Wetlands (WETLANDS )

Publisher: Society of Wetland Scientists (U.S.)


Wetlands is an international journal concerned with all aspects of wetlands biology, ecology, hydrology, water chemistry, soil and sediment characteristics, management, and laws and regulations. The journal is published quarterly, with the goal of centralizing the publication of pioneering wetlands work that is otherwise spread among a myriad of journals. Since wetlands research usually requires an interdisciplinary approach, the journal in not limited to specific disciplines but seeks manuscripts reporting research results from all relevant disciplines. Journal of The Society of Wetland Scientists.

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    Wetlands website
  • Other titles
    Wetlands (Wilmington, N. C.: Online), Wetlands
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    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
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    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Our objective was to evaluate the changes of mangrove forest coverage of Mexico and adjacent land cover types in the coastal zone between 1970 and 2005 by remote sensing techniques. Based on maps generated by the National Commission for the Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity (CONABIO for its Spanish acronym), three land cover change indicators were estimated: net change, stability of location, and stability of residence. Analyses were made at national and regional (Northern Pacific, Central Pacific, Southern Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and Yucatan Peninsula) scales, and for the 17 states presenting mangroves. At the national level during the studied period we observed a 10 % net loss of mangrove. At the state level, 13 states lost area, three gained area, and one showed no change in mangrove cover. According to the indicators of location stability and residence stability, the lowest values were recorded in four states within the Pacific Ocean coast (Jalisco, Colima, Guerrero, and Oaxaca), while the highest values corresponded to two states of the Gulf of Mexico (Tamaulipas and Tabasco). Many of the changes in mangrove cover we detected were attributed to crop and animal husbandry activities, and to anthropic infrastructure.
    Wetlands 08/2014; 34(4):747-758.
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    ABSTRACT: The landscape structure of emergent wetlands in undeveloped portions of the southeastern coastal Everglades is comprised of two distinct components: scattered forest fragments, or tree islands, surrounded by a low matrix of marsh or shrub-dominated vegetation. Changes in the matrix, including the inland transgression of salt-tolerant mangroves and the recession of sawgrass marshes, have been attributed to the combination of sea level rise and reductions in fresh water supply. In this study we examined concurrent changes in the composition of the region’s tree islands over a period of almost three decades. No trend in species composition toward more salt-tolerant trees was observed anywhere, but species characteristic of freshwater swamps increased in forests in which fresh water supply was augmented. Tree islands in the coastal Everglades appear to be buffered from some of the short term effects of salt water intrusion, due to their ability to build soils above the surface of the surrounding wetlands, thus maintaining mesophytic conditions. However, the apparent resistance of tree islands to changes associated with sea level rise is likely to be a temporary stage, as continued salt water intrusion will eventually overwhelm the forests’ capacity to maintain fresh water in the rooting zone.
    Wetlands 07/2014; 34(Suppl 1):S91-S100.
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    ABSTRACT: Ecosystem management practices that modify the major drivers and stressors of an ecosystem often lead to changes in plant community composition. This paper examines how closely the trajectory of vegetation change in seasonally-flooded wetlands tracks management-induced alterations in hydrology and soil characteristics. We used trajectory analysis, a multivariate method designed to test hypotheses about rates and directions of community change, to examine vegetation shifts in response to changes in water management practices within the Taylor Slough basin of Everglades National Park. We summarized vegetation data by non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination, and examined the time trajectory of each site along environmental vectors representing hydrology and soil phosphorus gradients. In the Taylor Slough basin, vegetation change trajectories closely followed the hydrologic changes caused by the operation of water pumps and detention ponds adjacent to the canals. We also observed a shift in vegetation composition along a vector of increasing soil phosphorus, which suggests the need for implementing measures to avoid P-enrichment in southern Everglades marl prairies. This study indicates that shifts in vegetation composition in response to changes in hydrologic conditions and associated parameters may be detected through trajectory analysis, thereby providing feedback for adaptive management of wetland ecosystems.
    Wetlands 07/2014; 34(Suppl 1):S65-S79.
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    ABSTRACT: Duckweed and other free-floating plants (FFP) can form dense surface mats that affect ecosystem condition and processes, and can impair public use of aquatic resources. FFP obtain their nutrients from the water column, and the formation of dense FFP mats can be a consequence and indicator of river eutrophication. We conducted two complementary surveys of diverse aquatic areas of the Upper Mississippi River as an in situ approach for estimating thresholds in the response of FFP abundance to nutrient concentration and physical conditions in a large, floodplain river. Local regression analysis was used to estimate thresholds in the relations between FFP abundance and phosphorus (P) concentration (0.167 mg l−1), nitrogen (N) concentration (0.808 mg l−1), water velocity (0.095 m s−1), and aquatic macrophyte abundance (65 % cover). FFP tissue concentrations suggested P limitation was more likely in spring, N limitation was more likely in late summer, and N limitation was most likely in backwaters with minimal hydraulic connection to the channel. The thresholds estimated here, along with observed patterns in nutrient limitation, provide river scientists and managers with criteria to consider when attempting to modify FFP abundance in off-channel areas of large river systems.
    Wetlands 06/2014; 34(3).
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    ABSTRACT: The chemical, physical and palaeobotanical composition of peat can be used to infer the history of a peatland and the processes presently operating within it. Here we present new data on the geochemistry of a peat sequence from a lowland palm swamp, Quistococha, in Peruvian Amazonia. We show, through comparison with subfossil pollen data from the same sequence, that changes in the depositional environment cause changes in peat properties including lignin content, C/N ratios, and the abundance of several metal cations, but that these properties are altered by post-depositional processes to a large extent. An upward trend in the top 1.5 m of the sequence in the concentrations of N, K, Ca, Mg and Na probably reflects nutrient uptake and cycling by the standing biomass. Upward trends in Mn and Fe concentrations suggest that limited oxygenation of the peat may occur to a similar depth. Comparison with other published records suggests that such deep biological alteration may be characteristic of tropical forested peats.
    Wetlands 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In recent decades, invasive shrubs have replaced herbaceous wetlands in many parts of the world. In Florida, the native shrub Salix caroliniana Michx. (Carolina willow) expanded its distribution throughout the upper St. Johns River, replacing herbaceous marshes with willow swamps. To identify ways to prevent its expansion, we experimentally tested the effects of watering regime, temperature, substrate, and seed source on willow germination and seedling survival. In growth chamber experiments, germination and survival were most affected by watering regime and were greatest in saturated, organic soils. Survival decreased with soil inundation and on drier, sandy soils. Variable texture and nutrient content in native soils had no differential effect on germination or survivability of willow. Time of seed production, seed source, and delay in watering significantly affected germination. Seed germination occurred quickly after being sown. However, seed viability declined just as quickly. Whenever a soil held sufficient water, especially through capillarity, seeds of Carolina willow germinated and survived well. Seasonal manipulation of water levels to flood marshes during seed-fall and to inundate willow seedlings provides managers with an effective strategy for reducing establishment of Carolina willow.
    Wetlands 06/2014; 34(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Dipnet (DN) sampling is routinely employed for macroinvertebrate bioassessments in wetlands, but it has been demonstrated that some taxa are more effectively collected with activity traps (AT). The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) used both DN and AT methods to evaluate the biological condition of depressional wetlands in the Mixed Wood Plains (MWP) and Temperate Prairies (TP) ecoregions. Two indices of biotic integrity (IBIs) were developed for each ecoregion using: 1) DN data alone and 2) composite samples consisting of both DN and AT data. ATs collected more active taxa such as diving beetles and swimming Hemiptera. DNs collected more taxa and collected more skating taxa and those associated with sediment or vegetation. A comparison of the effectiveness of the IBIs to evaluate biological condition indicated that the composite data had a slightly better relationship with anthropogenic disturbance and was marginally more precise. A comparison of sampling and processing costs revealed that sampling using composite samples was 130 % greater and processing was 50 % greater compared to DNonly samples. Based on the cost and limited benefit of adding AT samples, a DN-only sampling protocol is recommended to assess biological condition in depressional wetlands.
    Wetlands 05/2014; 34:699-711.
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    ABSTRACT: Growing awareness of essential wetland functions is providing support for wetland construction projects. Biomonitoring using invertebrates is a common way to evaluate project success, but relationships between wetland invertebrates and environmental factors are often weak. In recently constructed wetlands on Maryland’s Eastern Shore, we tested the hypothesis that focusing on predator and primary consumer invertebrate assemblages versus the entire community would elucidate stronger relationships with environmental factors. Despite variation in factors that are hypothesized to control wetland invertebrates (e.g., vegetation and tendency to dry), our results indicated weak relationships between environmental factors and the structure and composition of the entire community as well as predator and primary consumer assemblages separately. Examining the entire community and individual assemblages, however, showed that invertebrates were influenced by temporal factors. We propose that a complex interaction between wetland shape/size, local weather, and seasonal changes may have driven invertebrate community patterns among wetlands. Such interactions would complicate bioassessments of wetlands that differ in size, hydrology, and local weather conditions. Further study of specific factors controlling wetland invertebrates and developing new metrics that incorporate seasonal environmental change could improve biomonitoring results and thus management strategies aimed at enhancing wetland function.
    Wetlands 04/2014; 34(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Constructed wetlands are engineered systems relying on natural microbial, biological, physical and chemical processes to treat wastewater. Treatment performance tends to decrease in colder temperatures, so that ways to enhance the performance in northern climates has been sought. In China, the first constructed wetland was built in China in 1987 and since then, about 450 systems have been constructed throughout the country. At least 67 constructed wetlands are located in northern China and have reported significant seasonal changes of treatment efficiencies. This paper reviews current engineering practices including case studies showing ways to increase winter treatment effectiveness in cold climates. These measures include: (1) internal improvement of system design and setup of the system, (2) optimization of winter operation, and (3) external incorporation of pre- and post-treatment technologies. Various measures to raise the temperatures of these systems in the winter were compared in several constructed wetlands (40 and 50°N). For example, plastic film mulch can be used with thermal insulation; however, the operators of constructed wetlands often use ice to cover the system due to lower cost and maintenance. This review demonstrates that the effectiveness of constructed wetlands in cold climates can be improved through better operation strategies.
    Wetlands 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Respiration in tidal marshes plays an important role in the global carbon cycle, but is little investigated in Asia. In this study, ecosystem respiration in three brackish marshes dominated by Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass), Phragmites australis (common reed) and Cyperus malaccensis (shichito matgrass) were examined monthly during 2009 in the subtropical tidal wetland of the Min River estuary of southeast China. Measurements were taken before and after tidal inundation. Soil porewater CO2 concentrations at soil depths of 5 and 10 cm were also measured. Differences in ecosystem respiration before and after tidal inundation stages were statistically indistinguishable in each vegetation type on an annual scale but differed by month. Monthly variation in ecosystem respiration was apparent and overall respiration in P. australis stand had the highest respiration of the vegetation types. Monthly average CO2 concentration in soil porewater did not differ significantly between the two depths. Ecosystem respiration in P. australis and C. malaccensis stands had a significant positive correlation with soil and air temperature, and a significant negative correlation with soil pH in S. alterniflora and C. malaccensis stands. Our results suggested that the brackish marsh ecosystem of subtropical estuary emits CO2 to the atmosphere at relatively higher level, but the emission pattern did not differ before and after tides.
    Wetlands 04/2014; 34(2).
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    ABSTRACT: A new process-based simulation model to estimate methane emissions from Amazon floodplain ecosystems is described and evaluated in comparison to independent measurements of methane fluxes. The model’s three major components are 1) types of wetland vegetation and the changes in water level, temperature and dissolved oxygen of flooded areas, 2) plant production, biomass accumulation, and litterfall decay in soils and sediments, and 3) methane production and transport pathways through the water column and into the atmosphere. Ecological and limnological data from Lake Calado, a well-studied site in the central Amazon basin, were used to develop the model. One set of model simulations were generated for floating macrophytes. Predicted rates of CH4 emission to the atmosphere by all simulated transfer pathways were typically in the range of 0.25 to 0.33 g C m−2 day−1. Simulated CH4 emissions from flooded forests were predicted to be around 0.25 g m−2 day−1, nearly all by ebullition. These rates compare favorably to rates measured in Amazon floodplain habitats.
    Wetlands 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In a tidal freshwater marsh (TFM) in lower Chesapeake Bay, salt marsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) recently has become established where TFM vegetation previously grew. To determine the potential contribution of saltwater intrusion to the observed species transition, we conducted a mesocosm study subjecting Spartina and two TFM perennials (Peltandra virginica and Leersia oryzoides) to sub-lethal levels of salinity (0, 2, 4 and 6). We measured plant performance as carbon dioxide flux over the leaf stomata as a proxy for net photosynthesis (Anet), aboveground and belowground biomass and tissue carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus. For Spartina, all metrics were unchanged across the range of tested salinity. The TFM species, however, had lower Anet than Spartina and decreased with added salinity. TFM biomass was reduced up to 86 % in both the aboveground and belowground compartments, and aboveground nutrient allocation was altered: N increased in Leersia and P increased in Peltandra with increasing salinity. Under this simulation of increased salt intrusion associated with climate change and sea level rise, TFM species responded with decreased biomass and decreased tissue C:N. Although other factors must contribute, the abiotic salt stressor leads to plant responses consistent with the observed replacement of TFM species by Spartina.
    Wetlands 01/2014; 34(1).

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