Brain and Cognition (BRAIN COGNITION )

Publisher: Elsevier

Journal description

Brain and Cognition, a Journal of Clinical, Experimental, and Theoretical Research, publishes original research articles, theoretical papers, critical reviews, case histories, historical articles, and scholarly notes. Contributions are relevant to all aspects of human neuropsychology other than language or communication. Coverage includes, but is not limited to: memory, cognition, emotion, perception, movement, or praxis, in relationship to brain structure or function. Articles have theoretical import, either formulating new hypothesis, or supporting or refuting new or previously established hypotheses. Interdisciplinary Research Areas include: Neuroanatomy; Neurology; Neurophysiology; Philosophy; Psychiatry; Psychology; Linguistics; Speech pathology; Computer science.

Current impact factor: 2.68

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 2.683
2012 Impact Factor 2.823
2011 Impact Factor 3.174
2010 Impact Factor 2.838
2009 Impact Factor 2.547
2008 Impact Factor 2.441
2007 Impact Factor 2.308
2006 Impact Factor 2.858
2005 Impact Factor 1.845
2004 Impact Factor 1.148
2003 Impact Factor 1.063
2002 Impact Factor 1.093
2001 Impact Factor 0.791
2000 Impact Factor 0.63
1999 Impact Factor 0.736
1998 Impact Factor 0.508
1997 Impact Factor 0.566
1996 Impact Factor 1.073
1995 Impact Factor 1.11
1994 Impact Factor 1.373
1993 Impact Factor 1.23
1992 Impact Factor 1.5

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 3.26
Cited half-life 8.10
Immediacy index 0.43
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 1.14
Website Brain and Cognition website
Other titles Brain and cognition
ISSN 0278-2626
OCLC 7753769
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print allowed on any website or open access repository
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on authors' personal website, or institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository, without embargo, where there is not a policy or mandate
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months .
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ample evidence suggests that the role of the mirror neuron system (MNS) in monkeys is to represent the meaning of actions. The MNS becomes active in monkeys during execution, observation, and auditory experience of meaningful, object-oriented actions, suggesting that these cells represent the same action based on a variety of cues. The present study sought to determine whether the human motor system, part of the putative human MNS, similarly represents and reflects the meaning of actions rather than simply the mechanics of the actions. To this end, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of primary motor cortex was used to generate motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from muscles involved in grasping while participants viewed object-oriented grasping actions performed by either a human, an elephant, a rat, or a body-less robotic arm. The analysis of MEP amplitudes suggested that activity in primary motor cortex during action observation was greatest during observation of the grasping actions of the rat and elephant, and smallest for the human and robotic arm. Based on these data, we conclude that the human action observation system can represent actions executed by non-human animals and shows sensitivity to species-specific differences in action mechanics.
    Brain and Cognition 12/2014; 92.
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    ABSTRACT: When table tennis players anticipate the course of the ball while preparing their motor responses, they not only observe their opponents striking the ball but also listen to events such as the sound of racket–ball contact. Because visual stimuli can be detected more easily when accompanied by a sound, we assumed that complementary sensory audiovisual information would influence the anticipation of biological motion, especially when the racket–ball contact is not presented visually, but has to be inferred from continuous movement kinematics and an abrupt sound. Twenty-six observers were examined with fMRI while watching point-light displays (PLDs) of an opposing table tennis player. Their task was to anticipate the resultant ball flight. The sound was presented complementary to the veracious event or at a deviant time point in its kinematics.Results showed that participants performed best in the complementary condition. Using a region-of-interest approach, fMRI data showed that complementary audiovisual stimulation elicited higher activation in the left temporo-occipital middle temporal gyrus (MTGto), the left primary motor cortex, and the right anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS). Both hemispheres also revealed higher activation in the ventral premotor cortex (vPMC) and the pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44). Ranking the behavioral effect of complementary versus conflicting audiovisual information over participants revealed an association between the complementary information and higher activation in the right vPMC. We conclude that the recruitment of movement representations in the auditory and visual modalities in the vPMC can be influenced by task-relevant cross-modal audiovisual interaction.
    Brain and Cognition 12/2014; 92.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was a comparison of lexical and contextual factors in understanding ambiguous words in German. First, a sample of native speakers selected 56 words having maximally strong differences between a dominant and a subordinate meaning. After this, another sample from the same population was visually presented with sentences that activated dominant or subordinate meanings of the words and were accompanied by probes associated with dominant or subordinate meanings. This resulted in a crossed design with two factors: sentence dominant vs. sentence subordinate and probe dominant vs. probe subordinate. An analysis of event-related brain potentials revealed a large, long-lasting and highly-significant N400 wave whenever the meaning of the probe was incongruent with the meaning of the sentence and the lack of this wave whenever the two meanings were congruent. In the typical N400 space and time, the effect was independent of whether the lexical word meaning was dominant or subordinate. At other sites and times, however (e.g., at lateral frontal electrodes F7/F8, and after 700 ms), the congruence effect was significant after dominant sentences only. The data indicate that lexical factors have a rather limited influence on the activation of a particular meaning of ambiguous words. A strong context can virtually override even a very strong difference in the preference for different meanings.
    Brain and Cognition 12/2014; 92.
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    ABSTRACT: An emerging theory proposes that visual attention operates in parallel at two distinct time scales – a shorter one (<1 s) associated with moment-to-moment orienting of selective visuospatial attention, and a longer one (>10 s) associated with more global aspects of attention-to-task. Given their parallel nature, here we examined whether these comparatively slower fluctuations in task-related attention show the same visual field asymmetry – namely, a right visual field bias – as often reported for selective visual–spatial attention. Participants performed a target detection task at fixation while event-related potentials (ERP) time-locked to task-irrelevant visual probes presented in the left and right visual fields were recorded. At random intervals, participants were asked to report whether they were “on-task” or “mind wandering”. Our results demonstrated that sensory attenuation during periods of “mind wandering” relative to “on-task”, as measured by the visual P1 ERP component at electrodes sites contralateral to the stimulus, was only observed for probes presented in the left visual field. In contrast, the magnitude of sensory gain in the right visual field was insensitive to whether participants were “on-task” or “mind wandering”. Taken together, our results support the notion that task-related attention at longer time scales and spatial attention at shorter time scales affect the same underlying mechanism in visual cortex.
    Brain and Cognition 12/2014; 92.
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    ABSTRACT: Physical activity has been shown to benefit brain and cognition in late adulthood. However, this effect is still unexplored in terms of brain signal complexity, which reflects the level of neural adaptability and efficiency during cognitive processing that cannot be acquired via averaged neuroelectric signals. Here we employed multiscale entropy analysis (MSE) of electroencephalography (EEG), a new approach that conveys important information related to the temporal dynamics of brain signal complexity across multiple time scales, to reveal the association of physical activity with neural adaptability and efficiency in elderly adults. A between-subjects design that included 24 participants (aged 66.63 ± 1.31 years; female = 12) with high physical activity and 24 age- and gender-matched low physical activity participants (aged 67.29 ± 1.20 years) was conducted to examine differences related to physical activity in performance and MSE of EEG signals during a visuo-spatial cognition task. We observed that physically active elderly adults had better accuracy on both visuo-spatial attention and working memory conditions relative to their sedentary counterparts. Additionally, these physically active elderly adults displayed greater MSE values at larger time scales at the Fz electrode in both attention and memory conditions. The results suggest that physical activity may be beneficial for adaptability of brain systems in tasks involving visuo-spatial information. MSE thus might be a promising approach to test the effects of the benefits of exercise on cognition.
    Brain and Cognition 12/2014; 92.
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    ABSTRACT: Brain imaging studies have identified two cortical areas, the parahippocampal place area (PPA) and the retrosplenial complex (RSC), that respond preferentially to the viewing of scenes. Contrary to the PPA, little is known about the functional maturation and cognitive control of the RSC. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and tasks that required attention to scene (or face) images and suppression of face (or scene) images, respectively, to investigate task-dependent modulation of activity in the RSC and whole-brain functional connectivity (FC) of this area in 7–11-year-old children and young adults. We compared responsiveness of the RSC with that of the PPA. The RSC was selectively activated by scene images in both groups, albeit less than the PPA. Children modulated activity between the tasks similarly in the RSC and PPA, and to the same extent as adults in PPA, whereas adults modulated activity in the RSC less than in PPA. In children, the whole brain FC of the RSC was stronger in the Sf than Fs task between the left RSC and right fusiform gyrus. The between groups comparison suggested stronger FC in children than adults in the Sf task between the right RSC and the left inferior parietal lobule and intraparietal sulcus. Together the results suggest that the function of the RSC and the related networks undergo dynamic changes over the development from 7–11-year-old children to adulthood.
    Brain and Cognition 12/2014; 92.
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    ABSTRACT: Thomas Willis’ 1664 study The anatomy of the brain is widely regarded as one of the first clinical studies of the brain. In Theanatomy, Thomas Willis explicitly connected the cognitive faculties and the nerves. Willis’ later, 1672 work, The two discourses concerning the soul of brutes, severely undermined the materialism of Willis’ first study: he affirmed dualism and cognitive immateriality; changed the anatomical locations of cognition; and reasserted a division between the rational and sensitive souls. His exact motive to return to orthodoxy is unclear, but contemporary scholarship of Willis has compounded the confusion with by relying predominantly on The soul of brutes instead of The anatomy. We trace Willis’ career and examine his methodological practices, which help explain the historical practices and pressures. A closer examination of Willis’ Anatomy of the brain reveals a much more materialistic account of the brain, the faculties, and nervous system. In this article, we present our own analysis of Willis’ concept of rationality in the Anatomy and explain its importance for nervous physiology and understanding the analytic techniques for first defining faculty localizations. We then explain the role of the imagination and the immortal soul in the rearticulated anatomical concepts from The soulof brutes.
    Brain and Cognition 11/2014; 91:131–137.
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    ABSTRACT: Although antisaccadic task is a sensitive research tool in psychopathology, it has not been systematically studied in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2). To identify putative biomarkers of executive dysfunction in SCA2 we assessed the antisaccade performance in 41 SCA2 patients and their sex-and-age matched controls using an electronystagmography device. We studied the relationship between findings in the antisaccade task and CAG repeat length and motor function as assessed using the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA), Nine-Hole Pegboard Test and a validated battery for executive dysfunctions. SCA2 patients showed a significant increase of inhibition and omission antisaccadic error rates, decrease of corrected antisaccadic errors and prolongation of antisaccadic latency and antisaccadic correction latency. Multiple regression predictions identified the expanded CAG repeat as a significant contributing factor on inhibition antisaccadic error rate and percentage of corrected antisaccadic errors. Impaired antisaccadic performance was associated to higher Stroop interference task and verbal fluency test deficits. In conclusion, antisaccadic eye movement abnormalities are a newly recognized association with the genetic abnormality in SCA2 and correlate with executive dysfunction in SCA2. Antisaccade parameters are a promising source of cognitive biomarkers for exploring the disease pathophysiology, and assessing the efficacy of therapeutic options.
    Brain and Cognition 11/2014; 91:28–34.
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    ABSTRACT: Environmental context can have a profound influence on the efficacy of intervention protocols designed to eliminate undesirable behaviors. This is clearly seen in drug rehabilitation clinics where patients often relapse soon after leaving the context of the treatment facility. A similar pattern is commonly observed in controlled laboratory studies of context-dependent savings in instrumental conditioning, where simply placing an animal back into the original conditioning chamber can renew an extinguished instrumental response. Surprisingly, context-dependent savings in human procedural learning has not been carefully examined in the laboratory. Here, we provide the first known empirical demonstration of context-dependent savings in a perceptual categorization task known to recruit procedural learning. We also present a computational account of these savings using a biologically detailed model in which a key role is played by cholinergic interneurons in the striatum.
    Brain and Cognition 10/2014; 92:1–10.
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    ABSTRACT: Background objectives: Studies suggest that the right hemisphere is dominant for emotional facial recognition. In addition, whereas some studies suggest the right hemisphere mediates the processing of all emotions (dominance hypothesis), other studies suggest that the left hemisphere mediates positive emotions the right mediates negative emotions (valence hypothesis). Since each hemisphere primarily attends to contralateral space, the goals of this study was to learn if emotional faces would induce a leftward deviation of attention and if the valence of facial emotional stimuli can influence the normal viewer's spatial direction of attention. Methods: Seventeen normal right handed participants were asked to bisect horizontal lines that had all combinations of sad, happy or neutral faces at ends of these lines. During this task the subjects were never requested to look at these faces and there were no task demands that depended on viewing these faces. Results: Presentation of emotional faces induced a greater leftward deviation compared to neutral faces, independent of where (spatial position) these faces were presented. However, faces portraying negative emotions tended to induce a greater leftward bias than positive emotions. Conclusions: Independent of location, the presence of emotional faces influenced the spatial allocation of attention, such that normal subjects shift the direction of their attention toward left hemispace and this attentional shift appears to be greater for negative (sad) than positive faces (happy).
    Brain and Cognition 10/2014; 91C:108-112.
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    ABSTRACT: Research indicates a distinction between the processing of script content (which events, behaviors, scenes… are part of it) and script chronology (what is their usual order of occurrence). Using sequences of two line drawings depicting everyday social script events, we examined the event related potential (ERP) correlates of script chronology violations (i.e., wrong order). An increased left anterior negativity (LAN) following chronology violations suggests similarities between the processing of script chronology in visually observed human behavior and verbal syntax. Consequently, this study extends previous findings suggesting that the LAN is sensitive to structure violation across domains (e.g., verbal syntax, abstract structure), including that of meaningful human actions.
    Brain and Cognition 10/2014; 91C:113-122.
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    ABSTRACT: A number of recent studies have investigated the neurological substrates of Emotional Intelligence (EI), but none of them have considered the neural correlates of EI that are measured using the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Scale (SSREIS). This scale was developed based on the EI model of Salovey and Mayer (1990). In the present study, SSREIS was adopted to estimate EI. Meanwhile, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used to evaluate the gray matter volume (GMV) of 328 university students. Results found positive correlations between Monitor of Emotions and VBM measurements in the insula and orbitofrontal cortex. In addition, Utilization of Emotions was positively correlated with the GMV in the parahippocampal gyrus, but was negatively correlated with the VBM measurements in the fusiform gyrus and middle temporal gyrus. Furthermore, Social Ability had volume correlates in the vermis. These findings indicate that the neural correlates of the EI model, which primarily focuses on the abilities of individuals to appraise and express emotions, can also regulate and utilize emotions to solve problems.
    Brain and Cognition 10/2014; 91C:100-107.
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    ABSTRACT: Inferring the cause of another person’s emotional state is relevant for guiding behavior in social interactions. With respect to their potentially evoked behavioral reactions some emotional states like anger or happiness are considered to have high social impact while others such as fear and sadness have low social impact. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study to map the brain activation patterns related to reasoning about facial expressions of emotions with high or low social impact in twenty-six healthy volunteers with good emotional competence, self-reported empathy, and explicit facial affect recognition abilities. Our data show that empathic reasoning was faster and more accurate for high impact emotional states than for low impact emotional states. Activated brain areas involved brain circuits associated with basic and higher order empathy and decision-making in the dorsomedial and dorsolateral frontal cortex. However, activation in higher order areas was less during reasoning about emotional states of high social impact. Taken together, reasoning of high and low impact emotional states relied on similar empathy-related brain areas with reasoning about emotional states of low social impact being more erroneous and requiring more cognitive resources.
    Brain and Cognition 10/2014; 90:165–173.
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    ABSTRACT: Behavioural and neuroimaging data have recently pointed out that empathy (feeling into someone else) is associated with mental imagery and transformation related to one’s and other’s visuo-spatial perspectives. Impairments of both empathic and visuo-spatial abilities have been observed in patients with schizophrenia. Especially, it has been suggested that schizophrenics are altered in spontaneously simulating another individual’s first-person experience. However, there is so far only little evidence regarding the relationship between deficits in empathy and disturbances in spontaneous heterocentered coding in schizophrenia. In the present pilot-study, we tested with schizophrenic patients our behavioural paradigm that enables to measure from the bodily postures and movements whether individuals in ecologically more valid conditions are interacting with another individual by using egocentered – as in sympathy (feeling with someone else) – or heterocentered – as in empathy – visuo-spatial mechanisms. For that, ten patients and ten controls, standing and moving, interacted with a virtual tightrope walker, displayed life-sized, standing and moving as well. We show that patients with higher negative symptoms had, in most cases, deficits in spontaneously using heterocentered visuo-spatial mechanisms and employed preferentially an egocentered referencing to interact with the avatar. In contrast, preserved spontaneous heterocentered visuo-spatial strategies were not linked to a prevailing negative or positive symptomatology. Our data suggest that the severity of the negative symptoms in schizophrenia relates with disturbances of spontaneous (“on-line”) empathic processing in association with lower scoring self-reported trait cognitive empathy.
    Brain and Cognition 10/2014; 90:87–99.