Publisher: Nihon Dōbutsu Gakkai

Journal description

Published by the Zoological Society of Japan and distributed world-wide, except Japan, by VSP. Zoological Science is devoted to the publication in English of original and review articles in the broad field of zoology, covering physiology, cell biology, biochemistry, developmental biology, endocrinology, behaviour biology and taxonomy. The journal serves as a forum for theories, concepts and experimental data and aims to publish articles from the many diverse subspecialities within zoology. Zoological Science was founded as a result of the unification of the two official journals of the Zoological Society of Japan: the Zoological Magazine (1890--1983) and the Annotationes Zoologicae Japonenses (1927--1983).

Current impact factor: 0.88

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 0.876
2012 Impact Factor 1.076
2011 Impact Factor 0.952
2010 Impact Factor 1.087
2009 Impact Factor 0.821
2008 Impact Factor 1.1
2007 Impact Factor 1.125
2006 Impact Factor 1.24
2005 Impact Factor 0.994
2004 Impact Factor 1.043
2003 Impact Factor 0.99
2002 Impact Factor 0.901
2001 Impact Factor 0.818
2000 Impact Factor 0.969
1999 Impact Factor 0.864
1998 Impact Factor 0.862
1997 Impact Factor 0.754
1996 Impact Factor 0.7
1995 Impact Factor 0.728
1994 Impact Factor 0.81
1993 Impact Factor 0.556
1992 Impact Factor 0.724

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.03
Cited half-life 9.00
Immediacy index 0.23
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.30
Website Zoological Science website
Other titles Zoological science (Online)
ISSN 0289-0003
OCLC 51963016
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To elucidate the mechanism for preventing entry into embryonic diapause or breakdown of diapause in Bombyx mori by HCl and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment or a combination of cold and HCl treatment, we performed quantitative analysis of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in the chorion and egg content using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). When diapause eggs that had been incubated at 25°C for 2 days from oviposition and at 4°C for an additional six days were treated with HCl solution, the amount of Ca(2+) in the chorion and egg content after HCl treatment was reduced to one-seventh, as compared with the amount before treatment. In contrast, there was no change in the amount of Mg(2+) with HCl treatment. The amount of Ca(2+) in the HCl solution after the diapause eggs were treated increased 7.5-fold, as compared with that of eggs treated with water. Even when 17-day-old diapausing eggs were treated with HCl, which did not break diapause, the amount of Ca(2+) in the chorion and egg content was reduced to one-fifth, as compared with the control. Meanwhile, changes in Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) contents were not observed in 12-hr-old diapause-destined eggs before or after treatment with DMSO, which effectively prevents diapause. These data may suggest that Ca(2+) efflux from diapause eggs by HCl is not directly associated with preventing entry into diapause or breaking of diapause. In addition, we discovered that the amount of Ca(2+) in diapause-destined eggs was more than 2.4-fold larger than in non-diapause-destined eggs.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 04/2015; 32(2):124-128. DOI:10.2108/zs140168
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    ABSTRACT: We report a new tree frog of the genus Gracixalus from western Thailand and describe it as a new species Gracixalus seesom based on results of morphological and molecular analyses. The new species is a small-sized Gracixalus (male snout-vent length ca. 22 mm) and is morphologically similar to G. gracilipes, but is easily distinguished from it by its dorsal tan color in life, absence of white spot on lower lip, and black markings on its foot webbing. The new species also clearly differs from all the other members of the genus by the combination of small body size, triangular snout, and light yellowish brown dorsum without distinct tuberculations. Problems of phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gracixalus are briefly discussed.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 04/2015; 32(2):204-210. DOI:10.2108/zs140238
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes the characteristics of male and female germ cells during gonadal development and the gonadal maturity scale of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. A total of 20 specimens were collected monthly from June to November 2012, in two areas off the coast of the Gulf of Mexico: the San Andrés Lagoon and Alvarado Lagoon. The gonads were removed and processed following the standard technique of hematoxylin and eosin staining. An important event in oogenesis (pre-vitellogenesis) was the appearance of a perinuclear vesicle in the cytoplasm and the accumulation of yolk granules. Later, vitellogenesis began and there was an accumulation of nutritive droplets and fragmentation of the perinuclear vesicle. During spermatogenesis, the accumulation of two fluids was observed that were involved in the formation of the spermatophore and the delay of spermiogenesis. Based on the histological features of gonad maturity, five stages were described (inactive, early gametogenesis, development, maturity, and resorption), in females and males. This proposal can be useful for the study of reproductive seasonality of this species.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 04/2015; 32(2):188-194. DOI:10.2108/zs140132
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    ABSTRACT: Medium-sized carnivorous mammals are important seed dispersers of fleshy fruits. The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus) often feeds on fleshy fruits and forms latrines. This behavior may potentially lead to seed dispersal. To determine if this is the case, we studied 1) seed recovery in the droppings of raccoon dogs, and 2) the transportation of seeds between habitats using plastic markers in a western suburb of Tokyo, Japan. In total, 32,473 seeds of 50 plant taxa were recovered from 120 raccoon dog droppings during a year, and 95.7% of the seeds were found to be those of fleshy fruits. The species most frequently recovered were the eurya (Eurya japonica, 52.6%), the brambles (Rubus spp., 17.4%), and the black night shade (Solanum nigrum, 16.0%). A total of 7,412 plastic markers were embedded in baits at 14 bait plots and were recovered in the feces of the raccoon dogs at 22 latrines. The "transportation rates" were calculated in 50-m distance classes and found that most seeds (43.5%) were deposited within 50 m from the bait point, suggesting very short seed dispersal distances. Inter-habitat transportation was observed: 64.9% of the retrieved markers deposited in the forest were transported to other places within the forest. In contrast, almost all of the markers (99.4%) deposited in the open site were transported within the same habitat. These findings suggest that the seeds of forest plants bearing berries can be dispersed out of the forest to open areas by raccoon dogs.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 04/2015; 32(2):157-162. DOI:10.2108/zs140107
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    ABSTRACT: Eggshell evaluation may serve as an indicator of the effect of substances released in the environment, which may change eggshell shape, size, structure, and/or chemical composition. Additionally, exposure may interfere with hatching rates in contaminated eggs. The objective of this study was to better understand how exposure to the insecticide methyl parathion interferes with chemical changes in eggshells of Podocnemis expansa throughout their artificial incubation, as well as with egg hatchability. A total of 343 P. expansa eggs were collected in a natural reproduction area for the species. These eggs were transferred to and artificially incubated in the Wild Animal Teaching and Research Laboratory at Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. On the first day of artificial incubation, 0, 35, 350, and 3500 ppb of methyl parathion were incorporated to the substrate. Eggs were collected every three days for chemical analysis of eggshells. Hatchability was evaluated as the number of hatchlings in each treatment, for the eggs that were not used in the chemical analysis. Student's T-test was used for data on eggshell chemical composition, and the Binomial Test for Two Proportions was used in the hatchability analysis, at a 5% significance level. It was observed that the incorporation of methyl parathion to the substrate on the first day of artificial incubation of P. expansa eggs reduced the levels of total fat in the shells throughout their incubation, besides reducing egg hatchability.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 04/2015; 32(2):135-140. DOI:10.2108/zs140164
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the compensational recovery of the response rate (relative occurrence) of the wind-evoked escape behavior in unilaterally cercus-ablated crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) and elucidated the existence of a sensitive period for such recovery by rearing the crickets under different conditions. In one experiment, each cricket was reared in an apparatus called a walking inducer (WI) to increase the sensory input to the remaining cercus, i.e., the self-generated wind caused by walking. In another experiment, each cricket was reared in a small plastic case separate from the outside atmosphere (wind-free: WF). In this rearing condition, the cricket did not experience self-generated wind as walking was prohibited. During the recovery period after the unilateral cercus ablation, the crickets were reared under either the WI or WF condition to investigate the role of the sensory inputs on the compensational recovery of the response rate. The compensational recovery of the response rate occurred only in the crickets reared under the WI condition during the early period after the ablation. In particular, WI rearing during the first three days after the ablation resulted in the largest compensational recovery in the response rate. In contrast, no compensational recovery was observed in the crickets reared under the WF condition during the first three days. These results suggest that a sensitive period exists in which sensory inputs from the remaining cercus affect the compensational recovery of the response rate more effectively than during other periods.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 04/2015; 32(2):119-123. DOI:10.2108/zs140230
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    ABSTRACT: Social environments often affect the development of organisms. In Tenebrionidae beetles, larval development can be arrested at the final instar stage in the presence of conspecific larvae. This developmental plasticity is considered to be an anti-cannibalistic strategy but the critical environmental determinants and actual effects remain to be elucidated. In this study, we examined the effects of the heterospecific environment, conspecific sexual environment (i.e., presence of conspecific male or female), and abiotic physical stimulation on the pupation decision of the sexually dimorphic horned-flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus. Additionally, actual anti-cannibalistic or antipredatory effects of developmental arrest were evaluated by analyzing stage-dependent vulnerabilities. When G. cornutus larvae were maintained with a G. cornutus larva, a G. cornutus adult, or T. castaneum adult, the developmental period up to the prepupal stage was significantly elongated, suggesting that the cue is not species-specific. Sexual environment did not affect the timing of pupation in G. cornutus; however, we found that abiotic tactile stimulations by glass beads could repress pupation. We also discovered that prepupal and pupal stages were more vulnerable to cannibalism and predation than the larval stage. These data suggest that G. cornutus larvae use non-species specific tactile stimulation as a decision cue for pupation and it has broader defensive effects against heterospecific predation as well as conspecific cannibalism.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 04/2015; 32(2):183-187. DOI:10.2108/zs140203
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    ABSTRACT: Feeding adaptations are a conspicuous feature of avian evolution. Bill and cranial shape as well as the jaw muscles are closely related to diet choice and feeding behaviors. Diurnal raptors of Falconiformes exhibit a wide range of foraging behaviors and prey preferences, and are assigned to seven dietary groups in this study. Skulls of 156 species are compared from the dorsal, lateral and ventral views, by using geometric morphometric techniques with those landmarks capturing as much information as possible on the overall shape of cranium, bill, orbits, nostrils and attachment area for different jaw muscles. The morphometric data showed that the skull shape of scavengers differ significantly from other raptors, primarily because of different feeding adaptations. As a result of convergent evolution, different scavengers share generalized common morphology, possessing relatively slender and lower skulls, longer bills, smaller and more sideward orbits, and more caudally positioned quadrates. Significant phylogenetic signals suggested that phylogeny also played important role in shape variation within scavengers. New World vultures can be distinguished by their large nostrils, narrow crania and small orbits; Caracaras typically show large palatines, crania and orbits, as well as short, deep and sharp bill.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 04/2015; 32(2):171-177. DOI:10.2108/zs130253
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    ABSTRACT: The Crinoidea are the most primitive class of living echinoderms, and suffered a severe crisis during the Late Permian mass extinction event. All post-Palaeozoic crinoids, including living species, belong to the Articulata, and morphological and recent molecular studies demonstrate that they form a monophyletic clade. The Articulata originated from Palaeozoic cladid crinoids, but the nature and timing of their origination remains obscure. Problems with understanding the origin and early evolution of the Articulata have arisen because the Permian-Triassic crinoid fossil record is particularly poor. We report on a new genus and species from the earliest Triassic, which is the oldest known post-Palaeozoic articulate crinoid and fundamentally alters our understanding of the early evolution of the Articulata. Prior to this study, the most primitive post-Palaeozoic articulate was thought to be Holocrinus of the order Isocrinida. Unexpectedly, the new taxon belongs to the order Encrinida, which reveals a previously hidden diversity of crinoids in the earliest Triassic. Its discovery implies either a dramatic radiation of crinoids in the immediate post-extinction aftermath, when environmental conditions were at their most severe, or a pre-extinction origin of the crown group articulates and survival of multiple lineages.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 04/2015; 32(2):211-215. DOI:10.2108/zs140240
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    ABSTRACT: A previous study by our group reported that mouse and human myoblasts fail to express myogenin and to fuse into multi-nucleate myotubes when cultured at low temperature, such as 30°C, but that this activity is rescued by adding IGF-I and vitamin C to the culture medium. In the present study, we examined mitochondrial activity as a target of the inhibitory effects of the low culture temperature. It has been suggested that mitochondria regulate myogenesis. By using a mouse myoblast cell line C2C12, we demonstrate that the expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COX I), which is encoded in mitochondrial genome, increases during myogenic differentiation at the normal culture temperature (38°C), but that this up-regulation is inhibited at 30°C. The mitochondrial membrane potential also decreased at 30°C compared to the culture at 38°C. However, IGF-I and vitamin C rescued both COX I expression and mitochondrial membrane potential at 30°C as promoting muscle differentiation. We also find that the rescue of mitochondrial activity by IGF-I and vitamin C at 30°C occurred after the myogenin expression, which suggests that myogenin regulates mitochondrial function during myogenesis. We suggest that our low temperature-culture system may be suitable for use in studying the detailed mechanism of myogenin-related phenomena during myogenesis.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 04/2015; 32(2):129-134. DOI:10.2108/zs140247
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial COI gene sequences of Tylos granuliferus, a semiterrestrial coastal isopod in East Asia, to clarify possible phylogeographic patterns and to assess relationships between present and past marine environments and genetic population structures. Our results strongly suggest the presence of four clades of T. granuliferus, one of which consists of three subclades. The distribution pattern of clades and subclades seems to have been affected by ocean current activities. Our results also suggest that historical changes in oceanic environments and the subsequence bifurcation of current streamlines affected the first and second divergences of T. granuliferus during the late Miocene and near the beginning of the Pliocene, respectively.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 01/2015; 32(1):105-13. DOI:10.2108/zs140004
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    ABSTRACT: DNA analysis can reveal the origins and dispersal patterns of invasive species. The green anole Anolis carolinensis is one such alien animal, which has been dispersed widely by humans from its native North America to many Pacific Ocean islands. In the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, this anole was recorded from Chichi-jima at the end of the 1960s, and then from Haha-jima in the early 1980s. These two islands are inhabited. In 2013, it was also found on the uninhabited Ani-jima, close to Chichi-jima. Humans are thought to have introduced the anole to Haha-jima, while the mode of introduction to Ani-jima is unknown. To clarify its dispersal patterns within and among these three islands, we assessed the fine-scale population genetic structure using five microsatellite loci. The results show a homogeneous genetic structure within islands, but different genetic structures among islands, suggesting that limited gene flow occurs between islands. The recently established Ani-jima population may have originated from several individuals simultaneously, or by repeated immigration from Chichi-jima. We must consider frequent incursions among these islands to control these invasive lizard populations and prevent their negative impact on native biodiversity.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 01/2015; 32(1):47-52. DOI:10.2108/zs140041
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    ABSTRACT: The intensity of environmental factors differs in natural habitats and could shape the response of an animal that is able to assess a factor's gradient. However, intensity-dependent response to environmental factors has been only occasionally reported in animals. In laboratory experiments, I studied changes in sexual induction in response to a series of temperature decreases in different clones of Hydra oligactis. The percentage of sexually-induced clone-mates was related to the temperature gradient intensity. This intensity-dependent response was observed independently of the H. oligactis clone and gender. The magnitude of the response differed significantly between the clones originated from the distinct sites. The possible significance of the intensity-dependent response in the Hydra clones is discussed in evolutionary terms.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 01/2015; 32(1):72-6. DOI:10.2108/zs140052
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    ABSTRACT: It is generally accepted that ancient fishes first experienced freshwater (FW), and then variably by lineage moved onto the land or re-entered the seas during evolution. As both land and sea are desiccating environments, animals must change their strategies for body fluid regulation from protecting against overhydration in FW to coping with dehydration in seawater (SW) or on land. The evolution of the mechanisms for acquisition of water surely must have accompanied these dramatic environmental changes. The major route for water acquisition is by oral drinking in terrestrial tetrapods (represented here by mammals) and in SW fishes (represented by teleosts as they are dehydrated in SW), but the regulation is contrasting between the two groups; mechanisms inducing thirst have developed in mammals, whereas inhibitory mechanisms are dominant in marine teleosts as observed in FW teleosts. Thus, the apparent difference was found not between hydrating and dehydrating habitat, but rather between terrestrial and aquatic habitats. This contrast is also reflected in regulatory hormones; dipsogenic hormones such as angiotensin II play pivotal roles in water homeostasis in mammals, whereas antidipsogenic hormones such as atrial natriuretic peptide are essential in teleosts. Imbibed water becomes body fluid only after absorption by the intestine, and there is a distinct difference in the mechanisms for water absorption between mammals and teleosts. Like regulation of drinking, we found that the inhibitory mechanisms are dominant for intestinal water absorption in teleosts. In the initial part of this short review, interesting differences in the body fluid regulation between mammals and teleosts are introduced, particularly with regard to water acquisition (drinking and intestinal absorption). Then an attempt was made to discuss the evolution of the mechanisms from the two perspectives; transitions from aquatic to terrestrial habitats and from hydrating (FW) to dehydrating (land and SW) habitats.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 01/2015; 32(1):1-7. DOI:10.2108/zs140142