PESC Record - IEEE Annual Power Electronics Specialists Conference

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  • ISSN
    0275-9306

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: While supercapacitors offer high power density, high cycling capability and mechanical robustness, voltage and current ripple from downstream PWM converters can result in their overcharging or heating resulting in their lifetime reduction. This paper discusses how a simple novel design scheme of using a very low value series inductance significantly increases capacitor lifetime.
    Power Electronics and Applications, 2009. EPE '09. 13th European Conference on; 10/2009
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    ABSTRACT: Industrial drives, like many other power electronics applications are experiencing an ever increasing demand for high power densities. Only through a system integration approach which involves an integrated thermal and spatial design and using integration technologies can this goal be achieved. Hybrid integration in the form of integrated power electronics modules (IPEMs) is one of the key elements of this approach. Advanced thermal management with optimised air flow and a special heat sink structure is the other key element. In this paper a thermal management concept for high power density drives is investigated and a novel method, i.e. the integrated I-Housing, is utilized to implement the heat removal system. The complex thermal management structure consisting of an impingement cooled pin fin heatsink and heat exhaust paths, which significantly reduce the amount of air required for cooling, are modelled. The model presented in this paper is experimentally verified with a thermal dummy. The model is ultimately to be used to design the thermal management for a fully functional 2.2 kW inverter with a total volume of 500 cm<sup>3</sup> - four times smaller than the current state of the art.
    Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2008. PESC 2008. IEEE; 07/2008
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    ABSTRACT: SiC semiconductor devices are becoming more common in high power applications. This is largely due to higher blocking voltages and faster switching speeds. The development of SiC devices, specifically thyristors and GTOs, is still an evolving process [1]. There is not yet a single device capable of handling the magnitude of current typically seen in transmission and distribution systems and as a result these devices must be paralleled into a single switching position. SiC thyristors were used to carry out a study on paralleled SiC bipolar devices. Si bipolar devices are much better matched than SiC devices, but they exhibit much slower turn-on times [2]. Thus, the most suitable method of inducing current sharing in these devices is through gate control. However, SiC devices exhibit fast turn-on times while being poorly matched. Using various methods of gate control for SiC bipolar devices in parallel does not significantly affect the current sharing. The best way to improve current sharing is obtained using series resistors. These resistors should be chosen so that the voltage drop and power losses are minimized. The effects of thermal runaway are observed as well. As a device rises in temperature relative to the other devices, it conducts more current due to its negative temperature coefficient of on-state resistance. In order to maintain proper heat sharing, a design for a package is presented that includes three thyristors in parallel on a common substrate.
    Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2008. PESC 2008. IEEE; 07/2008
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    ABSTRACT: Physics-based modeling of electromechanical actuators driven by power electronics converters is highly desired for precise dynamics representations of magnetic components. In this paper, a very detailed dynamic magnetic-equivalent circuit of an actuator is set forth that is based on geometrical and material characteristics, and avoids conventional geometrical simplifications and uniform flux-density assumptions. In general, the presence of eddy currents in dynamic physics-based models significantly increases the model order. The computational intensity is further pronounced when considering the nonlinearity associated with relative motion. Automated linear and nonlinear order-reduction techniques are introduced to numerically extract the essential system dynamics in the desired bandwidth, thus preserving both dynamic accuracy and computational efficiency. In particular, the original high-order model is replaced with piecewise linear reduced- order models that are expressed as numerical functions of the mechanical position and speed. The model order is successfully reduced from 300 to only 5 state variables, thus significantly cutting the execution time. The resulting reduced-order model is verified with the original full-order model in predicting time-domain transients as well as frequency-domain characteristics, which is important for converter-driven actuators.
    Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2008. PESC 2008. IEEE; 07/2008
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper is to investigate and improve the high frequency noise reduction performance of common mode (CM) noise reduction techniques. Balance technique is chosen as the research object. High frequency model of balanced boost PFC converter is derived and important parasitics and parameters in the model are studied. Effects of coupling coefficient, turns ratio and inductor impedance on high frequency CM noise are discussed in detail. According to the model, high frequency resonance due to serial LC network causes high CM noise peak. Turns ratio has significant impact on the noise peak level. Core and winding structure of boost inductors is another important aspect for high frequency CM noise. Design guidelines for implementing balance are summarized to achieve best high frequency CM noise reduction. Boost PFC prototype with CM EMI filter was built to verify the proposed CM noise model and noise reduction methods. Finally, the effect of grounding point on CM EMI filter performance is also studied.
    Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2008. PESC 2008. IEEE; 07/2008
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    ABSTRACT: The PMSM is inherently electronically controlled and requires rotor position information for proper drives. However, the problems of the space, cost, and reliability of rotor position sensors have motivated research in the area of position sensorless PMSM drives. Numbers of rotor position sensorless control techniques have been proposed for PMSM drives, but most rely on the estimation of the rotor flux linkage vector. The performance of this method, however, is poor at low speed region due to the voltage distortions caused by the nonlinear behavior of a pulse width-modulation (PWM) voltage source inverter (VSI). In this paper, a new online voltage distortion compensation method is employed to overcome this problem. To prove effectiveness of the voltage distortion compensation method to the improvement of the rotor position estimation, the proposed method is applied to PMSM drive system and implemented in a digital manner using a digital signal processor.
    Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2008. PESC 2008. IEEE; 07/2008
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    ABSTRACT: An N-phase sensorless current sharing digital controller algorithm and architecture for multiphase power converter is presented in this paper. It demonstrates the visibility of sensor-less current sharing implemented for buck converter with more than two- phases. The presented N-phase sensor-less current sharing controller eliminates the need for current sensing for the current sharing loops and the need for analog-to- digital converters for phase current sampling when digital controllers are used. The presented current sharing controller operation is discussed and verified with experimental results obtained from a four-phase proof of concept prototype.
    Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2008. PESC 2008. IEEE; 07/2008
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    ABSTRACT: In designing a LLC resonant converter, the ratio of magnetizing inductance (L<sub>M</sub>) to resonant inductance (L<sub>M</sub>), the inductor ratio (K) is usually considered. In high power density adapter, both adapter size and efficiency are important factors. considering the size of adapter, high K design can be more attractive. But, wide frequency variation of high K design results in design difficulty of magnetic elements and decrease in efficiency. To solve these drawbacks, an adaptive link voltage variation (ALVV) control is proposed. With the proposed control method, the LLC resonant converter can be operated at the resonant frequency despite the output voltage variation. The control strategy and schematics are presented, and verified experimentally.
    Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2008. PESC 2008. IEEE; 07/2008
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    ABSTRACT: We present an analysis of the single-sided linear induction motor with a solid-steel reaction plate. By solving for the two-dimensional field distribution in the air gap and in the secondary, the mutual reactance and secondary impedance are derived account for the longitudinal end effect factor. Meanwhile, other electromagnetic effects, such as skin effects, the thickness of the secondary plate and transverse edge effects are taken into account. Traditional methods for solving the performance by using the electromagnetic fields are very difficult to achieve. So we propose an easier method to calculate the performance of the single-sided linear induction motor. Simulation results produced by this proposed analytical technique have a good agreement with the traditional results under constant- current conditions. The analysis is valid over a wide range of operating conditions, and is useful for design studies.
    Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2008. PESC 2008. IEEE; 07/2008
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    ABSTRACT: A new half bridge converter for the personal computer (PC) power supply is proposed in this paper. Generally, PC power supply has two unique input/output specifications which are wide input voltage range and long hold up time. Therefore, it has to be operated with a small duty ratio. That makes it difficult to apply ZVS PWM topology to the PC power supply. The proposed ZVS half bridge converter controls the primary current which flows through blocking capacitor with an auxiliary switch of the secondary side. As a result, it can ensure zero DC offset of the magnetizing current even if it is operated with a small duty ratio. Moreover, ZVS conditions are maintained by reflected load current without disturbance due to the DC offset of the magnetizing current. Therefore, it shows a high efficiency and a low EMI at the PC power specifications. The operational principle, analysis and design of the proposed converter will be presented. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed converter can achieve a significant efficiency improvement in a 280 W (12 V, 23.3 A) prototype converter.
    Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2008. PESC 2008. IEEE; 07/2008
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    ABSTRACT: With an aim of optimizing the operation points of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), it is better to understand the working procedure with the physical effects and to seek a prediction of its behaviour according to its operating conditions. By applying the diffusion equations of Maxwell-Stefan and the phenomenological model (developed by Springer), this approach presents a steady state ID model of the PEMFC. The fuel cell performances are also conditioned by the hydration of the membrane. In this work, we use an iterative procedure to compute the coupled diffusion equations of the reactants and the water transport in the membrane. That way, the membrane resistance behavior can be predicted for various relative humidity of the inlet gas. The water transport is always a balance between at least two competing diffusion mechanisms One is due to the proton displacement from anode to cathode that drag some water molecules with them, this phenomenon is called electro-osmotic drag. The other mechanism is back diffusion of water from cathode to anode. This water flux results from the water concentration gradient created in the membrane by the electro-osmotic drag and the water produced by the redox reaction at the cathode. In the literature, the electro-osmotic drag coefficient is mostly depending on the water content. We will study if this governing equation can be used for any membrane. The numerical results are then compared to the experimental ones. The experiments are led on a 500 W PEMFC test bench fed by dry hydrogen and humidified air, the type membrane of the stack is Gorereg.
    Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2008. PESC 2008. IEEE; 07/2008
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    ABSTRACT: An improved model for the calculation of high frequency resistance of windings that show an arbitrary conductor distribution within the available window space is presented. The new formula, which is extracted after an extensive process of Finite Element Analysis simulations, followed by statistical treatment of the results, is verified by experimental measurements on windings wound over cores with circular as well as rectangular center pole. In this way an easily applicable tool is offered to help the optimization of magnetic components when non-layered coils are used.
    Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2008. PESC 2008. IEEE; 07/2008
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, a motion controller based on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with a high performance current regulator is presented. This system contains a processor and a high bandwidth current regulator as a peripheral, and all of these are implemented on a single-chip FPGA. The execution time of the current regulator is less than 200 ns at 100 MHz clock frequency. Thanks to this fast execution, the inevitable digital delay, which is 1.5 times the sampling period in a PWM inverter has been reduced to a half of the sampling period. As the result, the control bandwidth of the current regulator has been extended up to about 3 kHz at 10 kHz PWM switching frequency. By exploiting the performance of the current regulator, the speed regulation bandwidth also enhanced up to 700 Hz. The experimental results are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed system and the performance of the regulator.
    Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2008. PESC 2008. IEEE; 07/2008
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    ABSTRACT: Recent progress in the identification of switching power converters using an all-digital controller has granted network analyzer functionality to the control platform. In particular, the cross-correlation technique provides a nonparametric identification of a converterpsilas small-signal control-to-output frequency response. The literature shows the viability of this technique as well as a few improvements to the basic technique. This online network analyzer functionality allows new flexibility in the areas of online monitoring and adaptive control. In this paper, several improvements to the cross-correlation method of system identification are proposed which aim to further improve the accuracy of the frequency response identification, particularly at high frequencies near the desired closed-loop bandwidth. Additionally, an extension to the cross-correlation method is proposed which allows measurement of the control loop gain without ever opening the feedback loop. Thus, performance and stability margins may be evaluated while maintaining tight regulation of the output. Simulation and experimental results are shown to verify the proposed improvements.
    Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2008. PESC 2008. IEEE; 07/2008
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    ABSTRACT: A speed sensorless induction motor drive fed by a 3-level neutral point clamped (NPC) inverter is presented, which combines the principle of sliding mode controller (SMC), sliding mode observer (SMO), direct field oriented control (DFOC) and space vector modulation (SVM). PI is widely used in field oriented control for speed, flux and current regulation whereas the performance of drive is usually affected by the invariant parameters of PI. In this paper, SMC is introduced in stead of conventional PI to produce fast and accurate response and reject the external disturbance and motor parameters variation. Moreover, SMO is introduced to observe rotor speed and flux for the implementation of DFOC. The induction motor is driven by a 3-level NPC inverter, which provides more smooth and accurate response than conventional 2-level inverter, and the neutral point potential is well controlled using hysteresis control. By introducing sliding mode theory in both controller and observer, the system demonstrates excellent dynamic and steady-state performance, robustness to motor parameter variations and wide speed range operation, which is confirmed by simulation and experimental results.
    Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2008. PESC 2008. IEEE; 07/2008
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    ABSTRACT: A novel current assisted H<sub>infin</sub> controller for boost converter is presented in this paper. The proposed controller combines the H<sub>infin</sub> robust stabilization technique and classical loop-shaping. The current loop of the boost converter is closed with constant gain and then, the H<sub>infin</sub> controller is estimated and applied to the converter, closing the voltage loop. The derived controller has been compared to the popular peak current mode controller in terms of robust stabilization and performance using the concept of uncertainty and the powerful tool of mu-analysis. To verify the theoretical analysis and conclusions, the two control schemes have been simulated under nominal and disturbed conditions considering step load and reference changes.
    Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2008. PESC 2008. IEEE; 07/2008
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    ABSTRACT: The measurement accuracy of GMR Current sensors suffers under the influence of hysteresis. For solving this problem, a hysteresis model has been implemented to keep track in real time of the sensor output signal. The model is a simplified version of the T(x) hysteresis model. Very good results have been achieved in comparing the software simulations and the real sensor characteristics. The model has been further implemented on a fixed-point Digital Signal Controller (DSC), connected to the sensor output. The linear output of the DSC confirmed the functioning of the model in the hardware implementation. An algorithm for eliminating error propagation during the measurements has been also developed.
    Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2008. PESC 2008. IEEE; 07/2008
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a novel isolated single stage buck-boost inverter for implementing dc-to-ac, ac-to-dc or dc-to-dc. The BBI has better performances, in terms of low cost, high efficiency and high voltage gain. Through the HEV/EV application, the circuit operation principles and characteristics have been analyzed. And then, a novel Synchro-Switching SVPWM have been presented to obtain the maximum buck-boost factor and ZVS or ZCS conditons on the main switches and to reduce the magnetizing inductance value of transformer. The experimental results have confirmed the operating principle and the analysis method.
    Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2008. PESC 2008. IEEE; 07/2008