Journal of psychoactive drugs Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Haight-Ashbury Free Medical Clinic, Taylor & Francis (Routledge)

Journal description

Current impact factor: 1.10

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2009 Impact Factor 0.811

Additional details

5-year impact 1.21
Cited half-life 8.70
Immediacy index 0.06
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.37
Other titles Journal of psychoactive drugs (Online)
ISSN 0279-1072
OCLC 60617798
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Taylor & Francis (Routledge)

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Some individual journals may have policies prohibiting pre-print archiving
    • On author's personal website or departmental website immediately
    • On institutional repository or subject-based repository after either 12 months embargo
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On a non-profit server
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set statements to accompany deposits (see policy)
    • The publisher will deposit in on behalf of authors to a designated institutional repository including PubMed Central, where a deposit agreement exists with the repository
    • STM: Science, Technology and Medicine
    • Publisher last contacted on 25/03/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Taylor & Francis (Routledge)'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite the high prevalence of substance use disorder (SUD) and its frequent comorbidity with mental illness, individuals with SUD are less likely to receive effective SUD treatment from mental health practitioners than SUD counselors. Limited competence and interest in treating this clinical population are likely influenced by a lack of formal training in SUD treatment. Using a factorial survey-vignette design that included three clinical vignettes and a supplementary survey instrument, we investigated whether clinical psychology doctoral students differ in their level of negative emotional reactions toward clients with SUD versus major depressive disorder (MDD); whether they differ in their attributions for SUD versus MDD; and how their negative emotional reactions and attributions impact their interest in pursuing SUD clinical work. Participants were 155 clinical psychology graduate-level doctoral students (72% female). Participants endorsed more negative emotional reactions toward clients with SUD than toward clients with MDD. They were also more likely to identify poor willpower as the cause for SUD than for MDD. More than a third reported interest in working with SUD populations. Highest levels of interest were associated with prior professional and personal experience with SUD, four to six years of clinical experience, and postmodern theoretical orientation.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 09/2015; DOI:10.1080/02791072.2015.1076090
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    ABSTRACT: The use of computers for identifying and intervening with stigmatized behaviors, such as drug use, offers promise for underserved, rural areas; however, the acceptability and appropriateness of using computerized brief intervention (CBIs) must be taken into consideration. In the present study, 12 staff members representing a range of clinic roles in two rural, federally qualified health centers completed semi-structured interviews in a qualitative investigation of CBI vs. counselor-delivered individual brief intervention (IBI). Thematic content analysis was conducted using a constant comparative method, examining the range of responses within each interview as well as data across interview respondents. Overall, staff found the idea of providing CBIs both acceptable and appropriate for their patient population. Acceptability by clinic staff centered on the ready availability of the CBI. Staff also believed that patients might be more forthcoming in response to a computer program than a personal interview. However, some staff voiced reservations concerning the appropriateness of CBIs for subsets of patients, including older patients, illiterate individuals, or those unfamiliar with computers. Findings support the potential suitability and potential benefits of providing CBIs to patients in rural health centers.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 09/2015; DOI:10.1080/02791072.2015.1075631
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined changes in tobacco craving, withdrawal, and affect as correlates of efficacy in a phase-2 clinical trial of varenicline for smokeless tobacco dependence in India. Smokeless tobacco users (N = 237) at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences were randomized to placebo or varenicline. Abstinence was defined as cotinine-verified seven-day point prevalence cessation at end of treatment (EOT). General Linear Model repeated measures assessed the effects of treatment condition, time, abstinence state, and interaction effects on changes in craving, withdrawal, positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) from baseline to EOT. All participants showed a significant reduction in withdrawal (p < .001), total craving (p < .001), positive reinforcement (PR) craving (p < .001), and NA (p = .02), and an increase in PA (p = .04) from baseline to EOT. However, there were no differences between placebo and varenicline participants in measures of withdrawal, craving, or affect from baseline to week 3 or at EOT. Significant interactions between time and abstinence state were found for total craving (p = .008), PR craving (p < .001), and withdrawal (p = .001), indicating reductions in these processes among those abstinent vs. those still chewing smokeless tobacco. Additional research is needed concerning the effects of varenicline on craving, withdrawal, and affect among smokeless tobacco users.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 08/2015; DOI:10.1080/02791072.2015.1075092
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    ABSTRACT: Many advances have been made toward understanding the benefits of medical cannabis. However, less is known about medical cannabis patients themselves. Prior research has uncovered many important patient characteristics, but most of that work has been conducted with participants in California, who may not represent medical cannabis patients throughout the United States. Furthermore, it is unknown if medical cannabis legalization, which typically imposes strict regulations on cannabis cultivation and sale, impacts patients' experiences acquiring and using cannabis. The goal of this study was to address these limitations by (1) examining the characteristics, perceptions, and behaviors of medical cannabis patients in Arizona; and (2) questioning participants with a history of cannabis use regarding their experiences with cannabis before and after legalization. Patients in Arizona share many characteristics with those in California, but also key differences, such as average age and degree of cannabis consumption. Participants also had positive perceptions of the effect of medical cannabis legalization, reporting that feelings of safety and awareness were higher after legalization compared to before. The results are discussed in relation to evidence from patients in other states and in terms of their potential policy implications.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 08/2015; DOI:10.1080/02791072.2015.1074766
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    ABSTRACT: The association of substance abuse and psychotic disorders is of interest to clinicians, academics, and lawmakers. Commonly abused substances, such as cannabis, cocaine, amphetamines, and alcohol, have all been associated with substance-induced psychosis. Hallucinogens can induce desired psychedelic effects and undesirable psychomimetic reactions. These are usually transient and resolve once the duration of action is over. Sometimes, these effects persist, causing distress and requiring intervention. This article focuses on the hallucinogenic substance Salvia divinorum, the use of which has been observed, particularly among youth worldwide. We present background information based on a review of the literature and on our own clinical encounters, as highlighted by two original case reports. We hypothesize that consumption of Salvia divinorum could be associated with the development of psychotic disorders. We propose that clinicians routinely inquire about the use of Salvia in patients with substance use disorders or psychotic illnesses. More research is required to assess any relationship between Salvia divinorum and psychosis. Additionally, we advocate increased public and medical awareness of this substance and other emerging drugs of abuse.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 08/2015; DOI:10.1080/02791072.2015.1073815
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    ABSTRACT: Sub-anaesthetic ketamine is of special interest for depression research due to its rapid and potent but short-lived antidepressant response (after-effect). The presented case is the first one in the literature which deals in detail with the transfer from ketamine's antidepressant action to ketamine addiction. A 50-year-old anaesthetic nurse, who had never been treated with antidepressants before, started with self-injecting ketamine racemate 50 mg IM once a week to cope with her major depression. She continuously stole ketamine from hospital stocks. Due to a gradually developing tolerance to ketamine's antidepressant action, she stepwise increased dose and frequency of ketamine self-injections up to daily 2 g IM (three-fold her anaesthetic dose) over six months. This was accompanied by the development of ketamine addiction, loss of consciousness, dissociative immobility, and amnesia. Inpatient detoxification treatment was characterized by a strong craving for ketamine and, later on, by the occurrence of a severe depressive episode remitting on venlafaxine. A 14-week follow-up documented a normal condition without any ketamine sequelae, such as craving, psychosis, depression, or cognitive abnormalities. Thus, awareness of ketamine addiction potential, even in patients who received ketamine for antidepressant purposes, is important.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 08/2015; DOI:10.1080/02791072.2015.1072653
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    ABSTRACT: The validity of self-reported tobacco use is often questioned given the potential for underestimation of use. This study used data from a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of varenicline for smokeless tobacco dependence in India to evaluate the accuracy of self-reported smokeless tobacco cessation using biochemical validation procedures and to evaluate correlates of reporting inaccuracy. Smokeless tobacco users attending a dental clinic at AIIMS were randomized to placebo or varenicline; all participants received counseling. Detailed smokeless tobacco use was recorded and abstinence was defined as cotinine-verified 7-day point prevalence cessation (cotinine < 50 ng/ml) and breath CO > 10 ppm at the end of 12 weeks of treatment. One-half of study completers (82/165) self-reported abstinence. Biochemical verification confirmed that (65.9%) subjects provided accurate self-reports while (34.1%) participants underreported tobacco use. These data indicate poor agreement between self-reported and biochemically confirmed abstinence (κ = -0.191). Underreporters of tobacco use had significantly higher baseline cotinine (p < 0.05), total craving (p < 0.012), and negative reinforcement craving (p < 0.001) vs. those whose self-reports were correctly verified. These findings provide evidence to support the need for biochemical validation of self-reported abstinence outcomes among smokeless tobacco users in cessation programs in India and identify high levels of pretreatment cotinine and craving levels as potential correlates of false reporting.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 08/2015; DOI:10.1080/02791072.2015.1073412
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    ABSTRACT: Despite high levels of stigmatizing attitudes and behaviors toward individuals with substance use problems, there is surprisingly limited research on understanding the contributors to such high levels. College students with no history of marijuana or heroin use (N = 250) completed self-report measures to examine the level of substance use stigma towards individuals using two illicit substances (marijuana and heroin) and the contribution of three perceiver characteristics (sex, previous contact with substance users, and five beliefs about substance use) to three dimensions of stigma (social distance, negative emotions, and forcing treatment). Greater levels of internalized stigma were noted towards individuals who use heroin (versus marijuana). For marijuana use, those who had less previous contact and higher endorsement of certain beliefs (rarity, severity, and less controllability) were associated with greater stigmatizing attitudes. For heroin use, the associations were weak or non-existent. The findings strengthen the argument that substance use stigma needs to be examined and perhaps addressed substance by substance, rather than as a group. Further, contact interventions may be a particularly effective strategy for altering substance use stigma.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 07/2015; 47(3):1-8. DOI:10.1080/02791072.2015.1056891
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    ABSTRACT: To date, the measurement of recovery in the field of substance abuse is limited. Youth recovery from substance abuse is an important area to consider, given the complexities of such issues. The Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS) has been validated with mental health patient populations; however, its measurement characteristics have not been examined for individuals in substance abuse treatment. The current study explored the factor structure of the RAS with a sample of 80 substance-abusing youth who participated in a pilot aftercare study (Mage 20.5, SD = 3.5; 71.3% male). Reliability analysis showed an internal consistency of α = .90 for the entire RAS measure among the youth sample. Results of exploratory factor analysis identified the following four factors: personal determination, skills for recovery, self-control in recovery, and social support/moving beyond recovery among the substance-abusing youth sample. The RAS also demonstrated sound convergent and divergent validity in comparison to other validated measures of functioning, sobriety, and well-being. Collectively, results support that the RAS has adequate psychometric properties for measuring recovery among substance-abusing youth.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 07/2015; 47(3):1-10. DOI:10.1080/02791072.2015.1053556
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    ABSTRACT: In Egypt, tramadol abuse is increasing, especially among youths and the middle- aged. Tobacco smoking is a worldwide health problem responsible for more deaths and disease than any other noninfectious cause. To investigate if there is a relationship between tramadol and nicotine dependence. 48 tramadol addicts completed a demographic sheet, drug use questionnaire, and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Numbers of cigarettes smoked were recorded every week or two weeks at follow-up or by phone calls, and the FTND was completed again five weeks after abstinence. All participants underwent full psychiatric assessment, plus a urine toxicology screening at first visit, and once again during follow-ups. All subjects of the study were cigarette smokers. The mean numbers of cigarettes smoked per day were 13, 31.8, 20.2, and 14.3 during the phase before tramadol taking, addiction phase, two weeks and five weeks after stopping tramadol. The mean FTND score dropped from 6.67 during the tramadol addiction phase to 4.31 only five weeks after stopping tramadol. Tramadol increases the severity of nicotine dependence. The relation seems to be bi-directional, so increased cigarette smoking also increases tramadol intake.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 06/2015; 47(3):1-6. DOI:10.1080/02791072.2015.1050534
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    ABSTRACT: Scientific literature increasingly calls for studies to translate evidence-based interventions into real-world contexts balancing fidelity to the original design and fit to the new setting. The Risk Avoidance Partnership (RAP) is a health promotion intervention originally designed to train active drug users to become Peer Health Advocates. A theoretically driven approach was used to adapt RAP to fit implementation in outpatient methadone treatment clinics and pilot it with clinic patients. Ethnographic observations and process tracking documented the RAP translation and pilot experience, and clinic and community characteristics relevant to program implementation. Clinic administrators, staff, and patients were interviewed on their values, capacities, interest in RAP, perceived challenges of implementing RAP in drug treatment clinics, and experiences during the pilot. Findings indicated that RAP core components can be met when implemented in these settings and RAP can fit with the goals, interests, and other programs of the clinic. Balancing fidelity and fit requires recognition of the mutual impacts RAP and the clinic have on each other, which generate new interactions among staff and require ongoing specification of RAP to keep abreast of clinic and community changes. Collaboration of multiple stakeholders significantly benefited translation and pilot processes.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 06/2015; 47(3):1-9. DOI:10.1080/02791072.2015.1050535
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the association between adolescent sexual debut and age at new-type drug initiation among a sample of young adult new-type drug users. A total of 276 participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in Shanghai, China. The analyses were restricted to a total of 201 participants aged between 18 and 30 years. The average age at sexual debut and age at first new-type drug use were 18.8 and 20.9 years, respectively. About 94% of participants reported having sexual experience (n = 188); of those, 137 (72.9%) had sexual debut before they first used new-type drugs, while 32 (17.0%) initiated both events at the same age. After adjustment for age, income, education, and sexual orientation, adolescent sexual debut was independently associated with younger age at new-type drug initiation. Adolescent sexual debut is associated with early onset of new-type drug use. Our findings underscore the importance of implementing sex-education programs for adolescents in schools in China.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 06/2015; 47(3):1-5. DOI:10.1080/02791072.2015.1049725
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research has shown that early maladaptive schemas (EMS) play an important role in substance use, depression, and anxiety. However, few studies have examined the role of EMS within the context of all three concurrently. The goal of this study was to determine the role of EMS in predicting symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) among adults in residential treatment for substance dependence. We used pre-existing patient records of adults diagnosed with a substance use disorder from a residential substance use treatment facility (N = 122). The EMS domains of disconnection and rejection and impaired limits were associated with symptoms of MDD and the domain of impaired autonomy and performance was associated with symptoms of GAD, even after controlling for age, gender, years of education, alcohol use, drug use, and symptoms of MDD (when predicting GAD) and GAD (when predicting MDD). Findings suggest that EMS may play an important role in comorbid mental health problems among men and women in residential substance use treatment. Continued treatment outcome research is needed to examine whether modification of EMS results in improved mental health and substance use outcomes.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 06/2015; 47(3):1-9. DOI:10.1080/02791072.2015.1050133
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    ABSTRACT: Research typically focuses on motives to use or abstain from marijuana (MJ) in isolation; few studies have integrated both constructs in models of MJ use decision making. We expand the existing literature by integrating these motives in cognitive models of use and cessation in adolescents. We expected use motives to account for past use and intentions for future use, and for motives to abstain to dominate models explaining intention, desire, and self-efficacy for quitting. Adolescent MJ users (N = 162) reported their use and abstinence motives as well as their use and cessation behavior via online survey conducted in high schools. Past use was related to high conformity and low coping, while past cessation attempts were related to high enhancement motives. Intentions to use were related to low negative consequences and conformity, and high enhancement and expansion motives to use. Quitting intention was related to social motives to use, as was quitting self-efficacy. Self-efficacy was also related to high personal/peer beliefs motives to abstain. While past MJ use and intended future use were almost exclusively accounted for by use motives, both motives to use and abstain impacted self-reported cognitions associated with cessation in this sample of adolescent MJ users.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 04/2015; 47(2):100-6. DOI:10.1080/02791072.2015.1031412