International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research (INT J VITAM NUTR RES)

Publisher: Hogrefe

Journal description

Since 1930 this journal has provided an important international forum for scientific advances in the study of nutrition and vitamins. Widely read by academicians as well as scientists working in major governmental and corporate laboratories throughout the world, this publication presents work dealing with basic as well as applied topics. The editorial and advisory boards include many of the leading persons currently working in this area. The journal is of particular interest to: Nutritionists, Vitaminologists, Biochemists, Physicians, Engineers of human and animal nutrition.

Current impact factor: 1.00

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1
2012 Impact Factor 1.271
2011 Impact Factor 0.877
2010 Impact Factor 0.74
2009 Impact Factor 0.897
2008 Impact Factor 0.971
2007 Impact Factor 0.738
2006 Impact Factor 0.862
2005 Impact Factor 1.034
2004 Impact Factor 1.071
2003 Impact Factor 1.019
2002 Impact Factor 0.883
2001 Impact Factor 1.175
2000 Impact Factor 1.299
1999 Impact Factor 1.083
1998 Impact Factor 0.949
1997 Impact Factor 0.594
1996 Impact Factor 0.764
1995 Impact Factor 0.698
1994 Impact Factor 0.418
1993 Impact Factor 0.627
1992 Impact Factor 0.453

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.24
Cited half-life 0.00
Immediacy index 0.00
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.38
Website International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research website
Other titles International journal for vitamin and nutrition research, Internationale Zeitschrift für Vitamin- und Ernährungsforschung, Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition
ISSN 0300-9831
OCLC 1785670
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • On author's personal website, institutional website or institutional repository
    • On a non-profit server
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Publisher copyright must be acknowledged with set statement (see policy)
    • Must link to DOI
    • Set phrase must appear "This article does not exactly replicate the final version published in the journal "[Add title of Journal]". It is not a copy of the original published article and is not suitable for citation."
    • Upon written request authors may archive on a website or in a repository mandated by their funding body 12 months after publication or in accordance with legal obligations funding bodies
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A variety of methods exist to assess vitamin A status of groups and populations. Vitamin A status is usually defined by the liver retinol concentration. Most indicators of status do not measure or estimate liver stores of retinol. Clinical signs only have utility when liver reserves are almost exhausted, and serum retinol concentrations have utility in the zone of overt deficiency. Dose response tests offer more coverage, but cannot distinguish among liver vitamin A stores in the adequate through toxic range. Different countries continue, or are beginning, to add preformed vitamin A to a variety of staple foods through fortification, and vitamin A supplements are still being distributed in many countries, especially to preschool children. Further, provitamin A biofortified crops are currently being released in several countries. Assessing population vitamin A status in response to these interventions needs to move beyond serum retinol concentrations. Indicators that work in the excessive to toxic range of liver reserves are needed. To date, the only indirect indicator that has been validated in this range of liver reserves in animals and humans is the retinol isotope dilution test using deuterium or 13C, which spans the entire liver reserve continuum from deficiency through excess.
    International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 12/2014; 84:16-24. DOI:10.1024/0300-9831/a000182
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    ABSTRACT: The current use of serum retinol concentrations as a measurement of subclinical vitamin A deficiency is unsatisfactory for many reasons. The best technique available for vitamin A status assessment in humans is the measurement of total body pool size. Pool size is measured by the administration of retinol labelled with stable isotopes of carbon or hydrogen that are safe for human subjects, with subsequent measurement of the dilution of the labelled retinol within the body pool. However, the isotope techniques are time-consuming, technically challenging, and relatively expensive. There is also a need to assess different types of tracers and doses, and to establish clear guidelines for the use and interpretation of this method in different populations. Field-friendly improvements are desirable to encourage the application of this technique in developing countries where the need is greatest for monitoring the risk of vitamin A deficiency, the effectiveness of public health interventions, and the potential of hypervitaminosis due to combined supplement and fortification programs. These techniques should be applied to validate other less technical methods of assessing vitamin A deficiency. Another area of public health relevance for this technique is to understand the bioconversion of β-carotene to vitamin A, and its relation to existing vitamin A status, for future dietary diversification programs.
    International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 12/2014; 84:52-9. DOI:10.1024/0300-9831/a000185
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    ABSTRACT: Isotope dilution methods have been successfully used to estimate vitamin A status in human populations as well as to evaluate the impact of vitamin A interventions. The most commonly applied isotope dilution method is the retinol isotope dilution technique, which is based on the 1989 “Olson equation” for estimating total body vitamin A stores (sometimes equated to liver vitamin A) after an oral dose of labeled vitamin A. The equation relies on several factors related to absorption and retention of the dose, the equilibration of label in plasma vs. liver, and timing of a blood sample for measurement of labeled vitamin A. Here, the assumptions underlying these factors are discussed, and new results based on applying model-based compartmental analysis [specifically, the Simulation, Analysis and Modeling software (WinSAAM)] to data on retinol kinetics in humans are summarized. A simplification of the Olson equation, in which plasma tracer is measured 3 days after administration of the oral dose and several factors are eliminated, is presented. The potential usefulness of the retinol isotope dilution technique for setting vitamin A requirements and assessing vitamin A status in children, as well as the confounding effects of inflammation and likely variability in vitamin A absorption, are also discussed.
    International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 12/2014; 84:9-15. DOI:10.1024/0300-9831/a000181
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    ABSTRACT: This paper discusses some of the recent improvements in instrumentation used for stable isotope tracer measurements in the context of measuring retinol stores, in vivo. Tracer costs, together with concerns that larger tracer doses may perturb the parameter under study, demand that ever more sensitive mass spectrometric techniques are developed. GCMS is the most widely used technique. It has high sensitivity in terms of sample amount and uses high resolution GC, yet its ability to detect low isotope ratios is limited by background noise. LCMSMS may become more accessible for tracer studies. Its ability to measure low level stable isotope tracers may prove superior to GCMS, but it is isotope ratio MS (IRMS) that has been designed specifically for low level stable isotope analysis through accurate analysis of tracer:tracee ratios (the tracee being the unlabelled species). Compound-specific isotope analysis, where GC is interfaced to IRMS, is gaining popularity. Here, individual 13C-labelled compounds are separated by GC, combusted to CO2 and transferred on-line for ratiometric analysis by IRMS at the ppm level. However, commercially-available 13C-labelled retinol tracers are 2 - 4 times more expensive than deuterated tracers. For 2H-labelled compounds, GC-pyrolysis-IRMS has now become more generally available as an operating mode on the same IRMS instrument. Here, individual compounds are separated by GC and pyrolysed to H2 at high temperature for analysis by IRMS. It is predicted that GC-pyrolysis-IRMS will facilitate low level tracer procedures to measure body retinol stores, as has been accomplished in the case of fatty acids and amino acids. Sample size requirements for GC-P-IRMS may exceed those of GCMS, but this paper discusses sample preparation procedures and predicts improvements, particularly in the efficiency of sample introduction.
    International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 12/2014; 84:30-9. DOI:10.1024/0300-9831/a000186
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    ABSTRACT: Humans need vitamin A and obtain essential vitamin A by conversion of plant foods rich in provitamin A and/or absorption of preformed vitamin A from foods of animal origin. The determination of the vitamin A value of plant foods rich in provitamin A is important but has challenges. The aim of this paper is to review the progress over last 80 years following the discovery on the conversion of β-carotene to vitamin A and the various techniques including stable isotope technologies that have been developed to determine vitamin A values of plant provitamin A (mainly β-carotene). These include applications from using radioactive β-carotene and vitamin A, depletion-repletion with vitamin A and β-carotene, and measuring postprandial chylomicron fractions after feeding a β-carotene rich diet, to using stable isotopes as tracers to follow the absorption and conversion of plant food provitamin A carotenoids (mainly β-carotene) in humans. These approaches have greatly promoted our understanding of the absorption and conversion of β-carotene to vitamin A. Stable isotope labeled plant foods are useful for determining the overall bioavailability of provitamin A carotenoids from specific foods. Locally obtained plant foods can provide vitamin A and prevent deficiency of vitamin A, a remaining worldwide concern.
    International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 12/2014; 84:25-9. DOI:10.1024/0300-9831/a000183
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to assess oxidative damage and cell apoptosis in the uterus of rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. The role of vitamin E (VE) and/or folic acid (FA) in the protection from such damage was also evaluated. The treatments were performed for 4 weeks on six groups of rats: 1) normal control 2) diabetic control 3) diabetic rats receiving olive oil as a vehicle (without VE) 4) diabetic rats treated with VE (200 mg/kg) in olive oil 5) diabetic rats treated with FA (25 mg/kg) and 6) diabetic rats treated with VE + FA (200 and 25 mg/kg, respectively). We measured the malondialdehyde level (MDA), glutathione content (GSH) and the activity of GSH peroxidase (GPx), GSH reductase (GR) and catalase. Changes in caspase-3 activity were quantified in uterine tissue to assess the rate of apoptosis. In the rat uterine tissues, MDA content and caspase-3 activity were significantly elevated, while GPx, GR and CAT activities and the GSH level were significantly decreased in the diabetic control compared with those in normal rats (p < 0.05). The combination of the vitamins (VE + FA) restored uterine GSH content and enzymatic activities of GPx, GR and CAT and reduced the MDA level (p < 0.05). A prominent reduction in apoptosis of uterine cells was detected in diabetic rats treated with two vitamins (p < 0.05). Overall, VE alone, not FA, produced results similar to those of the VE + FA combination. Thus, in the uterine tissue of diabetic rats, diabetes complications (that are caused by oxidative damage and apoptosis induction) can be prevented by the systemic administration of VE and FA.
    International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 01/2014; 84(1-2):55-64. DOI:10.1024/0300-9831/a000193
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on circulating levels of magnesium and selenium in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 126 adult Saudi patients (55 men and 71 women, mean age 53.6 ± 10.7 years) with controlled T2DM were randomly recruited for the study. All subjects were given vitamin D3 tablets (2000 IU/day) for six months. Follow-up mean concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH) vitamin D] significantly increased in both men (34.1 ± 12.4 to 57.8 ± 17.0 nmol/L) and women (35.7 ± 13.5 to 60.1 ± 18.5 nmol/L, p < 0.001), while levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) decreased significantly in both men (1.6 ± 0.17 to 0.96 ± 0.10 pmol/L, p = 0.003) and women (1.6 ± 0.17 to 1.0 ± 0.14 pmol/L, p = 0.02). In addition, there was a significant increase in serum levels of selenium and magnesium in men and women (p-values < 0.001 and 0.04, respectively) after follow-up. In women, a significant correlation was observed between delta change (variables at six months-variable at baseline) of serum magnesium versus high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (r = 0.36, p = 0.006) and fasting glucose (r = - 0.33, p = 0.01). In men, there was a significant correlation between serum selenium and triglycerides (r = 0.32, p = 0.04). Vitamin D supplementation improves serum concentrations of magnesium and selenium in a gender-dependent manner, which in turn could affect several cardiometabolic parameters such as glucose and lipids.
    International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 01/2014; 84(1-2):27-34. DOI:10.1024/0300-9831/a000190
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    ABSTRACT: Foam cell formation resulting from disrupted macrophage cholesterol efflux, which is triggered by PPARγ1 and LXRα, is a hallmark of atherosclerosis. Sesamin and sesame oil exert anti-atherogenic effects in vivo. However, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying such effects are not fully understood. This study examines the potential effects of sesamin (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 μM) on PPARγ1 and LXRα expression and transcriptional activity as well as macrophage cholesterol efflux. PPARγ1 and LXRα expression and transcriptional activity are assessed by luciferase reporter assays. Macrophage cholesterol efflux is evaluated by ApoAI-specific cholesterol efflux assays. The 50 μM, 75 μM, and 100 μM concentrations of sesamin up-regulated the expression of PPARγ1 (p< 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively) and LXRα (p = 0.002, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively) in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, 75 μM and 100 μM concentrations of sesamin led to 5.2-fold (p < 0.001) and 6.0-fold (p<0.001) increases in PPAR transcriptional activity and 3.9-fold (p< 0.001) and 4.2-fold (p < 0.001) increases in LXR transcriptional activity, respectively, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner via MAPK signaling. Consistently, 50 μM, 75 μM, and 100 μM concentrations of sesamin improved macrophage cholesterol efflux by 2.7-fold (p < 0.001), 4.2-fold (p < 0.001), and 4.2-fold (p < 0.001), respectively, via MAPK signaling. Our findings shed light on the molecular mechanism(s) underlying sesamin’s anti-atherogenic effects, which seem to be due, at least in part, to its ability to up-regulate PPARγ1 and LXRα expression and transcriptional activity, improving macrophage cholesterol efflux. We anticipate that sesamin may be used as a therapeutic agent for treating atherosclerosis.
    International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 01/2014; 84(1-2):79-91. DOI:10.1024/0300-9831/a000195
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    ABSTRACT: Low maternal vitamin B12 status is a risk factor for various adverse pregnancy outcomes. Although vitamin B12 deficiency is not a primary target of newborn screening (NBS) programs, measurements of propionylcarnitine (C3) and its ratios with acetylcarnitine (C3/C2) and palmitoylcarnitine (C3/C16) may incidentally identify vitamin B12-deficient newborns. The objective of this study was to measure vitamin B12 levels in women during the first trimester of pregnancy, evaluate predictors of these concentrations, and study their relationship with newborn screening results. Vitamin B12 concentrations were evaluated in 204 women during the first trimester of pregnancy and possible confounding factors were analyzed. After giving birth, data of their newborns (189) were collected (sex, gestational age, birthweight) and the acylcarnitine profile obtained by tandem mass spectrometry during NBS was analyzed. To assess the effects of the variables on vitamin B12 serum concentrations and newborn screening markers, stepwise multiple linear regression models were used. The mean serum concentration of vitamin B12 was 370.8 pmol/L (502.4 pg/mL) (SD 142.81). Vitamin B12 concentrations were significantly lower in smokers (p = 0.027), and in women with low meat consumption (p = 0.040). There was a significant inverse correlation between mothers’ vitamin B12 concentrations and their children’s C3 (r = - 0.24; p = 0.001), C3/C2 (r = - 0.23; p = 0.002) and C3/C16 levels (r = - 0.20; p = 0.006). Newborn screening markers (C3, C3/C2, and C3/C16) present an inverse correlation with maternal vitamin B12 status in the first trimester of pregnancy. Regarding factors that may influence maternal serum vitamin B12 levels during the first trimester, smoking seems to have a negative effect, and meat consumption a positive effect.
    International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 01/2014; 84(1-2):92-7. DOI:10.1024/0300-9831/a000196
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    ABSTRACT: Previously, we have found that the addition of L-ascorbic acid to chitosan enhanced the reduction in body weight gain in guinea pigs fed a high-fat diet. We hypothesized that the addition of L-ascorbic acid to chitosan would accelerate the reduction of body weight in humans, similar to the animal model. Overweight subjects administered chitosan with or without L-ascorbic acid for 8 weeks, were assigned to three groups: Control group (N = 26, placebo, vehicle only), Chito group (N = 27, 3 g/day chitosan), and Chito-vita group (N = 27, 3 g/day chitosan plus 2 g/day L-ascorbic acid). The body weights and body mass index (BMI) of the Chito and Chito-vita groups decreased significantly (p < 0.05) compared to the Control group. The BMI of the Chito-vita group decreased significantly compared to the Chito group (Chito: -1.0 kg/m2 vs. Chito-vita: -1.6 kg/m2, p < 0.05). The results showed that the chitosan enhanced reduction of body weight and BMI was accentuated by the addition of L-ascorbic acid. The fat mass, percentage body fat, body circumference, and skinfold thickness in the Chito and Chito-vita groups decreased more than the Control group; however, these parameters were not significantly different between the three groups. Chitosan combined with L-ascorbic acid may be useful for controlling body weight.
    International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 01/2014; 84(1-2):5-11. DOI:10.1024/0300-9831/a000187
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin C has important physical and mental health benefits and plasma concentrations reflect recent intakes. Inflammation associated with any acute illness can lead to poor appetite and low food intake in older people. The aims of this report were to assess the prevalence and clinical significance of vitamin C deficiency among hospitalized acutely-ill older patients. Three hundred and twenty two patients (152 [47 %] female), aged 65 yrs. and over who took part in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial had their nutritional status assessed from anthropometric, hematological and biochemical data at baseline, and after 6 weeks and 6 months. Vitamin C was measured using a fluorimetric technique and logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the influence of a number of clinical indicators, including tissue inflammation measured using C-reactive protein on vitamin C concentrations. Clinical outcome measures including symptoms of depression were also compared between patients with vitamin C deficiency and those with normal levels. At baseline, 116 (36 %) patients had a vitamin C concentration below 11 µmol/L indicating biochemical depletion. The figures at 6 weeks and 6 months were 28 (22 %) and 44 (28 %) patients, respectively. Older age, male gender, smoking, increased dependency and tissue inflammation were associated with lower vitamin C concentrations. Patients with vitamin C biochemical depletion had significantly increased symptoms of depression compared with those with higher concentrations at baseline (p = 0.035) and at 6 weeks (p = 0.028). A high proportion of older patients had sub-optimal vitamin C status and this was associated with increased symptoms of depression.
    International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 01/2014; 84(1-2):12-7. DOI:10.1024/0300-9831/a000188
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity has been associated with vitamin D deficiency and increased oxidative stress, which can lead to the dysregulation of adipokines and inflammation. The aim of the present work was to examine the association of vitamin D status [25(OH)D] on inflammatory related markers in overweight/obese children. A total of 137 Spanish schoolchildren between 9 and 12 years of age (31.4 % with overweight/obesity) were studied. Being overweight was defined as BMI ≥ 85th percentile and obesity as BMI ≥ 97th percentile using the reference tables of Hernández. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by chemiluminescent assay. Plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured by immunoenzyme assay. Serum adiponectin was determined using an ELISA kit. Serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-PCR) was tested by immunonephelometry. IL-6 concentrations were higher in the overweight/obese children with deficient serum 25(OH)D (< 20 ng/mL) than in those in this group but whose serum 25(OH)D concentrations were adequate (≥ 20 ng/mL). Serum 25(OH)D was inversely associated with IL-6 concentrations in the overweight/obese subjects taking into account different covariates; thus, for every 1 ng/mL rise in the former, the latter fell by 0.160 pg/mL (β = - 0.160 ± 0.068; R2 = 0.131; p = 0.023). The obese subjects with concentrations of ≥ 25 ng/mL had lower hs-CRP values compared to those with concentrations of < 25 ng/mL (0.053 ± 0.035 vs. 0.356 ± 0.613 mg/dL; p = 0.035). Low serum 25(OH)D was significantly associated high serum IL-6 in overweight/obese children, and with increased hs-CRP in obese children.
    International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 01/2014; 84(1-2):98-107. DOI:10.1024/0300-9831/a000197
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    ABSTRACT: Severe vitamin D deficiency can be treated with oral loading doses of cholecalciferol. Our objective was to develop an algorithm to accurately calculate the amount of cholecalciferol needed for a loading dose, and what factors should be taken into account. Two studies were conducted on subjects with Vitamin D deficiency. Study 1 was observational, retrospective and included 88 subjects treated with a daily supplementation of cholecalciferol. 60 of these furthermore received a loading dose, calculated by an algorithm.Study 2 was prospective and included 29 subjects treated with a cholecalciferol loading dose, calculated by an algorithm developed based on data from study 1, which included BMI. Baseline 25OH-vit.D was below 25 nmol/L (study 1) and 23 nmol/L (study 2). Subjects were given a single loading dose of cholecalciferol, averaging 172,000 IU (study 1) and 212,000 IU (study 2), based on their baseline 25OH-vit.D level.25OH-vit.D increased by 35 nmol/L (study 1) and 56 nmol/L (study 2)(range 113.0, SD 29.79) respectively. In study 2 the increase lead to an end 25OH-vit.D of 79 nmol/L - not significantly different from the target value of 80 nmol/L (P = 0.46). The increase in 25OH-vit.D in study 1 was significantly lower than in study 2 (P<0.001). When calculating loading doses of cholecalciferol, taking subject BMI into account gives a better estimate of the loading dose of vitamin D3 needed to treat vitamin D deficiency. It does not, however, remove the large interindividual variation in dose-response.
    International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 01/2014; 84(1-2):45-54. DOI:10.1024/0300-9831/a000192
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to investigate serum amyloid A, homocysteine, and biochemical-anthropometric measurements in post-menopausal women with and without metabolic syndrome (MS), and determine whether serum amyloid A and homocysteine are linked to MS among this group. This study was performed with 405 post-menopausal Thai volunteers with a mean age of 57.95 ± 5.90 years (135 subjects with MS and 270 subjects without MS). The levels of serum amyloid A, homocysteine, vitamins, glucose, and lipids were measured. Homocysteine levels were significantly higher in the group with MS than in that without MS (p < 0.001), whereas for serum amyloid A, vitamin A, vitamin E and vitamin B12, there were no significant differences. There were significant differences between the groups in folate, HDL-C, and anthropometric measurements (p < 0.001). Thirty seven percent of the group with MS and 14.1 % of the group without MS were classified as having hyperhomocysteinemia (p < 0.001). Furthermore, logistic regression analysis revealed that hyperhomocysteinemia (odds ratio (OR): 2.67, 95 % confidence interval (95 %CI): 1.57 - 4.58), low folate (OR: 1.79, 95 %CI: 1.11 - 2.89), and BMI (OR: 1.25, 95 %CI: 1.16 - 1.33) were significantly related to MS. These findings suggest that increased homocysteine levels and decreased folate concentrations may influence susceptibility to MS and this effect may be an early event in the development of cardiovascular diseases among post-menopausal women. Therefore, there is a need to evaluate homocysteine levels, especially among post-menopausal Thai women.
    International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 01/2014; 84(1-2):35-44. DOI:10.1024/0300-9831/a000191
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The Indian plant root Salacia reticulata, which is rich in alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, is used for metabolic disorders in Ayurvedic medicine. Vitamin D3 is also used in the treatment of some metabolic diseases. Our goal was to determine its potential effect for humans with obesity. Material: In a randomized open-label study, we investigated 40 healthy participants aged 30 - 60 years, physically active, with a body mass index (BMI) of 25 - 45. The participants were randomly allocated into two groups. Body weight, BMI, and body composition were measured. Both groups (A and B) received a guideline for lifestyle and fitness training for 4 weeks. Group B additionally took one capsule containing 200 mg of Salacia reticulata and 1.6 µg (i. e. 64 IU) Vitamin D3 (SRD) 3 times/day with the meals. Results: Significant weight and body-fat reduction within 4 weeks was observed. Group A lost 1.8 kg or 2.1 %, group B lost 5.3 kg or 6.1 % (p = 0.03), therefore BMI reduction was achieved. While Group A lost 1.4 % of body fat, group B reduced it by 4.5 % (p = 0.01). Conclusion: These promising results suggest that the combination of Salacia reticulata and Vitamin D3 might be highly valuable and potent to treat overweight and obesity, especially in addition to a modifying lifestyle program. Further research is needed in addition to this study to clarify pathways and effect mechanisms.
    International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 10/2013; 83(4):216-23. DOI:10.1024/0300-9831/a000162
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Riboflavin is involved in myelin formation in nerve cells. Riboflavin is a precursor of flavin adenine D-nucleotide (FAD), which is a coenzyme of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), which is an important enzyme for remethylation of homocysteine. Riboflavin supplementation has been shown to affect the serum levels of homocysteine in healthy volunteers. The aim of the present study was to test the effect of riboflavin supplementation on the status and disability of patients with MS and whether this effect could be mediated by serum homocysteine levels. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial in which 29 MS patients with a mean age of 33 were tested with riboflavin, and the placebo group, with a mean age of 31, received either riboflavin supplementation (10 mg) or the placebo daily for six months. Disability, measured by the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores, erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient (EGRAC), and serum homocysteine levels were measured before and after the study. Results: The mean ± SD of EDSS score was significantly decreased in both groups over the six months of the study (2.3 ± 0.7 vs. 1.6 ± 0.6 for the riboflavin group and 2.8 ± 1.1 vs. 2.3 ± 1.3 for the placebo groups. The comparison across both groups yielded a non-significant change (P = 0.001 and 0.02, respectively). No significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of EGRAC, riboflavin deficiency levels by EGRAC category, and serum homocysteine levels before and after the study. Conclusion: Riboflavin supplementation (10 mg/day) to patients with MS does not improve disability status. It appears that this effect is not related to serum homocysteine levels.
    International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 10/2013; 83(5):281-290. DOI:10.1024/0300-9831/a000170
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    ABSTRACT: Phyllanthus emblica L. (PE) is an edible fruit indigenous to Southeast Asia. It has been considered as a potent functional food due to its numerous pharmacological applications, such as anti-oxidant, antimicrobial, anti-diabetic and protection for multiple organs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a water extract of PE fruit on genomic damage and cell death in the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line COLO320 using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay. Cells were exposed to RPMI-1640 medium containing 0, 20, 40, 80, or 160 μg/mL PE for 24, 48, 72, or 96 hours. The results showed that PE induced a significant decrease in necrosis (p < 0.001) and nuclear division index (NDI) (p < 0.001) in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and there was a highly significant correlation between the reduction of necrosis and NDI (r = 0.820, p < 0.001). Dose- and time-dependent increases (p < 0.001) in the frequency of chromosomal instability (CIN) were observed after PE exposure, and the frequency of CIN was negatively correlated with NDI (r = - 0.640, p < 0.001). PE also significantly increased apoptosis (p < 0.001), and there was a significant correlation of apoptosis with CIN (r = 0.566, p < 0.001). In conclusion, PE suppresses necrosis and delays mitotic progression, which results in massive CIN followed by apoptosis in COLO320 cells.
    International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 10/2013; 83(5):271-280. DOI:10.1024/0300-9831/a000169
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    ABSTRACT: The vitamin E isoforms and vitamin (vit) C content of infant formulas were compared to human milk and related to relative susceptibilities to lipid peroxidation. We report that a highly distinct vitamin E and C profile exists between formula and human milk. Whileα-tocopherol (α-Toc) is the dominant vit E isoform in human milk, formula contains a substantial amount of α-Toc and δ-Toc that was greater than the level found in human milk (12- and 32-fold, respectively). Vitamin C was also two- fold higher in infant formula compared to human milk. Despite the higher vitamin E and C content, we also observed higher rates of lipid oxidation in the formula when compared to human milk. Storing human milk for one day at refrigeration temperatures did not produce hexanal in human milk, but this storage resulted in an increase in hexanal in formulas. We conclude that the higher concentrations of γ-Toc and δ-Toc in infant formulas did not provide similar protection from lipid oxidation as human milk. We also observed that vit C content was reduced during storage in both infant formula and human milk, which did not occur with the Toc isoforms.
    International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 10/2013; 83(5):311-319. DOI:10.1024/0300-9831/a000173