Clinical nephrology (CLIN NEPHROL )

Description

Clinical Nephrology appears monthly and publishes manuscripts containing original material with emphasis on the following topics: prophylaxis, pathophysiology, immunology, diagnosis, therapy, experimental approaches and dialysis and transplantation.

  • Impact factor
    1.29
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    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    1.19
  • Cited half-life
    9.80
  • Immediacy index
    0.27
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.34
  • Website
    Clinical Nephrology website
  • Other titles
    Clinical nephrology
  • ISSN
    0301-0430
  • OCLC
    1747233
  • Material type
    Periodical
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aims: Hemodialysis (HD) patients have a heavy burden of subclinical cerebrovascular disease and cognitive changes consistent with a vascular etiology. Pulsatility index is associated with microangiopathy of cerebral blood vessels and an increased risk of cerebral infarction. The proposed study was to determine common carotid artery pulsatility index (CCAPI) and its relation to cognition in well-dialyzed HD patients with no history of stroke or dementia and matched controls. Methods: Observational, cross-sectional study of CCAPI and cognition in 37 hemodialysis outpatients and 18 matched controls with normal kidney function. Non-parametric analyses were used to compare variables between groups. Multiple regression and ANOVA models were used to adjust for risk factor differences. Results: Controls had a lower CCAPI than the HD group (1.7 ± 0.3 vs. 2.1 ± 0.4 cm/s, p = 0.006). HD patients scored significantly lower on all cognitive domains. Attention correlated with CCAPI in HD patients, independent of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and years on HD (r2 = -0.36, p = 0.01). CCAPI correlated with years on HD, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. (r2 = 0.26, p = 0.04). Conclusion: In well-dialyzed hemodialysis patients with no history of stroke or dementia, CCAPI may correlate with cognitive function and represent a marker for underlying cerebral microvascular disease.
    Clinical nephrology 05/2014; 81(5):313-319.
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Urinary cystatin C has been suggested as a useful biomarker for diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI). Multiple myeloma is often complicated by AKI. Therefore, we investigated whether the urinary cystatin C was available for diagnosis of AKI in multiple myeloma. Materials and methods: This study included 39 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) or multiple myeloma. We reviewed the medical records retrospectively and investigated whether urinary γ-globulin and myeloma progression had effects on urinary cystatin C excretion. Results: Spearman's correlation analysis showed that serum β2-microglobulin and serum cystatin C had a significant positive correlation with the urinary cystatin C excretion (r = 0.513, p = 0.001, r = 0.659, p < 0.001) and FEcystatinC (r = 0.585, p = 0.002, r = 0.711, p < 0.001). The GFRcr also had a significant negative correlation with the urinary cystatin C excretion (r = -0.582, p < 0.001) and FEcystatinC (r = -0.474, p = 0.002). In addition, the urinary γ-globulin had a significant positive correlation with the urinary cystatin C excretion (r = 0.678, p < 0.001) and FEcystatinC (r = 0.731, p < 0.001). Urinary γ-globulin was the most significant factor to influence urinary cystatin C excretion in multiple regression test. Conclusion: These results indicate that urinary γ-globulin and myeloma progression can increase the fractional and total excretion of urinary cystatin C. Therefore, it is believed that the urinary cystatin C can be affected by urinary γ-globulin and myeloma progression in the diagnosis of AKI in multiple myeloma. In addition, urinary γ-globulin is believed to be the most significant factor to influence on urinary cystatin C.
    Clinical nephrology 05/2014; 81(5):345-349.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) is increasingly used in patients requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). This study evaluated a new RCA protocol based on the Prismaflex® dialysis device and an isotonic citrate solution (prismocitrate) for pre-dilution continous veno-venous hemodiafiltration. Methods: The Prismaflex®/Prismocitrate-based protocol involved an AN69ST® membrane (Prisma Flex ST100), a blood flow of 120 mL/min, 1.8 L/h Prismocitrate (10 mmol/L citrate/2 mmol/L citric acid) substitution fluid in pre-dilution mode, and 0.8 L/h dialysate flow (PrismOcal) at the start. In parallel, infusions of potassium, calcium, and magnesium were initiated. Blood pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and ionized calcium levels were measured in 6 hours intervals and magnesium levels every 24 hours. Scheduled hemofilter run time was 72 hours. Results: A consecutive series of 25 continuous renal replacement treatments was analyzed in 15 patients. After at least 6h of RRT, 69.9% of bicarbonate concentrations and 84.6% base excess (BE) calculations were below normal range. During CRRT, mean bicarbonate decreased from 22.9 to 20.2 mmol/L and mean BE from -1.5 to -4.2 mmol/L. In addition, 66.3% of ionized systemic calcium concentrations were out of the normal range, while 54.1% of the magnesium readings were above normal range. Five filters reached the scheduled run time of 72 hours, 19 treatments stopped prematurely because of RRT related reasons (5 filter clottings, 2 severe metabolic disarrangements, 12 major Prismaflex® hardware or software handling problems). One patient was switched to intermittent hemodialysis. Conclusions: The evaluated Prismaflex®/ Prismocitrate-based citrate anticoagulation protocol provides insufficient control of blood acid-base and electrolyte balance.
    Clinical nephrology 05/2014; 81(5):320-330.
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: The incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high. Exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) is a known risk factor for CVD. Due to a recent report of high incidence of SHS in children with CKD, we sought to investigate via questionnaire the smoking behaviors of caregivers of children with CKD. Material and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in which caregivers of children and adolescents with CKD were asked to complete a single anonymous self-administered survey. Results: Almost 40% of children and adolescents lived with one or more smokers. Over half of smokers smoked in the presence of their children and in the car. Smokers were significantly less aware of the detrimental effect of SHS exposure on the renal health of their children. Among smokers, almost 70% reported they had not been advised by their child's nephrologist to quit tobacco use. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of SHS exposure among children and adolescents with CKD, which may contribute to CVD. Caregivers are not fully aware of the detrimental effects of SHS exposure on the renal health of their children.
    Clinical nephrology 05/2014; 81(5):307-312.
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Depression is common among dialysis patients and is associated with adverse outcomes. Problem-solving therapy (PST) is effective for treating depression in older patients with chronic illness, but its effectiveness has never been reported in hemodialysis (HD) patients. We investigated the feasibility and satisfaction of PST and its impact on depression scores among older HD patients. Methods: Patients at least 60 years of age receiving maintenance HD at a single outpatient dialysis center were eligible for the study. Randomized patients received either 6 weeks of PST from a licensed renal social worker or usual care. This study modeled the staff-patient ratio standard of most dialysis clinics, and therefore only one social worker provided the interventions. Study outcomes included feasibility (successful completion of 6 weekly sessions) and patient satisfaction with PST as well as impact on depression scores (between-group comparison of mean Beck depression inventory (BDI) and Patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scores at 6 weeks, and of mean change-from-baseline scores). Results: The recruitment rate was 92% (35/38). All subjects randomized to the intervention arm (n = 17) and who initiated PST (n = 15) completed the study, and all reported overall satisfaction with the intervention. 87% reported that PST helped them to better solve problems and improved their ability to cope with their medical condition. At 6 weeks, there were no significant differences in mean BDI and PHQ scores between the usual care and the intervention group (BDI 11.3 vs. 9.3, p = 0.6; PHQ 5.7 vs. 3.3, p = 0.1). Mean change-from-baseline depression scores were significantly improved in the intervention group relative to the control group (change in BDI 6.3 vs. -0.6, p = 0.004; change in PHQ 7.2 vs. 0.3, p < 0.001) Conclusions: The results demonstrate that PST is feasible in the dialysis unit setting, acceptable to patients, and may positively impact depression among maintenance hemodialysis patients.
    Clinical nephrology 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Our previous in-vivo and in-vitro studies demonstrated that inflammation accelerated the progression of atherosclerosis via the dysregulation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) pathway. The current study aimed to investigate the effects and their underlying mechanisms of inflammation on lipid accumulation in the radial arteries of endstage renal disease (ESRD) patients with arteriovenostomy. Methods: 30 ESRD patients with arteriovenostomy were included. The patients were divided into two groups based on their plasma levels of C-reactive protein: a control (n = 16) and an inflamed group (n = 14). The expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 of the radial arteries were increased in the inflamed group. Foam cell formation and lipid droplet accumulation were examined by hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) and Oil Red O staining. Intracellular cholesterol trafficking-related proteins were examined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescent staining. Results: There was significant lipid accumulation in the radial arteries of the inflamed group compared with the control. Further analysis demonstrated that this accumulation was correlated with the increased protein expression of LDLr, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), and SREBP cleavageactivating protein (SCAP). Confocal microscopy showed that inflammation enhanced the translocation of SCAP escorting SREBP-2 from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi, thereby activating LDLr gene transcription. Interestingly, upregulated LDLr expression was positively associated with the increased protein expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which had enhanced coexpression with SREBP-2. This finding suggests that the activation of mTOR may be involved in LDLr pathway disruption through the upregulation of SREBP-2 expression. Conclusion: Inflammation contributed to foam cell formation in the radial arteries of ESRD patients via the dysregulation of the LDLr pathway, which could be modulated by the activation of the mTOR pathway.
    Clinical nephrology 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Nearly 50% of patients with multiple myeloma develop renal disease; acute kidney injury (AKI) from cast nephropathy, or "myeloma kidney" is the most common type. Development of AKI is associated with worse 1-year survival and reduces the therapeutic options available to patients. Therefore, there is a great need to develop more effective therapies. Cast nephropathy is due to the interaction and aggregation of filtered free light chains (FLCs) and Tamm- Horsfall protein (THP) causing intratubular obstruction and damage. The key to treating cast nephropathy is rapid lowering of FLCs as this correlates with renal recovery. Newer chemotherapy agents lower FLCs and have been referred to as "renoprotective." However there remains great interest in using various extracorporeal therapies to remove serum FLCs. Initially, therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) was thought to improve renal outcomes in cast nephropathy based on small trials. The largest randomized trial of TPE, however, failed to show any benefit. A newer technique is extended high cut-off hemodialysis (HCO-HD). This modality uses a high molecular weight cut-off filter to remove FLCs. To date, trials with HCO-HD in patients with cast nephropathy have been encouraging. However, there are no randomized trials demonstrating the benefit of HCOHD when used in addition to newer chemotherapeutic regimens. Until these studies are available, HCO-HD cannot be recommended as standard of care.
    Clinical nephrology 04/2014;
  • Clinical nephrology 04/2014;
  • Clinical nephrology 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Many medications need to be avoided in chronic kidney disease (CKD) because of increased toxicity. Metformin - an oral hypoglycemic drug universally recommended as the first-line treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) - undergoes significant accumulation in advanced CKD that may ultimately lead to lactic acidosis. Recently, it has been found that side effects of the therapy may occasionally neither be linked to improper prescription nor lack of dose adjustment by the physician, but can result from borrowing and sharing of drugs with relatives and friends. This poorly recognized problem has never been studied in renal patients. This work contains a discussion on the diagnostic problems associated with proper diagnosis of the etiology of severe acidosis in an elderly woman with advanced CKD and diabetes. The patient developed severe lactic acidosis by taking metformin that was prescribed by another doctor to her son, who was also diabetic. The diagnosis of lactic acidosis was delayed since the initial laboratory assessments had focused mostly on dehydration and substance abuse.
    Clinical nephrology 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Adult dialysis patients with angina pectoris refractory to medical treatment or revascularization are not uncommon. Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) has been proven to be effective in reducing myocardial ischemia and refractory angina. The objective of this study was to assess the immediate and 1-year effects of EECP treatment in dialysis patients with refractory angina. Thirty-six consecutive dialysis patients were treated with EECP, and a follow-up was conducted after 1 year. The Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) Angina Grading Scale was used to measure angina severity. Medications were recorded before EECP treatment, at the end of treatment, and at 1-year follow-up. Adverse events and risk factors of cardiovascular disease were recorded and analyzed. At 1-year follow-up, data from patients improving by at least one CCS class after treatment were compared with data from patients showing no improvement. The improvement rates in CCS class were 85% immediately after EECP and 66% at 1-year follow-up. Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging demonstrated a reversible resolution of 40% and improvement of 25% immediately after EECP treatment. Diabetes mellitus and high serum phosphate levels were risk factors affecting whether the beneficial effects of EECP treatment could be sustained (p < 0.05). Major adverse events were rare. EECP shows potential for refractory angina in dialysis patients. The beneficial effects were sustained for more than 1 year in 66% patients. Diabetes mellitus and high serum phosphate levels were major factors impacting the sustained effectiveness of EECP treatment. Nonetheless, adequately powered future studies are necessary to assess safety and efficacy of this procedure.
    Clinical nephrology 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Metabolic acidosis is a common manifestation of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and appears to be associated with CKD progression and mortality. We evaluated whether serum bicarbonate level is associated with albuminuria in patients with stage 3 and 4 CKD. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of outpatients with CKD stages 3 - 4 (estimated glomerular filtration rate 15 - 59 mL/minutes/1.73 m2). Serum bicarbonate levels, serum creatinine levels, and random urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios (UA/Cr) examined on the same day were required for enrollment. Significant albuminuria was defined as UA/Cr ≥ 300 mg/g. Serum bicarbonate was analyzed as both a continuous variable and a categorical variable after it was divided into categories of < 23, 23 - 25.9, and ≥ 26 mmol/L. Results: 151 patients were included in this study. Their mean age was 59.1 ± 13.9 years, and 60.9% were men. The mean serum bicarbonate level was 23.7 ± 3.3 mmol/L. In a multiple logistic regression analysis to determine the factors associated with significant albuminuria, the serum bicarbonate categories were independent factors associated with significant albuminuria after adjustments were made for relevant covariates (p = 0.028). In a subgroup analysis according to CKD stage, the association between bicarbonate categories and significant albuminuria was significant only for patients with stage 3 disease, regardless of renal function or blood pressure (p = 0.014 and 0.706 in stage 3 and 4 diseases, respectively). Conclusions: Low serum bicarbonate levels were ssociated with significant albuminuria, even at levels in the normal range, in CKD patients, especially with stage 3 disease.
    Clinical nephrology 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Nearly half of all non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients respond to iron therapy. Factors affecting anemia response to iron therapy are not well characterized. Oxidative stress (OS) is a recognized factor for anemia in CKD and promotes erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA) resistance; however, the influence in predicting response to intravenous (IV) iron has not been evaluated. Methods: Patients (n = 47) with non-dialysis CKD stages 3 - 5 (mean eGFR: 26 ± 10.4 mL/min/1.73 m2) and iron-deficiency anemia (hemoglobin < 11 g/dL, transferrin saturation (TSAT) index < 20%, and/or ferritin < 100 ng/mL) received a single injection of 1,000 mg of ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) and were observed for 12 weeks. Based on erythropoietic response (defined as ≥ 1 g/dL increase in hemoglobin level), patients were classified as responders or non-responders. Baseline conventional markers of iron status (TSAT and ferritin), inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and IL-6), OS markers (oxidized LDL, protein carbonyl groups, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)), and catalase activity were measured. Results FCM resulted in a significant increase in hemoglobin, TSAT, and ferritin (10 ± 0.7 vs. 11.4 ± 1.3 g/dL, p < 0.0001; 14.6 ± 6.4% vs. 28.9 ± 10%, p < 0.0001; 67.8 ± 61.7 vs. 502.5 ± 263.3 ng/dL, p < 0.0001, respectively). Responders and non-responders were 34 (72%) and 13 (28%), respectively. Age, baseline hemoglobin, estimated glomerular filtration rate, parathyroid hormone, and use of ESA or angiotensin-modulating agents were similar in both groups. Responders showed a tendency towards lower TSAT than non-responders (13.6 ± 6.5% vs. 17.2 ± 5.6%, p = 0.06) but similar ferritin levels. Inflammatory markers were similar in both groups. eGPx activity was lower in non-responders compared to responders (103.1 ± 50.9 vs. 144.9 ± 63.1 U/g Hb, p = 0.01, respectively), although the other proteins, lipid oxidation markers, and enzymatic antioxidants did not differ between the two groups. In the multivariate adjusted model, odds (95% CI) for achieving erythropoietic response to FCM were 10.53 (1.25 - 88.16) in the third tertile of eGPX activity and 3.20 (0.56 - 18.0) in the second tertile compared to those in the lowest tertiles (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Decreased eGPx activity has adverse influences on response to FCM, suggesting that impaired erythrocyte antioxidant defense may be involved in the response to iron therapy in CKD patients.
    Clinical nephrology 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is a relatively common cause of hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (AKI). While prerenal AKI and acute tubular necrosis (ATN) are the most common forms of AKI in the hospital, AIN is likely the next most common. Clinicians must differentiate the various causes of hospital-induced AKI; however, it is often difficult to distinguish AIN from ATN in such patients. While standardized criteria are now used to classify AKI into stages of severity, they do not permit differentiation of the various types of AKI. This is not a minor point, as these different AKI types often require different therapeutic interventions. Clinicians assess and differentiate AIN from these other AKI causes by utilizing clinical assessment, various imaging tests, and certain laboratory data. Gallium scintigraphy has been employed with mixed results. While a few serum tests, such as eosinophilia may be helpful, examination of the urine with tests such as dipstick urinalysis, urine chemistries, urine eosinophils, and urine microscopy are primarily utilized. Unfortunately, these tools are not always sufficient to definitively clinch the diagnosis, making it a challenging task for the clinician. As a result, kidney biopsy is often required to accurately diagnose AIN and guide management.
    Clinical nephrology 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) is a main cause leading to endstage renal disease (ESRD) during childhood occurring at a frequency of 1 in every 500 pregnancies. No early predictive markers of long-term renal function (RF) are validated in these neonates. The aim of this study was to compare CysC and creatinine (creat) as markers of RF from birth to 2 years and to identify factors of RF progression. Methods: The 56 patients included in this study were followed for a median of 235 days (137 - 739). Repeated measures of CysC and creat during 2 years of RF evaluation were taken in 28 patients. Changes in RF with age were analyzed. Potential risk factors for RF progression were analyzed for: type of kidney disease (KD), bilateralism of KD, prenatal pelvic dilatation, reflux and initial relative RF (RRF) asymmetry obtained by scan. Results: With age, a rapid decrease of CysC (16.3%, p < 0.001), and creat (68.6%, p < 0.001) was observed at 1 month. Between 1 month and 1 year, CysC decreased 4% per month (p < 0.001) and creatinine stabilized (+ 1.9%/m, p = 0.11). After 1 year, both CysC and creat stabilized. In the multivariate model, CysC significantly increased in patients with bilateralism (p = 0.004) or asymmetric RRF (p = 0.03). Creat was not significant. Conclusion: CysC was a better marker than creat to follow RF in neonates with CAKUT. Using CysC, bilateralism, and RRF asymmetry were significantly associated with RF progression.
    Clinical nephrology 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease is a severe inflammatory renal disorder due to pathogenic autoantibodies directed mainly against the α3 chain of type IV collagen. In ~ 1/4 of patients with anti-GBM disease, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) predominantly with myeloperoxidase (MPO) specificity can be detected. Although the inciting stimuli leading to the development of an immune response against the type IV collagen and neutrophils are unknown, evidence indicates that both genetic and environmental factors play a role. Of note, molecular mimicry between self-antigens and nonself-antigens such as antigenic determinants of microorganisms has been implicated in the pathogenesis of anti-GBM disease and ANCA-associated vasculitis. A mosquito-borne viral illness highly prevalent in the tropics and subtropics, dengue can be complicated by acute renal failure, proteinuria, hematuria and glomerulonephritis. We present a 66-yearold woman who was diagnosed with dengue infection and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis during an outbreak of dengue in Honduras in the summer of 2013. Renal biopsy revealed severe crescentic glomerulonephritis. Immunofluorescence examination demonstrated strong linear IgG deposition along glomerular capillary walls. Serologic tests demonstrated antibodies against GBM, MPO and platelet glycoproteins. The patient was diagnosed with anti-GBM disease associated with p-ANCA with MPO specificity. Despite heavy immunosuppression and plasmapheresis, IgG titers against dengue virus continued to rise confirming the diagnosis of acute dengue infection. We present the first reported case of anti-GBM disease associated with p-ANCA with MPO specificity during dengue infection. This report calls for a heightened awareness of autoimmunity leading to crescentic glomerulonephritis in patients with dengue infection.
    Clinical nephrology 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Hyperkalemia during renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition (RAAS-I) may prevent optimum dosing. Treatment options include sodium polystyrene sulfonate potassium binding resins, but safety and efficacy concerns exist, including associated colonic necrosis (CN). Alternative agents have been studied, but cost-utility has not been estimated. Methods: We performed a cost-utility analysis of outpatients ≥ 18 years of age receiving chronic RAAS-I, with a history of hyperkalemia or chronic kidney disease, prescribed either sodium polystyrene sulfonate or a theoretical "drug X" binding resin for chronic hyperkalemia. Data were obtained from existing literature. We used a decision analytic model with Monte Carlo probabilistic sensitivity analyses, from a health care payer perspective and a 12-month time horizon. Costs were measured in US dollars. Effectiveness was measured in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental costeffectiveness ratios (ICERs). Results: Drug X could cost no more than $ 10.77 per daily dose to be cost-effective, at a willingnessto- pay (WTP) threshold of $ 50,000/QALY. At $ 40.00 per daily dose, drug X achieved an incremental cost effectiveness ratio of $26,088,369.00 per QALY gained. One-way sensitivity analysis showed sodium polystyrene sulfonate to be the cost-effective option for CN incidences ≤ 19.9%. Limitations include incomplete information on outpatient outcomes and lack of data directly comparing sodium polystyrene sulfonate to potential alternatives. Conclusions: Alternatives may not be cost-effective unless priced similarly to sodium polystyrene sulfonate. This analysis may guide decisions regarding adoption of alternative agents for chronic hyperkalemia control, and suggests that sodium polystyrene sulfonate be employed as an active control in clinical trials of these agents.
    Clinical nephrology 04/2014; 81(4):259-68.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: We introduce a new method of peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter placement with cystoscopic assistance. It has clear advantages compared with conventional open surgery. Materials and methods: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were randomly divided into two groups. Group A (14 patients) underwent cystoscopy-assisted surgery, and group B (15 patients) underwent conventional open surgery for the PD catheter placement. Continuous ambulatory PD training was started 14 days after surgery in both groups. We evaluated the differences between the two groups prospectively. Results: Both groups had no difference in demographics including age, male/female ratio, previous abdominal surgery percent, and cause of ESRD (p > 0.05). All catheters were placed successfully without mortality. Group A had better surgeryrelated data: local anesthesia rate, VAS (Visual Analogue Score), incisional length, and hospital stay were significantly different compared with group B (p < 0.05). And the blood loss duration surgery and duration of surgery were not significantly different (p > 0.05). In group A, there was no case of catheter obstruction and migration, dialysate leak, exit site infection, or incisional hernia. There was only one peritonitis case in group A. Compared with group B, the total surgical complications difference was significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Cystoscopy-assisted PD catheter placement is a direct, visual, safe, precise, easy, inexpensive, and minimally invasive technique that is ideal for patients with ESRD.
    Clinical nephrology 04/2014; 81(4):247-50.

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