance HD revealed higher values for NLR and PLR in patients with higher levels of inflammation along with a significant positive correlation of both NLR and PLR with hs-CRP levels. Being a simple, relatively inexpensive and universally available method, whether or not calculation of NLR and PLR offers a plausible strategy in the evaluation of inflammation in ESRD patients in the clinical practice should be addressed in larger scale randomized and controlled studies.
    Clinical nephrology 11/2015; DOI:10.5414/CN108584
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Albuminuria is thought to reflect generalized endothelial dysfunction. In hypertensive patients, albuminuria is related to the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Thus, screening for albuminuria is critical for risk stratification in hypertensive patients. However, the actual state of albuminuria in Japanese patients without diabetes remains unclear due to insurance coverage. Methods: The CLINITEK microalb creatinine test® is a urine test paper that can assess albumin excretion corrected for urine creatinine levels in only 60 seconds without any special equipment. The semi-quantitative albuminuria test and urine proteinuria test were performed on 8,181 Japanese hypertensive patients, and the clinical significance of the test was evaluated by comparison with the urine test strip method. Results: Albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) < 30 mg/g creatinine, ACR 30 - 299 mg/g creatinine, and ACR ≥ 300 mg/g creatinine on the albuminuria test were present in 70.0%, 25.7%, and 4.3%, respectively, of patients with a negative urine protein test strip result. Furthermore, in patients with a negative urine protein test strip result, ACR ≥ 30 mg/g creatinine was independently associated with previous CVD (odds ratio: 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.00 - 1.57, p < 0.05) after adjustment for estimated glomerular filtration rate, age, sex, BMI, smoking, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and blood pressure categories on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: We considered that urine test strip was inadequate test to evaluate albuminuria. Easy and quick albuminuria test on the CLINITEK MICROALB CREATININE TEST might be useful test to risk stratification of hypertensive patients compared to urine test strip.
    Clinical nephrology 10/2015; 84 (2015)(11). DOI:10.5414/CN108332
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    ABSTRACT: Castleman's disease (CD) is an uncommon, benign, non-neoplastic, lymphoproliferative disease of uncertain etiology. Here, we report 6 cases of kidney disease-associated CD in China. All patients exhibited multicentric CD (MCD) with involvement of the mediastinum, neck, bilateral axillary, and bilateral inguinal regions. Clinical manifestations included fever, fatigue, edema, and swollen lymph nodes. Laboratory examinations of all 6 patients found proteinuria or renal insufficiency. Two of the patients were diagnosed with hyaline vascular type MCD, and 4 patients were diagnosed with plasma cell type CD. The case 1 and case 4 patients had mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, case 3 had type I membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, case 2 and case 5 had interstitial nephritis, and case 6 had AA type amyloidosis nephropathy. Three patients were treated with prednisone plus cyclophosphamide, 1 patient received COP therapy (cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisone), and 2 patients received COP therapy supplemented by small doses of radiation therapy delivered to local lymph nodes. In all cases, the clinical manifestations of MCD, including fever, fatigue, edema, swollen lymph nodes, and proteinuria, were alleviated or abolished by treatment. One patient responded to treatment with complete MCD remission, and another 4 patients survived. However, 1 patient died due to renal failure. In conclusion, common diagnosis and treatment techniques are suitable for kidney disease-associated CD. However, treatment efficacy might be difficult to predict, and some cases may have poor prognosis with this treatment strategy. Therefore, additional studies investigating kidney disease-associated CD and treatment outcomes in larger patient populations are needed.
    Clinical nephrology 10/2015; DOI:10.5414/CN108621
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    ABSTRACT: Background: A recent classification of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) utilizes the presence of immunoglobulin and complements to simplify diagnosis and point towards disease etiology. Here, we evaluate a historic cohort of patients with idiopathic MPGN using the new classification system and correlate it with clinical outcome. Methods: We identified 281 patients diagnosed with MPGN at Stanford from 2000 to 2012. Patients with hepatitis, systemic lupus erythematosis, lymphomas, and plasma cell dyscrasias were excluded. The clinicopathologic findings of the remaining 71 patients were further analyzed and differences between immunoglobulin dominant (IM) and complement dominant (CM) disease were evaluated. Results: Using the new classification system, 51 subjects were characterized as CM MPGN and 20 as IM MPGN. In the CM MPGN group, there was a non-significant trend towards lower proteinuria but higher serum creatinine values. At biopsy, most subjects had less than 50% global sclerosis or cortical scarring. The majority of subjects in the CM MPGN group (41%) had C3 nephropathy while 60% of subjects in IM MPGN group had C3 dominant disease. Treatment and outcomes: During follow-up (median 2 years), 20 patients reached a clinical end point of dialysis or death. The mean creatinine was significantly higher while the baseline proteinuria also trended slightly higher. Prednisone use was statistically higher in the survivor group. Conclusions: Our study highlights the clinicopathological features of patients with biopsy proven MPGN with no known etiological factors and sheds some light on the incidence and outcomes of various categories of MPGN under the new criteria, including MPGN with "dominant C3" deposits, rapidly becoming a descriptive diagnosis.
    Clinical nephrology 10/2015; DOI:10.5414/CN108619
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) is an important diagnostic tool for nephrologists. Athough widely used and without question of pivotal importance for the diagnosis of renal diseases, little systematic data regarding standardized indications, outcomes, or consequences for this procedure are available. The aim of this study was to compare the clinically suspected diagnosis with the morphological results and the potential impact of PRB on the treatment of the patient. Methods: 205 patients who underwent PRB of the native kidney within a 4-year period were included in this retrospective analysis. The biopsy results (BR), discharge diagnosis (DD), and the suspected diagnoses (SD) of the attending nephrologists prior to biopsy were documented. Results: Mean age of the patients was 58 (range 44 - 77) years. The majority of patients (61%) received PRB during an acute disease phase, whereas 39% had elective PRB. Percutaneous biopsy of the native kidney led to a discharge diagnosis in 92% of the patients, with low complication rates (with 3 out of 205 patients had major bleeding complications). In ~ 2/3, the nephrologists were correct with the suspected diagnosis prior to the biopsy. In ~ 74% of the biopsies, a disease was identified that was potentially responsive to treatment modification. Conclusions: In summary, PRB was found to be a safe procedure that confirmed the suspected clinical diagnosis in two thirds of patients. As one third of the histopathological analyses demonstrated a non-suspected disease, the biopsies were of major importance for the correct treatment of the patients.
    Clinical nephrology 09/2015; DOI:10.5414/CN108591
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Despite significant advances in the epidemiology of acute kidney injury (AKI), there is no reliable method to predict renal recovery. Using acute kidney injury network (AKIN) criteria, we tested whether higher urinary L-FABP (uL-FABP) concentrations in the patients with AKIN stage 3 (AKIN3) after nephrology consultation would predict failure to recover. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study of 114 patients with AKIN3 at WuXi People's Hospital from August 2011 to July 2014. The levels of serum creatinine, urine creatinine, and uL-FABP were obtained at the time of nephrology consultation. Results: Patients who recovered had lower uL-FABP than those who failed to recover at time of nephrology consultation (71.42 (11.1 - 118.3) vs. 335.18 (103.9 - 422.3) ng/mg×creatinine, p < 0.001). Urinary L-FABP predicted failure to recover with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.906 (95% CI 0.837 - 0.953). A clinical model using age, APACHE II score and acute tubular necrosis severity scoring index (ATN-ISS) predicted failure to recover with an area under the curve of 0.825 (95% CI 0.743 - 0.890). When uL-FABP was compared to the clinical model, the reclassification of risk of renal recovery had significantly improved by 35.1%. Conclusion: Urinary L-FABP appears to be a useful biomarker to predict failure to recover during hospitalization in the cohort of patients with AKIN3.
    Clinical nephrology 09/2015; DOI:10.5414/CN108635
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    ABSTRACT: Alkaptonuria is a genetic disorder characterized by an accumulation of homogentisic acid due to an enzymatic defect of homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase. The homogentisic acid is excreted exclusively by both glomerular filtration and tubular secretion leading to the renal parenchyma being exposed to high concentrations of homogentisic acid. The alkaptonuric patients are at higher risk of renal stones (and of prostate stones for males), usually in the later stages of the disease. We describe the case of a 51-year-old man whose renal and prostate stones were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy, respectively. We review the cases of alkaptonuria (AKU) patients reported in the literature for whom the composition of kidney or prostate stones was assessed with physical or chemical techniques. In this paper, we also discuss the advantages and drawbacks of the different methodologies.
    Clinical nephrology 09/2015; DOI:10.5414/CN108608
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Epoetin-zeta (epoetin-ζ) (sold as Retacrit™/Silapo™) is a biologic product that was approved by the European Medicines Agency in 2007 after demonstrating biosimilarity to its reference product epoetin-α (Eprex™), based on a comprehensive comparability exercise including extensive biophysical characterization and three double-blind randomized controlled trials. Since 2008, epoetin-ζ has been prescribed by physicians across Europe to treat anemia of renal disease in many thousands of patients. Methods: Provided here are results of the PASCO I study (post-authorization safety cohort observation of silapo/retacrit (epoetin-ζ) administered intravenously for the treatment of renal anemia). The primary study endpoint was the frequency of adverse events of special interest (AESI) occurring in patients receiving epoetin-ζ over a 1-year study observation period. Results: The safety set included 1,634 patients who received at least 1 dose of epoetin-ζ during the study period. These patients experienced AESI at these frequencies: clotting of artificial kidney 9.8%, lack of efficacy 2.3%, cerebrovascular events (including cerebrovascular accident, cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage, and transient ischemic attack) 1.8%, myocardial infarction 1.7%, acute myocardial infarction 1.2%, clinically relevant hyperkalemia 0.4%, deep vein thrombosis 0.2%, convulsion 0.2%, hypertensive encephalopathy 0.1%, and pulmonary embolism 0.1%. No patients were reported as having anaphylactoid reactions, angioedema, erythropoietinneutralizing antibodies, or pure red cell aplasia. The median weekly follow-up dose of epoetin-ζ was 158.6 IU/kg. Mean hemoglobin concentration ranged between 11.3 and 11.7 g/dL. From the safety set, 228 patients died (14.0%), while 1,135 patients (74.9%; excluding 119 with data missing) continued treatment with epoetin-ζ following the 12-month observation. Conclusion: The PASCO I study contributes significantly to current knowledge about the frequency of adverse events associated with the use of epoetin-ζ for the treatment of renal anemia and demonstrates a pattern of adverse events comparable with data for other existing epoetin products in Europe.
    Clinical nephrology 09/2015; DOI:10.5414/CN108484
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of calcitriol in the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Methods: 66 patients treated with glucocorticoids (GC) for primary nephrotic syndrome (NS) were randomly assigned to 3 groups. Groups were designated as follows: calcitriol alone (n = 22), calcitriol plus calcium carbonate (n = 23), or calcium carbonate alone (n = 21). Serum markers of bone metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD) were tested at 3 different time points: the initiation of GC treatment (baseline), 12 weeks, and 24 weeks after the initiation of treatment. Results: Levels of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D, serum osteocalcin, and total serum collagen type N-terminal extension of the peptide were significantly decreased following GC therapy (p < 0.05). β-collagen serum-specific sequences were significantly increased following GC therapy. The above-mentioned changes were less dramatic in patients treated with calcitriol, although the differences were significant (p < 0.05). Changes in serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were not significant. 24 weeks after the initiation of treatment, BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral bone significantly decreased in all of 3 groups. However, patients who received calcitriol had significantly higher BMD of the lumbar spine than patients who received calcium carbonate alone (calcitriol plus calcium carbonate vs. calcium carbonate alone: 0.82 ± 0.19 g/cm2 vs. 0.62 ± 0.23 g/cm2 p < 0.05; calcitriol vs. calcium carbonate alone 0.805 ± 0.203 g/cm2 vs. 0.615 ± 0.225 g/cm2 p < 0.05), respectively. No serious adverse events were observed. Conclusion: Calcitriol may be more effective than calcium carbonate in preventing and treating GC-induced osteoporosis in patients with NS.
    Clinical nephrology 09/2015; DOI:10.5414/CN108473
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Successful hemodialysis (HD) requires circuit anticoagulation, with either unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) - it is not clear if differences in risk or benefit between these agents exist. We report our experience of major bleeding in patients on hemodialysis receiving either LMWH or UFH for anticoagulation of the dialysis circuit. We also examined any effect of anti-platelet agents or oral anticoagulants on bleeding rates. Methods: An observational, retrospective, single-center study. Bleeding episodes are described using the International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) definition of a major bleeding event, and by extending this group to include all bleeds that led to a hospital admission (clinically significant). Incident event rates are reported per 100 at risk patient years, and event-free survival calculated using multivariate analysis by Cox-proportional hazard ratio. Results: We report on 522 patients (792 years of exposure) in the UFHHD cohort and 889 patients (1,200 years of exposure) in the LMWH-HD cohort. The incidence of a major bleed was 1.33%, and 1.92% bleeds respectively. The incidences of clinically significant bleeding rates were 3.33% and 3.96% respectively. There was no significant difference in bleed free survival between UFH compared to LMWH (OR 0.904, CI 0.557 - 1.468, p = 0.684). Warfarin or anti-platelet usage did not increase the risk of bleeding when comparing patients not on any anticoagulants. Conclusions: There is no difference in bleeding rates between hemodialysis patients treated with either UFH or LMWH for anticoagulation of the extracorporeal circuit. We believe that both heparins have similar safety profiles when used for extracorporeal anticoagulation and that bleeding risk should not determine the choice of anticoagulation.
    Clinical nephrology 09/2015; DOI:10.5414/CN108624
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    ABSTRACT: This is a retrospective study including 36 Saudi children who were on automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) at the Al-Hada Armed Forces Hospital, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during seven years. A total of 10 boys and 26 girls with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) received APD for a total of 731.75 months. 36 episodes of peritonitis occurred in 17 children (47%). The frequency of peritonitis was one episode per 20.3 treatment months. Catheters were changed in 3 patients (8%). Three patients were switched to chronic hemodialysis, while 4 underwent successful renal transplantation. Results revealed that 11 patients (19%) were culturenegative, while 25 (81%) were culturepositive. Gram-positive organisms were responsible for the majority of peritonitis episodes (50%) followed by Gram-negative organisms (31%); occurrence was more frequent in young patients. Empiric antibiotic therapy covered both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. However, all gram-positive isolated microorganisms showed sensitivity to vancomycin. On the other hand, most gram-negative organisms showed sensitivity to ceftazidime or tobramycin.
    Clinical nephrology 09/2015; DOI:10.5414/CN108631