Publisher: Nihon Dōbutsu Gakkai

Journal description

Published by the Zoological Society of Japan and distributed world-wide, except Japan, by VSP. Zoological Science is devoted to the publication in English of original and review articles in the broad field of zoology, covering physiology, cell biology, biochemistry, developmental biology, endocrinology, behaviour biology and taxonomy. The journal serves as a forum for theories, concepts and experimental data and aims to publish articles from the many diverse subspecialities within zoology. Zoological Science was founded as a result of the unification of the two official journals of the Zoological Society of Japan: the Zoological Magazine (1890--1983) and the Annotationes Zoologicae Japonenses (1927--1983).

Current impact factor: 0.88

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 0.876
2012 Impact Factor 1.076
2011 Impact Factor 0.952
2010 Impact Factor 1.087
2009 Impact Factor 0.821
2008 Impact Factor 1.1
2007 Impact Factor 1.125
2006 Impact Factor 1.24
2005 Impact Factor 0.994
2004 Impact Factor 1.043
2003 Impact Factor 0.99
2002 Impact Factor 0.901
2001 Impact Factor 0.818
2000 Impact Factor 0.969
1999 Impact Factor 0.864
1998 Impact Factor 0.862
1997 Impact Factor 0.754
1996 Impact Factor 0.7
1995 Impact Factor 0.728
1994 Impact Factor 0.81
1993 Impact Factor 0.556
1992 Impact Factor 0.724

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.03
Cited half-life 9.00
Immediacy index 0.23
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.30
Website Zoological Science website
Other titles Zoological science (Online)
ISSN 0289-0003
OCLC 51963016
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study demonstrates the potential of the Japanese marten (Martes melampus) to serve as a directed seed disperser of Actinidia arguta, a representative forest edge liane. Fecal compositions of the Japanese marten in a western part of Tokyo, Japan were analyzed by the point-frame method. It fed on fruits in autumn (73.1%) and winter (63.0%), and the seeds of A. arguta were most frequently eaten (47.4%). Although the vegetation in the study area was dominated by forest (95.5%), seeds found in the marten feces were dominated by those of forest edge plants (92.1%), suggesting a strong selective bias, both habitat and food, toward these species. The density of marten feces was also higher at forest edges than forest interiors. A. arguta plants were more abundant at forest edges than within the forest at Afan Wood, Nagano Prefecture. These results suggest that the Japanese marten selectively uses forest edges as a location for feeding and defecation and thus functions as a directed seed disperser of A. arguta.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 06/2015; 32(3):255-259. DOI:10.2108/zs140241
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    ABSTRACT: The present report, the second part of a study of the external morphology of Preponini, compares the thorax and thoracic appendages of Archaeoprepona demophon demophon (Linnaeus, 1758), Archaeoprepona licomedes licomedes (Cramer, 1777) and Prepona pylene pylene Hewitson, [1854], through descriptions and illustrations. The results are compared with three other species, Prepona claudina annetta (Gray, 1832), Memphis moruus stheno Hübner, [1819] and Zaretis itys itylus (Westwood, 1850), revealing previously unrecognized similarities among species of Charaxinae.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 06/2015; 32(3):284-290. DOI:10.2108/zs150017
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    ABSTRACT: The present paper is the final part of a study of the external morphology of Preponini, which compares the abdomen and genitalia of Archaeoprepona demophon demophon (Linnaeus, 1758), Archaeoprepona licomedes licomedes (Cramer, 1777) and Prepona pylene pylene Hewitson, [1854], through descriptions and illustrations. The results are compared with three other species, Prepona claudina annetta (Gray, 1832), Memphis moruus stheno Hübner, [1819] and Zaretis itys itylus (Westwood, 1850). The abdomen is commonly the most informative tagma for butterflies. In Charaxinae, this tagma supports diagnoses of both genera and species, besides providing a solid morphological base for recent molecular findings for Preponini.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 06/2015; 32(3):291-295. DOI:10.2108/zs140290
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    ABSTRACT: The nymphalid groundplan has been proposed to explain diverse butterfly wing color patterns. In this model, each symmetry system is composed of a core element and a pair of paracore elements. The development of this elemental configuration has been explained by the induction model for positional information. However, the diversity of color patterns in other butterfly families in relation to the nymphalid groundplan has not been thoroughly examined. Here, we examined aberrant color pattern phenotypes of a lycaenid butterfly, Zizeeria maha, from mutagenesis and plasticity studies as well as from field surveys. In several mutants, the third and fourth spot arrays were coordinately positioned much closer to the discal spot in comparison to the normal phenotype. In temperature-shock types, the third and fourth array spots were elongated inwardly or outwardly from their normal positions. In field-caught spontaneous mutants, small black spots were located adjacent to normal black spots. Analysis of these aberrant phenotypes indicated that the spots belonging to the third and fourth arrays are synchronously changeable in position and shape around the discal spot. Thus, these arrays constitute paracore elements of the central symmetry system of the lycaenid butterflies, and the discal spot comprises the core element. These aberrant phenotypes can be explained by the black-inducing signals that propagate from the prospective discal spot, as predicted by the induction model. These results suggest the existence of long-range developmental signals that cover a large area of a wing not only in nymphalid butterflies, but also in lycaenid butterflies.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 06/2015; 32(3):233-239. DOI:10.2108/zs140249
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    ABSTRACT: Although populations of the coconut crab, Birgus latro, have declined in the tropical Indo-Pacific region, insufficient knowledge exists for the management of this species. We investigated the growth of the northernmost coconut crab population, located at Ocean Expo Park, Okinawa, southern Japan, using a mark-recapture method based on the identification of individual carapace grooving patterns. Of the 485 crabs photographed (264 males, 221 females; 14.3-68.8 mm thoracic length [ThL]), 64 males and 62 females were recaptured (recapture rate 26%). The liberty period ranged from two to 2384 days. The annual data indicated that most crabs molted during winter, except for juveniles and crabs near the maximum size. Using the GROTAG program, the asymptotic ThL (L∞) was estimated as 80.72 and 49.89 mm for males and females, respectively. The Brody growth coefficient (K) was 0.063 for both sexes. The growth curves from these parameters showed that males grew larger than females because of a difference in growth speed. Longevity was estimated at approximately 50 years for both sexes. The growth data obtained in the present study, which are the most precise gathered for the coconut crab to date, can be compared with the results of studies performed in other regions.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 06/2015; 32(3):260-265. DOI:10.2108/zs150008
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    ABSTRACT: Chironomid midges (Diptera; Chironomidae) are found in various environments from the high Arctic to the Antarctic, including temperate and tropical regions. In many freshwater habitats, members of this family are among the most abundant invertebrates. In the present study, the genome sizes of 25 chironomid species were determined by flow cytometry and the resulting C-values ranged from 0.07 to 0.20 pg DNA (i.e. from about 68 to 195 Mbp). These genome sizes were uniformly very small and included, to our knowledge, the smallest genome sizes recorded to date among insects. Small proportion of transposable elements and short intron sizes were suggested to contribute to the reduction of genome sizes in chironomids. We discuss about the possible developmental and physiological advantages of having a small genome size and about putative implications for the ecological success of the family Chironomidae.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 06/2015; 32(3):248-254. DOI:10.2108/zs140166
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    ABSTRACT: Spawned ascidian oocytes are surrounded by a membrane called the chorion (or vitelline coat) and associated with two populations of maternally-supplied cells. Outside the chorion are follicle cells, which may affect the buoyancy of eggs. Inside the chorion are test cells, which during oogenesis provision the egg and which after fertilisation contribute to the larval tunic. The structure of maternal cells may vary between species. The model ascidian Ciona intestinalis has been recently split into two species, currently named type A and type B. The ultrastructure of extraembryonic cells and structures from type A embryos has been reported. Here we describe the ultrastructure of follicle and test cells from C. intestinalis type B embryos. Test cells are about 5 µm in diameter and line the inside of the chorion of developing embryos in a dense sheet. Follicle cells are large (> 100 µm long) and spike-shaped, with many large vesicles. Terminal electron dense granules are found towards the tips of spikes, adjacent to cytoplasm containing numerous small electron dense bodies connected by filaments. These are probably vesicles containing material for the terminal granules. Removal of maternal structures and cells just after fertilisation, as commonly used in many experiments manipulating C. intestinalis development, has been reported to affect embryonic patterning. We examined the impact of this on embryonic ectoderm cells by scanning electron microscopy. Cells of embryos that developed without maternal structures still developed cilia, but had indistinct cell boundaries and a more flattened appearance than those that developed within the chorion.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 06/2015; 32(3):217-222. DOI:10.2108/zs140231
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    ABSTRACT: Day length is one of the most important factors that organisms use to predict seasonal changes in their environment. Several amphibians regulate their growth and development in response to photoperiod. However, many studies have not focused on the ecological effects of the photoperiodic response on growth and development because they use tropical animals, animals from a commercial source or from unknown localities, or extreme light regimens for experiments. In the present study, we examined the effects of photoperiod on growth and development in the clouded salamander (Hynobius nebulosus) by raising larvae under different photoperiods and at different temperatures in the laboratory. The average larval period under a long-day photoperiod of L16:D8 was longer than that under L12:D12 at 15°C or 20°C, although the difference between the photoperiods was only significant for 15°C. Juveniles weighed more at metamorphosis under L16:D8 than those under L12:D12, irrespective of temperature, suggesting that a longer developmental period results in a heavier body weight. The head width of juveniles did not differ for different photoperiods at either temperature. However, the growth rate of the head width under L12:D12 was faster than that under L16:D8 at 15°C. Long day length appears to produce larger H. nebulosus juveniles in a relatively stable aquatic environment with a low population density. Thus, development may be accelerated when the day length becomes shorter as winter approaches, and larvae may have increased the growth rate of their head widths to compensate for the shorter growing period under shorter day lengths.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 06/2015; 32(3):266-271. DOI:10.2108/zs140220
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    ABSTRACT: Mammary cancer is a disease that affects many women. Extensive research has been conducted to elucidate which variables are involved in the development of this cancer. Studies have highlighted thyroid function as a modulator of tumor growth and development. Thyroxine and 3,3',5-triiodothyronine are responsible for regulating the development, differentiation, homeostasis, and metabolism of cells in the body including mammary tissue. Thyroid hormones also have estrogen-like effects on mammary cancer cell growth by regulating the estrogen receptor. The present study was designed to determine whether medically induced hyperthyroidism increases the multiplicity, prevalence, and mammary tumor burden in rats; and to elucidate whether surgically induced hypothyroidism conversely attenuates the rate of mammary cancer cell growth. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (euthyroid-control, hyperthyroid, and hypothyroid). Hyperthyroidism was induced via oral administration of levothyroxine; whereas, hypothyroidism was induced by thyroidectomy. Mammary carcinogenesis was induced with a single intraperitoneal injection of N-methyl-N-nitrosurea (MNU). Rats were sacrificed at 38 weeks, and the mammary tumors were excised, fixed for histology and analyzed. Analysis included evaluation of malignancy and immunohistochemistry for ER. MNU-induced mammary carcinogenesis among the groups resulted in a significant difference in tumor burden. The hyperthyroid group had a statistically higher tumor burden than did the euthyroid group, and the hypothyroid group had no tumors of mammary tissue origin at 38 weeks. All excised mammary tumors were ER alpha negative. These data support the hypothesis that thyroid function is one of potentially many factors that contribute to modulation of MNU-induced mammary tumor growth.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 06/2015; 32(3):272-277. DOI:10.2108/zs140124
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    ABSTRACT: Mature galls induced by Daphnephila truncicola, D. taiwanensis, D. sueyenae, D. stenocalia, and D. ornithocephala on Machilus thunbergii in northern Taiwan were examined to verify the dictum that the morphology of galls is an expression of the extended phenotype of the respective gall-inducing insect. Based on their length-width ratio, the materials were grouped into either fleshy (those induced by D. taiwanensis and D. sueyenae) or slim galls (those induced by D. truncicola, D. stenocalia, and D. ornithocephala). Stem galls induced by D. truncicola showed an energy level of 0.0178 kJ/g. Among leaf galls, the greatest energy level was in the one induced by D. stenocalia (0.0193 kJ/g), followed by D. sueyenae (0.0192 kJ/g), D. taiwanensis (0.0189 kJ/g), and D. ornithocephala (0.0160 kJ/g). The numbers of reserve and nutritive cell layers in galls were greater in the stem galls induced by D. truncicola, similar to those in the fleshy leaf galls, than in the slim leaf galls. Based on the fungal taxa isolated from the larval chambers and considering the similarities and divergences among gall characteristics, the galls induced by D. truncicola and D. taiwanensis clustered into one, whereas those of D. sueyenae aligned with the 'D. stenocalia-D. ornithocephala' cluster. The present study verified that shapes, structure, nutritive tissues, energy levels, and multiple coexisting fungal taxa within galls reinforce that they are extended phenotypes of the respective gall-inducing Daphnephila species and they represent adaptive evolution of Daphnephila on M. thunbergii.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 06/2015; 32(3):314-321. DOI:10.2108/zs140244
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    ABSTRACT: The present study compares the morphology of the head, appendages, and cervical region of three species of the butterflies Archaeoprepona demophon demophon (Linnaeus, 1758), Archaeoprepona licomedes licomedes (Cramer, 1777), and Prepona pylene pylene Hewitson, [1854], through descriptions, illustrations, and scanning electron micrographs. The results are compared with Prepona claudina annetta (Gray, 1832), Memphis moruus stheno Hübner, [1819], and Zaretis itys itylus (Westwood, 1850), showing unique characteristics for each species and/or genus, or characteristics shared among the species analyzed. The detailed morphology of these three species was previouslyunknown.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 06/2015; 32(3):278-283. DOI:10.2108/zs140206
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    ABSTRACT: Through transplantation experiments with Xenopus laevis tadpoles, we found a new morphogenetic phenomenon consisting of limb bud formation at the boundary between transplanted whole limb buds and the tail surface. This phenomenon occurs without limb-limb stump interaction and has a number of unique features: (1) Only one extra limb bud was formed per transplant and the new limb and the transplanted limb were bilaterally symmetrical, forming a pair of limb girdles. (2) Extra new limb bud formation occurred not only at the tail but also at other non-limb regions, including abdominal and head surfaces. (3) Successful limb formation required the presence of basal 1/4 region (presumptive limb girdle) of a limb bud explant. (4) New limb formation was host-stage-dependent: before metamorphosis, limb bud formation ratio was high (> 90%), but as the host tadpole entered metamorphosis, this potential declined and morphological abnormalities of new limbs increased. (5) Cell lineage analysis showed that epidermis of the new limb bud always contained many (about 60%) host-derived cells, while new limb cartilage cells were completely graft-derived. These results suggest that heterotopic new limb formation occurs through interaction between graft mesenchyme and host epidermis. Thus, the present study has clarified the two important aspects of limb ontogeny: the importance of presumptive limb girdle for the limb bud initiation and the relationship between limb bud formation potential and metamorphic tissue remodeling. The present experimental system may help to improve our understanding of epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during limb bud initiation and subsequent limb cell differentiation during metamorphosis.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 06/2015; 32(3):223-232. DOI:10.2108/zs1400262
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    ABSTRACT: To elucidate the mechanism for preventing entry into embryonic diapause or breakdown of diapause in Bombyx mori by HCl and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment or a combination of cold and HCl treatment, we performed quantitative analysis of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in the chorion and egg content using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). When diapause eggs that had been incubated at 25°C for 2 days from oviposition and at 4°C for an additional six days were treated with HCl solution, the amount of Ca(2+) in the chorion and egg content after HCl treatment was reduced to one-seventh, as compared with the amount before treatment. In contrast, there was no change in the amount of Mg(2+) with HCl treatment. The amount of Ca(2+) in the HCl solution after the diapause eggs were treated increased 7.5-fold, as compared with that of eggs treated with water. Even when 17-day-old diapausing eggs were treated with HCl, which did not break diapause, the amount of Ca(2+) in the chorion and egg content was reduced to one-fifth, as compared with the control. Meanwhile, changes in Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) contents were not observed in 12-hr-old diapause-destined eggs before or after treatment with DMSO, which effectively prevents diapause. These data may suggest that Ca(2+) efflux from diapause eggs by HCl is not directly associated with preventing entry into diapause or breaking of diapause. In addition, we discovered that the amount of Ca(2+) in diapause-destined eggs was more than 2.4-fold larger than in non-diapause-destined eggs.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 04/2015; 32(2):124-128. DOI:10.2108/zs140168
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    ABSTRACT: Feeding adaptations are a conspicuous feature of avian evolution. Bill and cranial shape as well as the jaw muscles are closely related to diet choice and feeding behaviors. Diurnal raptors of Falconiformes exhibit a wide range of foraging behaviors and prey preferences, and are assigned to seven dietary groups in this study. Skulls of 156 species are compared from the dorsal, lateral and ventral views, by using geometric morphometric techniques with those landmarks capturing as much information as possible on the overall shape of cranium, bill, orbits, nostrils and attachment area for different jaw muscles. The morphometric data showed that the skull shape of scavengers differ significantly from other raptors, primarily because of different feeding adaptations. As a result of convergent evolution, different scavengers share generalized common morphology, possessing relatively slender and lower skulls, longer bills, smaller and more sideward orbits, and more caudally positioned quadrates. Significant phylogenetic signals suggested that phylogeny also played important role in shape variation within scavengers. New World vultures can be distinguished by their large nostrils, narrow crania and small orbits; Caracaras typically show large palatines, crania and orbits, as well as short, deep and sharp bill.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 04/2015; 32(2):171-177. DOI:10.2108/zs130253
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    ABSTRACT: A previous study by our group reported that mouse and human myoblasts fail to express myogenin and to fuse into multi-nucleate myotubes when cultured at low temperature, such as 30°C, but that this activity is rescued by adding IGF-I and vitamin C to the culture medium. In the present study, we examined mitochondrial activity as a target of the inhibitory effects of the low culture temperature. It has been suggested that mitochondria regulate myogenesis. By using a mouse myoblast cell line C2C12, we demonstrate that the expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COX I), which is encoded in mitochondrial genome, increases during myogenic differentiation at the normal culture temperature (38°C), but that this up-regulation is inhibited at 30°C. The mitochondrial membrane potential also decreased at 30°C compared to the culture at 38°C. However, IGF-I and vitamin C rescued both COX I expression and mitochondrial membrane potential at 30°C as promoting muscle differentiation. We also find that the rescue of mitochondrial activity by IGF-I and vitamin C at 30°C occurred after the myogenin expression, which suggests that myogenin regulates mitochondrial function during myogenesis. We suggest that our low temperature-culture system may be suitable for use in studying the detailed mechanism of myogenin-related phenomena during myogenesis.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 04/2015; 32(2):129-134. DOI:10.2108/zs140247
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    ABSTRACT: Social environments often affect the development of organisms. In Tenebrionidae beetles, larval development can be arrested at the final instar stage in the presence of conspecific larvae. This developmental plasticity is considered to be an anti-cannibalistic strategy but the critical environmental determinants and actual effects remain to be elucidated. In this study, we examined the effects of the heterospecific environment, conspecific sexual environment (i.e., presence of conspecific male or female), and abiotic physical stimulation on the pupation decision of the sexually dimorphic horned-flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus. Additionally, actual anti-cannibalistic or antipredatory effects of developmental arrest were evaluated by analyzing stage-dependent vulnerabilities. When G. cornutus larvae were maintained with a G. cornutus larva, a G. cornutus adult, or T. castaneum adult, the developmental period up to the prepupal stage was significantly elongated, suggesting that the cue is not species-specific. Sexual environment did not affect the timing of pupation in G. cornutus; however, we found that abiotic tactile stimulations by glass beads could repress pupation. We also discovered that prepupal and pupal stages were more vulnerable to cannibalism and predation than the larval stage. These data suggest that G. cornutus larvae use non-species specific tactile stimulation as a decision cue for pupation and it has broader defensive effects against heterospecific predation as well as conspecific cannibalism.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 04/2015; 32(2):183-187. DOI:10.2108/zs140203
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    ABSTRACT: The Crinoidea are the most primitive class of living echinoderms, and suffered a severe crisis during the Late Permian mass extinction event. All post-Palaeozoic crinoids, including living species, belong to the Articulata, and morphological and recent molecular studies demonstrate that they form a monophyletic clade. The Articulata originated from Palaeozoic cladid crinoids, but the nature and timing of their origination remains obscure. Problems with understanding the origin and early evolution of the Articulata have arisen because the Permian-Triassic crinoid fossil record is particularly poor. We report on a new genus and species from the earliest Triassic, which is the oldest known post-Palaeozoic articulate crinoid and fundamentally alters our understanding of the early evolution of the Articulata. Prior to this study, the most primitive post-Palaeozoic articulate was thought to be Holocrinus of the order Isocrinida. Unexpectedly, the new taxon belongs to the order Encrinida, which reveals a previously hidden diversity of crinoids in the earliest Triassic. Its discovery implies either a dramatic radiation of crinoids in the immediate post-extinction aftermath, when environmental conditions were at their most severe, or a pre-extinction origin of the crown group articulates and survival of multiple lineages.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 04/2015; 32(2):211-215. DOI:10.2108/zs140240