Journal of psychoactive drugs (J PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS )

Publisher: Haight-Ashbury Free Medical Clinic

Description

  • Impact factor
    1.10
  • 5-year impact
    1.21
  • Cited half-life
    8.70
  • Immediacy index
    0.06
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.37
  • Other titles
    Journal of psychoactive drugs (Online)
  • ISSN
    0279-1072
  • OCLC
    60617798
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study describes the initiation and maintenance of illicit drug use, risky behaviors, and the substance use treatment experiences of women in the Republic of Georgia. Qualitative interviews with 55 drug-using women (mean age 36 years; SD=9.52), were conducted during April–September 2011. Participants presented diverse histories of drug use initiation and substance use, risky behaviors, and drug treatment participation. All participants reported concurrent use of different substances, including home-produced injection preparations. Women described their experiences of both the positive and negative effects (physical and psychological) that they attributed to their use of drugs. Findings enrich our understanding of the environment in which substance use is initiated and maintained in a female population in Georgia, and illustrates the importance of culture and the role of social factors in the development of injection drug use. Results can provide direction for tailoring the development of interventions for substance use disorders, public policy discussions regarding the treatment of women who use drugs, and future research on substance use among women in Georgia and other post-Soviet nations.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract This study used a life-course perspective to identify and understand life events related to long-term alcohol and other drug (AOD) use trajectories across the life span. Using a purposive sample, we conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with 48 participants (n = 30 abstinent and 18 non-abstinent) from a longitudinal study of AOD outcomes 15 years following outpatient AOD treatment. A content analysis was conducted using ATLAS.ti software to identify events and salient themes. Caregiving for an ill or dependent family member was related to better AOD outcomes by reinforcing abstinence and reduced drinking, and contributing to alcohol cessation in most individuals who cited caregiving as a pivotal event. Grandparenting and parenting an adult child were motivational for sustaining abstinence and reduced drinking. Findings were mixed on death of a loved one, which was related to abstinence in some and relapse in others. Redemption and mutual fulfillment as caregivers, reconciliations with adult children, and legacy-building as grandparents were themes associated with maintaining abstinence and reduced drinking. AOD treatment has the opportunity to employ motivational interventions for relapse prevention that address the meaning and lifelong reach of intimate relationships for individuals and their AOD use across the life span.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 11/2014; 46(5):450-459.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract This study examines the barriers and facilitators of retention among patients receiving buprenorphine/naloxone at eight community-based opioid treatment programs across the United States. Participants (n = 105) were recruited up to three and a half years after having participated in a randomized clinical trial comparing the effect of buprenorphine/naloxone and methadone on liver function. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 67 patients provided with buprenorphine/naloxone who had terminated early and 38 patients who had completed at least 24 weeks of the trial. Qualitative data were analyzed using the constant comparison method. Barriers to buprenorphine/naloxone retention that emerged included factors associated with: (1) the design of the clinical trial; (2) negative medication or treatment experience; and (3) personal circumstances. The facilitators comprised: (1) positive experience with the medication; (2) personal determination and commitment to complete; and (3) staff encouragement and support. The themes drawn from interviews highlight the importance of considering patients' prior experience with buprenorphine/naloxone and methadone, medication preference, personal circumstances, and motivation to abstain from illicit use or misuse of opioids, as these may influence retention. Ongoing education of patients and staff regarding buprenorphine/naloxone, especially in comparison to methadone, and support from staff and peers are essential.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 11/2014; 46(5):412-426.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Many patients diagnosed with opioid dependence do not adequately respond to pharmacologic, psychosocial, or combination treatment, highlighting the importance of novel treatment strategies for this population. The current study examined the efficacy of a novel behavioral treatment focusing on internal cues for drug use (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Interoceptive Cues; CBT-IC) relative to an active comparison condition, Individual Drug Counseling (IDC), when added to methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) among those who had not responded to MMT. Participants (N=78) were randomly assigned to receive 15 sessions of CBT-IC or IDC as an adjunct to ongoing MMT and counseling. Oral toxicology screens were the primary outcome. Results indicated no treatment differences between CBT-IC and IDC and a small, significant reduction of self-reported drug use, but no change on toxicology screens. Tests of potential moderators, including sex, anxiety sensitivity, and coping motives for drug use, did not yield significant interactions. Among opioid-dependent outpatients who have not responded to MMT and counseling, the addition of IDC or CBT-IC did not result in additive outcome benefits. These results highlight the need for more potent treatment strategies for opioid dependence, particularly among those who do not fully respond to frontline treatment.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 11/2014; 46(5):402-11.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract A new class of synthetic hallucinogens called NBOMe has emerged, and reports of adverse effects are beginning to appear. We report on a case of a suicide attempt after LSD ingestion which was analytically determined to be 25I-NBOMe instead. Clinicians need to have a high index of suspicion for possible NBOMe ingestion in patients reporting the recent use of LSD or other hallucinogens.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 11/2014; 46(5):379-82.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric disorder with considerable morbidity and mortality. This condition disables many individuals and is often refractory to treatment. Research suggests that serotonin plays a role in OCD symptom reduction. We present a case of an individual who successfully used psilocybin, a serotonergic agent, to reduce the core symptoms of OCD for several years. Although not endorsing this form of treatment, we feel that the successful use of this agent highlights the role of serotonergic factors in OCD and the need for further, legitimate research into the value of psilocybin in the treatment of anxiety disorders.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 11/2014; 46(5):393-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Support for marijuana (cannabis) legalization is increasing in the US, and state-level marijuana policies are rapidly changing. Research is needed to examine correlates of opinions toward legalization among adolescents approaching adulthood as they are at high risk for use. Data were examined from a national representative sample of high school seniors in the Monitoring the Future study (years 2007-2011; N = 11,594) to delineate correlates of opinions toward legalization. A third of students felt marijuana should be entirely legal and 28.5% felt it should be treated as a minor violation; 48.0% felt that if legal to sell it should be sold to adults only, and 10.4% felt it should be sold to anyone. Females, conservatives, religious students, and those with friends who disapprove of marijuana use tended to be at lower odds for supporting legalization, and Black, liberal, and urban students were at higher odds for supporting more liberal policies. Recent and frequent marijuana use strongly increased odds for support for legalization; however, 16.7% of non-lifetime marijuana users also reported support for legalization. Findings should be interpreted with caution as state-level data were not available, but results suggest that support for marijuana legalization is common among specific subgroups of adolescents.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 11/2014; 46(5):351-61.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Energy drink (ED) use among college students to improve academic performance (AP) has skyrocketed. A growing body of literature indicates that the risks associated with ED use may outweigh the perceived benefits. In this study, 486 undergraduates were surveyed on their general substance and ED usage, Social Problem-Solving (SPS) ability, and AP. It was hypothesized that: (1) ED use would be a negative predictor of AP; (2) SPS would be a positive predictor of AP; (3) SPS would be a negative predictor of ED use; and (4) SPS and ED use would account for a significant amount of the variance in AP. A linear multiple regression for AP was conducted, with predictor variables entered in the following order: total drug use, non-ED caffeine use, SPS, and ED use. The overall model was significant and accounted for approximately 7% of the variance in AP. The hypotheses of the study were supported, indicating that ED use may be related to decreased AP, SPS ability may be related to increased AP, or that students with poor AP and less effective SPS skills are more likely to use EDs. Implications of these findings are important for college students and other users of ED products.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 11/2014; 46(5):396-401.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The use of synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones in southeastern Michigan was explored using Roger's Diffusion of Innovation theory. A mixed methods approach after specific synthetic cannabinoids and cathinone compounds were scheduled was used that included analysis of treatment admissions for two years, surveys of 15 substance abuse treatment providers, and qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of 24 participants. The participant system norm supported trying new drugs, and both drugs were confirmed to have been easier to access than traditional drugs. The participants had negative views of synthetic cathinones due to one sensational news story without counterbalancing positive experiences in their social environment. Although synthetic cannabinoids were also linked to a sensational news story, it was counterbalanced by positive personal experiences. These differences contributed to greater use of synthetic cannabinoids compared to synthetic cathinones as evidenced by admissions, providers' reports, and participants' reports. All participants expressed a preference for traditional drugs, indicating that novel drugs had no relative advantage over other drugs of abuse. Diffusion of Innovation theory can provide a framework for understanding the differential use of novel drugs.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 11/2014; 46(5):362-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract This study examines perceived substance use treatment barriers in a community-based sample of 267 African Americans from Baltimore, MD. Both men and women endorsed "they can handle it alone" as a primary reason they were not currently in treatment. However, men were two times more likely (AOR = 2.29 CI = 1.05, 5.02) to endorse "concerns about losing family" as the reason they are not currently in treatment. The present study yields interesting findings among African Americans, which should be considered when creating interventions for particular groups of African Americans.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 11/2014; 46(5):444-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Among women, methamphetamine (meth) use has been associated with intimate partner violence (IPV); however, few studies have looked at the context of IPV. This qualitative pilot study explored the experiences of meth-using women in Los Angeles County regarding: (1) IPV in their most recent primary relationship; (2) use of contraception and reproductive health services; and (3) meth use during pregnancy. Participants (n=30) were recruited through community advertising and at three addiction treatment centers to participate in 15-20 minute, semi-structured interviews recorded with handwritten transcripts. The team analyzed transcripts for key themes. Participants reported IPV (n=19, 63%) as recipients (50%), perpetrators (40%), and/or both (27%), occurring mainly during active meth use or withdrawal. While most (n=25) continued meth use during at least one pregnancy, some (n=5, 17%) identified pregnancy as a motivation to quit or reduce use, suggesting an opportunity for intervention. Though most women knew about free and low-cost reproductive health services, few accessed them, with 33% citing aspects of meth use itself as a barrier. One-third (45/133) of reported pregnancies were terminated by abortion. Most women (67%) began using before age 18, suggesting need for screening and intervention among adolescents.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 09/2014; 46(4):310-316.
  • Journal of psychoactive drugs 09/2014; 46(4):347-348.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The proliferation of medical marijuana (MM) dispensaries has led to concerns that they will lead to more widespread use of marijuana. The aim of the current study was to collect descriptive data on individuals using MM dispensaries in Los Angeles County. A mixed-method approach was employed that consisted of focus groups with 30 individuals and a survey of dispensary users (N = 182) in Los Angeles County. Differences between younger (less than 30 years old) and older individuals were examined in the survey sample. Most individuals in both samples had initiated marijuana use in adolescence. Nearly one-half of survey respondents had indications of risky alcohol use and one-fifth reported recent use of illicit drugs or misuse of prescription medications. Younger individuals had higher rates of tobacco use, visited dispensaries more frequently, and had more socially embedded patterns of use, but they were similar to older individuals in terms of their reasons for use. Nearly all participants believed that MM was beneficial in treating their health problems, although 65% reported symptoms of psychological distress in the past year. Interventions aimed at MM users should stress the related effects of tobacco and risky alcohol use as well as mental health needs.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 09/2014; 46(4):263-272.