ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE (ZOOL SCI )

Publisher: Nihon Dōbutsu Gakkai

Description

Published by the Zoological Society of Japan and distributed world-wide, except Japan, by VSP. Zoological Science is devoted to the publication in English of original and review articles in the broad field of zoology, covering physiology, cell biology, biochemistry, developmental biology, endocrinology, behaviour biology and taxonomy. The journal serves as a forum for theories, concepts and experimental data and aims to publish articles from the many diverse subspecialities within zoology. Zoological Science was founded as a result of the unification of the two official journals of the Zoological Society of Japan: the Zoological Magazine (1890--1983) and the Annotationes Zoologicae Japonenses (1927--1983).

  • Impact factor
    1.08
    Show impact factor history
     
    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    1.03
  • Cited half-life
    9.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.23
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.30
  • Website
    Zoological Science website
  • Other titles
    Zoological science (Online)
  • ISSN
    0289-0003
  • OCLC
    51963016
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • Fran Cedrola, Mariana Rossi, Roberto Júnio Pedroso Dias, Isabel Martinele, Marta D'Agosto
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Freshwater gastropods often have limited dispersal capability and small geographic ranges, and face severe threats from habitat loss and degradation. However, in addition to the scarcity of knowledge on their life history traits, species taxonomy has not been adequately resolved and boundaries between intra- and interspecific variation remain unclear for many taxa. One such example of an indeterminate species boundary with implications for conservation issues is the relationship between the thiarid snails Stenomelania crenulata in Okinawa and southwards (ranked as CR+EN in the 2012 Japanese Red List) and S. rufescens in mainland Japan (VU). The results of our multi-disciplinary investigation into variation in the shell morphology and mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (ITS-1) gene sequences suggest that S. rufescens represents a geographic variant and a junior synonym of S. crenulata. The widespread geographic range of S. crenulata, spanning a few thousand kilometers north to south, is possible due to an amphidromous life cycle that involves a marine planktotrophic larval phase and upstream migration after settlement in estuaries. Nevertheless, there is recognizable morphological and genetic differentiation between distant populations, probably reflecting a relatively short pelagic duration and possibly also infrequent transoceanic dispersal; metamorphic competence is achieved in two weeks in full seawater and even more rapidly in brackish water. The Okinawan population, with only a few known localities, therefore deserves the high conservation priority; conservation efforts need to involve the proper maintenance of migration pathways including all marine, brackish and freshwater environments.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 09/2014; 31(9):593-602.
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    ABSTRACT: Myrmecina nipponica Wheeler is a terrestrial ant nesting chiefly in the soil in forest. It is a specialized predator of oribatid mites, but also scavenges on a broad spectrum of other arthropods. In the studied population at Cape Manazuru in central Japan, M. nipponica colonies are typically monogynous, and previous dissections of queens suggested that these individuals were not inseminated, thus suggesting these ants can reproduce via thelytokous parthenogenesis. To test for thelytokous parthenogenesis in M. nipponica the spermathecae of queens (dealate gynes) from worker-containing colonies were histologically examined in detail. All specimens examined (n = 5) had no spermatozoa in the spermatheca. In addition, a total of four colony-founding queens were reared in isolation in the laboratory to test whether non-inseminated females were capable of egg laying and to test whether female offspring emerged from this brood. In all of four culture replicates, only new workers were produced from the eggs those queens had laid and male offspring was absent. After the breeding experiment, the queens' spermathecae were histologically examined and no sperm were detected in their spermathecae. These results reveal that M. nipponica queens of the Manazuru population are capable of producing female offspring thelytokously. Sexual reproduction by typical gynes and also by intermorphs has been known from other local populations of M. nipponica; therefore, this species shows geographical polymorphism in sexuality.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 09/2014; 31(9):582-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Ground beetles of the subgenus Ohomopterus (genus Carabus) show marked divergence in species-specific male and female genital morphologies, which contributes to reproductive isolation among species. Characterizing the genetic basis of species-specific genital morphology is essential for understanding their diversification, but genomic information on Ohomopterus is not yet available. We analyzed mRNA extracted from abdominal sections of the last instar larvae and pupae of two sister species, Carabus (Ohomopterus) iwawakianus and C. (O.) uenoi, which show marked differences in genital morphology, to compare transcriptomic profiles using Roche 454 pyrosequencing. We obtained 1,608,572 high-quality reads and assembled them into 176,278 unique sequences, of which 66,049 sequences were combined into 12,662 clusters. Differential expression analyses for sexed pupae suggested that four and five clusters were differentially expressed between species for males and females, respectively. We also identified orthologous sequences of genes involved in genital development in Drosophila, which potentially affect genital development and species-specific genital morphology in Ohomopterus. This study provides the first large transcriptomic data set for a morphologically diversified beetle group, which can facilitate future studies on the genetic basis of species-specific genitalia.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 09/2014; 31(9):587-92.
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    ABSTRACT: Eusocial insects have highly sophisticated societies, showing a conspicuous division of labor associated with different phenotypes. These castes show specific morphologies adapted to discrete tasks. Termite castes are divided into reproductives, workers, and soldiers. Individuals with soldier-like heads as well as developed gonads have been recorded in several primitive families, and are called reproductive soldiers. In some termite species, however, a trade-off-like developmental relationship has been shown between soldier and imaginal characteristics. Thus, while the mechanism that regulates the development of both characteristics in the same individual is interesting, the details are still unclear. We focused on juvenile hormone (JH), which is involved not only in termite caste differentiation, but also in the gonad development of many insects, and we aimed to clarify the effects of JH on the differentiation of reproductive soldiers in Zootermopsis nevadensis. We succeeded in the induction of individuals with reproductive soldier-like gross morphologies by JH analog (JHA) application to several developmental stages. We also observed that gonad development was significantly promoted by JHA application after molts in the induced reproductive soldier-like individuals, but not in natural soldiers. Finally, we confirmed that the gene expression level of vitellogenin was extremely high in the induced reproductive soldier-like individuals following JHA treatment after the molt. These results suggested that soldiers do not have regulatory mechanisms for gonad development involving JH, and the regulation of reproductive soldiers development is different from that of soldiers. Reproductive soldiers may have evolved independently from the soldier caste rather than from an intermediate stage of soldier evolution.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 09/2014; 31(9):573-81.
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of visual information on wind-evoked escape behavior in the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. Most agitated crickets were found to retreat into a shelter made of cardboard installed in the test arena within a short time. As this behavior was thought to be a type of escape, we confirmed how a visual image of a shelter affected wind-evoked escape behavior. Irrespective of the brightness of the visual background (black or white) or the absence or presence of a shelter, escape jumps were oriented almost 180° opposite to the source of the air puff stimulus. Therefore, the direction of wind-evoked escape depends solely depended on the direction of the stimulus air puff. In contrast, the turning direction of the crickets during the escape was affected by the position of the visual image of the shelter. During the wind-evoked escape jump, most crickets turned in the direction in which a shelter was presented. This behavioral nature is presumably necessary for crickets to retreat into a shelter within a short time after their escape jump.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 09/2014; 31(9):559-64.
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated physical and chemical cues involved in male mating behavior of the white grub beetle, Dasylepida ishigakiensis (Scarabaeidae). When presented with female attractant pheromone (R)-2-butanol lures in a flight tunnel, nearly all males exhibited orientation and touching behaviors to freshly killed males and females and to intact glass models. Males landed and bent their abdomens on male and female bodies, but not on intact glass models. When treated with one female equivalent (FE) extract, washed immature male bodies and glass models both evoked stronger male responses than untreated equivalents, with the former eliciting a greater response than the treated glass models. Male responses to target male and female bodies decreased with increased numbers of washings of target bodies with organic solvents. These results suggest that the chemical factors that elicit male abdominal bending behavior are present on the body surface in both sexes. Washed immature male bodies treated with 1 FE or one male equivalent (ME) of extract induced strong male abdominal bending behavior. Washed mature female bodies treated with 1 ME extract also evoked male responses. Extracts of both sexes included factors eliciting male abdominal bending behavior. These results suggest that both physical and chemical cues derived from conspecifics cooperate to facilitate male mating recognition in D. ishigakiensis. The mating process of this species in the field is highly synchronized. Thus, after orienting to a female-like object, the only information males require by touching is whether the sex attractant pheromone that attracted them is indeed from a conspecific.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 09/2014; 31(9):553-8.
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    ABSTRACT: A vigorous discussion surrounds the question as to what enables some mammals-including primates and cetaceans-to evolve large brains. We recently published a study suggesting that the radiation of marsupial mammals is highly relevant to this question because of the unique reproductive and metabolic traits within this clade. In particular, we controversially suggested that marsupial brain sizes are not systematically smaller than those of placentals, and that elevated basal metabolic rates (BMR) are not linked to larger marsupial brains. As our dataset was found to contain some erroneous body size data, derived from a published source, we here use an updated and corrected dataset and employ standard as well as phylogenetically corrected analyses to re-assess and elaborate on our original conclusions. Our proposal that marsupials are not systematically smaller-brained than placentals remains supported, particularly when the unusually large-brained placental clade, Primates, is excluded. Use of the new dataset not only confirms that high metabolic rates are not associated with larger brain size in marsupials, but we additionally find some support for a striking negative correlation between BMR and brain size. The best supported correlates of large brain size remain the reproductive traits of weaning age and litter size. These results support our suggestion that mammalian brain sizes (including, by inference, those of monotremes) are predominantly constrained by the ability of females to fuel the growth of their offspring's large brains, rather than by the maintenance requirements of the adult brain.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 09/2014; 31(9):608-12.
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    ABSTRACT: Because all available evidence from allozymes, mtDNA sequences, and artificial hybridization suggests presence of high genetic differentiation between populations of East Asian brown frogs currently assigned to Rana dybowskii Günther, 1876, I compared morphological characters between specimens from Tsushima Island of Japan and Maritime territory of Russia. The population from Tsushima is slightly, but significantly different from R. dybowskii from Russia, including the holotype. I therefore consider the Tsushima population to be specifically distinct, and describe it as a new species R. uenoi. The new species also occurs in the Korean Peninsula and adjacent islands, but the distributional relationships with R. dybowskii are unclear, as detailed distribution in northern Korea is lacking.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 09/2014; 31(9):613-20.
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    ABSTRACT: Establishment of the anterior-posterior axis is an important event in the development of bilateral animals. A homeodomain transcription factor, Otx, is important for the formation of the anterior part of the embryo, and its mRNA is expressed in a continuous manner in a wide range of animals. This pattern of expression is thought to be important for the formation of anterior neural structures, but the mechanism that regulates Otx expression remains largely unknown. Towards understanding how the transcription of Otx is maintained in the cells of anterior neural structure, the sensory vesicle, during embryogenesis, we examined transcription regulatory mechanisms of Otx, using embryos of the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis, from the gastrula to tailbud stages, which have not been studied previously. We identified two genomic regions capable of mimicking the Otx expression pattern from the gastrula to tailbud stages. Putative transcription factor binding sites required for this activity were identified. Notably, distinct sets of transcription factor binding sites were required at different developmental stages for the expression of Otx, suggesting that the continuity of Otx is supported by distinct transcriptional mechanisms in the gastrula and neurula stages. Along with previous studies using Halocynthia roretzi, the present results provide insight into the evolution of transcriptional regulatory mechanism of Otx.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 09/2014; 31(9):565-72.
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    ABSTRACT: The ability to regenerate missing body parts varies among species. To elucidate the evolution of regenerative capability, an understanding of the regeneration mechanisms of diverse organisms is required. We focus on vestimentiferan tubeworms, which have a body plan that is unique among annelids. We found that the vestimentiferan Lamellibrachia satsuma is able to regenerate its posterior body parts, but not its anterior body parts. Based on observations of live specimens, we defined five stages in the process of posterior regeneration. The morphogenesis was observed in detail by a series of sections and scanning electron microscopy. The most posterior domain of the opisthosome differentiated from the blastema, while the anterior domain of the opisthosome regenerated from the remaining trunk region. We also examined the expression pattern of the engrailed gene during regeneration, and found that engrailed was expressed in the mesodermal cells of each segment.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 08/2014; 31(8):535-41.
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    ABSTRACT: Changes in mRNA levels of prolactin (PRL) during the upstream migration were examined in fry of the amphidromous fish, ayu Plecoglossus altivelis. Quantification of mRNA has been done with real-time PCR and expressed as whole body or pituitary contents depending the body size of fry. PRL mRNA levels of ayu caught in seawater of the coastal area remained low during early spring. Prior to the start of the upstream migration, the fish caught in the coastal area in mid spring showed increased levels of PRL mRNA. There were further increases in PRL levels in the fish caught in the river. Analysis of proportions revealed that there were significant differences among PRL mRNA in the fish caught in different environmental salinities. Body weight showed a positive relation with PRL mRNA in ayu caught in seawater. A landlocked population of ayu, which migrates from lake to river, showed no significant change in PRL mRNA levels before and after upstream migration. Results in this study indicate the importance of up-regulation of PRL gene expression of ayu during the upstream migration from seawater to fresh water. There is a possible relationship between body size and PRL in the early developmental stage of ayu in seawater, but not in the fish in fresh water.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 08/2014; 31(8):507-14.
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    ABSTRACT: Specimens of six species (from two genera) of inarticulated craniid brachiopod were dissected and the gut examined and compared. The gut of the five Novocrania Lee & Brunton 2001 species were very similar, except for some variations in the configuration of the pylorus-intestine. The gut of Neoancistrocrania Laurin 1992 had two distinctly different features from Novocrania; the pharynx-esophagus-stomach forms a dorsally directed half loop and the pylorus-intestine is straight. Neoancistrocrania has four unique soft-tissue features and should remain a separate genus from Novocrania.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 08/2014; 31(8):542-5.
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    ABSTRACT: The endangered schizothoracine fish Gymnodiptychus pachycheilus is endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), but very little genetic information is available for this species. Here, we accessed the current genetic divergence of G. pachycheilus population to evaluate their distributions modulated by contemporary and historical processes. Population structure and demographic history were assessed by analyzing 1811-base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 61 individuals across a large proportion of its geographic range. Our results revealed low nucleotide diversity, suggesting severe historical bottleneck events. Analyses of molecular variance and the conventional population statistic FST (0.0435, P = 0.0215) confirmed weak genetic structure. The monophyly of G. pachycheilus was statistically well-supported, while two divergent evolutionary clusters were identified by phylogenetic analyses, suggesting a microgeographic population structure. The consistent scenario of recent population expansion of two clusters was identified based on several complementary analyses of demographic history (0.096 Ma and 0.15 Ma). This genetic divergence and evolutionary process are likely to have resulted from a series of drainage arrangements triggered by the historical tectonic events of the region. The results obtained here provide the first insights into the evolutionary history and genetic status of this little-known fish.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 08/2014; 31(8):515-22.
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    ABSTRACT: Characterization of foraging-site preferences of threatened and endangered species is a key component of effective habitat conservation. We studied foraging-site selection by the brown eared pheasant (Crossoptilon mantchuricum) in the Huanglongshan Nature Reserve, Yanan City, Shaanxi Province, China, from early February to end of May 2011. We identified feeding sites by locating tracks and scratches characteristic of the birds, and compared habitat characteristics at these sites to those at randomly selected sites across the study area. During the pre-breeding season, the birds tended to be found in the areas characterized by gullies within mixed forests with intermediate sun exposure on gentle slopes (< 10°), and close to water and footpaths. The sites utilized by the birds also featured greater tree diameter, lower shrub density, lower grass cover, and lower altitude than random sites. During the breeding season, the birds tended to be found in the areas of slightly higher altitude, more shrubs, moderately steep slopes (10°-20°), and farther from water and paths. These patterns were consistent with seasonal changes in vegetation and food-resource availability in the study area. Management of brown eared pheasants' populations for conservation must account for these seasonal shifts in habitat requirements.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 08/2014; 31(8):529-34.
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    ABSTRACT: Mihbaicola sakamakii is a mesoparasitic copepod that infests the branchiostegal membranes of groupers (Perciformes: Serranidae). In this study, we observed M. sakamakii within host tissue. Histologically, copepods were found enclosed inside a pouch composed of the thickened epidermis of the host, tightly encased on all sides by the host epidermal pouch wall. There were no host blood cells or other food resources in the pouch lumen. Since the host epidermis was intact and continuous, even in the vicinity of the oral region of the parasite, the copepod would not have access to the host blood in this state. However, the stomach (ampullary part of the mid gut) was filled with granular components, the majority of which were crystalloids that likely originated from fish erythrocyte hemoglobin. We supposed that the parasite drinks blood exuded from the lesion in the fish caused by copepod entry into the host tissue. Invasion of the parasite may elicit immune responses in the host, but there were no traces on the copepod of any cellular immune reactions, such as encapsulation. The array of minute protuberances on the copepod cuticle surface may be involved in avoidance of cell adhesion. After the lesion has healed, the copepod is enclosed in a tough epidermal pouch, in which it gradually digests the contents of its stomach and continues egg production.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 08/2014; 31(8):546-52.
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the estuarine goby's (Eutaeniichthys gilli) utilization of mud shrimp (Upogebia yokoyai) burrows in laboratory experiments at Kochi, Japan. The goby utilized the shrimp burrow in the presence of the host, without predators, when the mud surface was covered with water. The goby spent one quarter to half the time in shrimp burrows in experimental tanks. The goby frequently entered and exited the shrimp burrows, with bout durations of several seconds to several minutes. The goby also utilized vacant artificial burrows in much the same manner. It is suggested that E. gilli feeds on small-sized crustaceans and other organic matter on the mud surface frequently utilizing shrimp burrows for possible predator avoidance even when no predator is present. Repeated evolution of burrow utilization in the North Pacific bay gobies in both the East and West Pacific would correlate with burrow commensalism in E. gilli, which is the most proximal outgroup of the bay gobies.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 08/2014; 31(8):523-8.
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    ABSTRACT: A scincid lizard of the genus Plestiodon from Kuchinoshima Island in the Tokara Group of the Northern Ryukyus, Japan, has proved to be genetically and morphologically differentiated from any previously recognized species in the genus. We thus describe this island population as a new species, Plestiodon kuchinoshimensis. The new species shows characteristics of the P. latiscutatus species group, but differs from other species of this group by the combination of the following character states: postnasal absent; hatchling with five longitudinal light lines on dorsum; lateral light line on each side passing over ear opening and the sixth to eighth scale rows at midbody; dorsolateral light line beginning from behind supraoculars; patch of enlarged irregular scales on posterior femur absent; scale rows around midbody 27-32; and brownish background on the dorsal surface of the juvenile.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 07/2014; 31(7):464-74.

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