Retina Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Ophthalmic Communications Society (U.S.), Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

Journal description

RETINAô focuses exclusively on the growing specialty of vitreoretinal disorders. The Journal provides current information on diagnostic and therapeutic techniques. Its highly specialized and informative, peer-reviewed articles are easily applicable to clinical practice. In addition to regular reports from clinical and basic science investigators, RETINAô publishes special features including periodic review articles on pertinent topics, special articles dealing with surgical and other therapeutic techniques, and abstract cards.

Current impact factor: 3.18

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 3.177
2012 Impact Factor 2.825
2011 Impact Factor 2.812
2010 Impact Factor 2.774
2009 Impact Factor 2.932
2008 Impact Factor 3.478
2007 Impact Factor 3.088
2006 Impact Factor 1.403
2005 Impact Factor 1.286
2004 Impact Factor 1.207
2003 Impact Factor 1.391
2002 Impact Factor 1.058
2001 Impact Factor 0.909
2000 Impact Factor 0.74
1999 Impact Factor 0.751
1998 Impact Factor 0.722
1997 Impact Factor 0.836
1996 Impact Factor 1.607
1995 Impact Factor 1.148
1994 Impact Factor 0.621
1993 Impact Factor 0.594
1992 Impact Factor 0.471

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.76
Cited half-life 5.40
Immediacy index 0.52
Eigenfactor 0.02
Article influence 0.93
Website Retina website
Other titles Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.), Retina
ISSN 0275-004X
OCLC 7066692
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • Some journals have separate policies, please check with each journal directly
    • Pre-print must be removed upon acceptance for publication
    • Post-print may be deposited in personal website or institutional repository
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Must include statement that it is not the final published version
    • Published source must be acknowledged with full citation
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Must link to publisher version
    • NIH authors will have their accepted manuscripts transmitted to PubMed Central on their behalf after a 12 months embargo (see policy for details)
    • Wellcome Trust and HHMI authors will have their accepted manuscripts transmitted to PubMed Central on their behalf after a 6 months embargo (see policy for details)
    • Publisher last reviewed on 19/03/2015
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To summarize the literature addressing sustained and delayed elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration being treated with intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors and to present possible mechanisms of effect. Analysis of current literature evaluating sustained and delayed elevation of IOP in patients receiving intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Studies have demonstrated that patients undergoing treatment with intravitreal anti-VEGF agents may experience sustained and delayed elevation of IOP. The incidence of sustained elevation of IOP in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration varied from 3.45% to 11.6%, and few patients required surgical management to control IOP. Possible risk factors associated with sustained and delayed elevation of IOP include, but are not limited to, history of glaucoma, phakia, history of glucocorticoid use, and/or extended treatment duration. There are multiple theories explaining the pathogenesis of sustained elevation of IOP, including microparticle obstruction of the trabecular meshwork, intraocular inflammation, and transient elevation of IOP. Sustained and delayed elevation of IOP in patients undergoing treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration with intravitreal anti-VEGF agents is likely a multifactorial process. Further studies to prospectively investigate sustained elevation of IOP in large, randomized, controlled trials might lead to a better understanding of the long-term adverse events associated with intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy.
    Retina 05/2015; 35(5). DOI:10.1097/IAE.0000000000000520
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate stereopsis in patients undergoing vitrectomy for epiretinal membrane and to investigate the relationship between stereopsis and foveal microstructures. This study included 55 eyes of 55 patients who underwent vitrectomy for unilateral epiretinal membrane and 27 age-matched normal subjects. We examined stereopsis using the Titmus Stereo Test, TNO stereotest, and, optical coherence tomography before surgery and 6 months after surgery. Central foveal thickness, central retinal thickness at the parafovea (CRT-3 mm), macular volume, and retinal layer thickness were measured with the optical coherence tomography software and an image-processing program. Epiretinal membrane surgery significantly improved stereopsis in Titmus Stereo Test and in TNO. Stereopsis after surgery was significantly worse than in normal subjects. In stepwise multiple regression analysis, preoperative stereopsis showed a significant association with preoperative CRT-3 mm. Postoperative stereopsis was significantly correlated with postoperative inner nuclear layer thickness. Postoperative Titmus Stereo Test and TNO were significantly related to preoperative CRT-3 mm and preoperative macular volume and inner nuclear layer thickness, respectively. Vitrectomy for epiretinal membrane improved stereopsis, albeit not to a normal level. Titmus Stereo Test, a stereotest with a smaller index, was related to CRT-3 mm, whereas TNO with a larger index was correlated with retinal volume of the entire posterior pole and mean inner nuclear layer thickness.
    Retina 02/2015; DOI:10.1097/IAE.0000000000000470
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:: To examine macular retinal thickness and retinal layer thickness with spectral domain optical coherence tomography in a population of children with normal ocular health and minimal refractive errors. METHODS:: High-resolution macular optical coherence tomography scans from 196 children aged 4 years to 12 years (mean age: 8 ± 2 years), were analyzed to determine total retinal thickness and thickness of 6 different retinal layers across the central 5 mm of the posterior pole. Automated segmentation with manual correction was used to derive retinal thickness values. RESULTS:: The mean total retinal thickness in the central 1-mm foveal zone was 255 ± 16 μm, and this increased significantly with age (mean increase of 1.8 μm per year) in childhood (P < 0.001). Age-related increases in thickness of some retinal layers were also observed, with changes of the highest statistical significance found in the outer retinal layers in the central foveal region (P < 0.01). Significant topographical variations in thickness of each of the retinal layers were also observed (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION:: Small magnitude, statistically significant increases in total retinal thickness and retinal layer thickness occur from early childhood to adolescence. The most prominent changes seem to occur in the outer retinal layers of the central fovea.
    Retina 02/2015; DOI:10.1097/IAE.0000000000000464
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Drug tolerance is the most common cause of treatment failure in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NAMD). “Low-intensity / high-density” subthreshold diode micropulse laser (SDM) has been reported effective for a number of retinal disorders without adverse effects. It has been proposed that SDM normalizes RPE function. On this basis we postulated SDM might restore responsiveness to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs in drug tolerant eyes. Method: SDM was performed in consecutive eyes unresponsive to all anti-VEGF drugs, including at least 3 consecutive ineffective aflibercept injections. Monthly aflibercept was resumed one month after SDM. Results: 13 eyes of 12 patients were included, aged 73-97 years (average 84), receiving 16-67 (average 34) anti-VEGF injections prior to SDM, followed 3-7 months (average 5 months) post SDM. After SDM and resumption of aflibercept, 92% (12/13) of eyes improved, with complete resolution of macular exudation in 69% (9/13). Visual acuity was unchanged. Central and maximum macular thicknesses significantly improved. Conclusion: SDM restored drug response in drug-tolerant eyes with NAMD. Based on these findings a theory of SDM action is proposed suggesting a wider role for SDM as retinal reparative / protective therapy.
    Retina 02/2015; Publish Ahead of Print | Issue | pp: doi: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000000458. DOI:10.1097/IAE.0000000000000458
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the effects of dexamethasone implant for the treatment of macular edema secondary to ischemic retinal vein occlusions (IRVO). Methods: Consecutive patients affected by macular edema related to IRVO were prospectively recruited. After a comprehensive ophthalmological examination, including visual acuity, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography, each patient received a first implant. Further re-treatments were performed on the basis of macular edema detection from the fourth month on. The primary outcome measure was the change in Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letter score at the 12-month examination. Secondary outcome measures included changes in central foveal thickness and number of implants over the follow-up. Results: Fifteen patients with central IRVO and 14 patients with branch IRVO were recruited. The median ETDRS letter score at baseline was 10 (Snellen Equivalent 20/640) in the central IRVO subgroup, improving to 37 (Snellen Equivalent 20/2002+) at the 12-month examination. The median ETDRS letter score in the branch retinal vein occlusion subgroup changed from 48 (Snellen equivalent 20/1253+) at baseline to 62 (Snellen equivalent 20/632+) at the 12-month examination. The baseline median central foveal thickness was 749 [mu]m in central IRVO, and 459 [mu]m in branch IRVO, improving to 363 [mu]m and 323 [mu]m, respectively, at the 12-month examination. Mean number of implants was 2.8 in the central IRVO and 2 in the branch IRVO. Conclusion: Dexamethasone implant can reduce macular edema in eyes affected by IRVO, leading to a slight improvement in visual acuity.
    Retina 01/2015; DOI:10.1097/IAE.0000000000000492
  • Retina 01/2015; DOI:10.1097/IAE.0000000000000483
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To report the frequency of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in Caucasian patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Methods: Retrospective consecutive series of 272 eyes (136 patients) who were diagnosed as having chronic CSC based on clinical and multimodal fundus imaging findings and documented disease activity for at least 6 months. The CNVs were mainly determined by indocyanine-green angiography. Results: Patients were evaluated and followed for a maximum of 6 years, with an average follow-up of 14 +/- 12 months. Distinct CNV was identified in 41 eyes (34 patients). Based on fluorescein angiography, 37 eyes showed occult with no classic CNV, 3 eyes showed predominantly classic and 1 eye had a disciform CNV. Furthermore, indocyanine-green angiography revealed polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy lesions, in 27 of the 37 eyes, classified as occult CNV on fluorescein angiography. In total, 17.6% of our patients with chronic CSC were found to have CNV that upon indocyanine-green angiography were recognized as being polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Conclusion: In our series of Caucasian patients, we found a significant correlation between chronic CSC and CNV, in which the majority of patients with CNV were found to have polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Our findings suggest that indocyanine-green angiography is an indispensable tool in the investigation of chronic CSC.
    Retina 01/2015; DOI:10.1097/IAE.0000000000000529
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To report short-term surgical outcomes of single-stage simultaneous rescue and sutureless intrascleral fixation of dislocated intraocular lens (IOLs). Methods: Sixteen eyes of 16 patients who underwent simultaneous rescue and intrascleral fixation of dislocated 3-piece IOLs were retrospectively evaluated. Partial thickness limbal-based scleral flaps (2.0 x 2.0 mm) were created, and a 22-gauge round needle was used to create a sclerotomy at 1.5 mm from the limbus under the previously created scleral flap, and a 23-gauge trans pars plana vitrectomy was performed. Bimanual maneuvers using two 23-gauge end-grasping forceps under chandelier illumination and a wide-angle viewing system enabled 1 step rescue of IOLs from the posterior vitreous cavity with 1 hand and simultaneous haptic externalization through sclerotomy with the other hand. An externalized haptic was placed into the 3-mm intrascleral tunnel created using a bent 26-gauge needle. Fibrin glue was used to fixate haptics and close the scleral flaps. Results: Intraocular lenses were successfully rescued and sclera-fixated through intrascleral tunnels in all 16 eyes (mean age, 56.56 +/- 19.89 years). The mean preoperative logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity was 0.92 +/- 0.68, and this significantly improved at 6 months to 0.289 +/- 0.36 (P = 0.003). During the follow-up period (10.1 +/- 3.21 months), no significant change of endothelial cell count or central foveal thickness was noted postoperatively (P = 0.203 and P = 0.979, respectively). There were no significant postoperative complications such as IOL dislocation, IOL decentration, retinal detachment, endophthalmitis, or postoperative hypotony. Conclusion: Simultaneous rescue and sutureless intrascleral haptic fixation of dislocated 3-piece IOLs using bimanual maneuvers is an effective, safe, and minimally invasive surgical method to rescue and fixate the dislocated IOL without further explant.
    Retina 01/2015; DOI:10.1097/IAE.0000000000000484
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to determine if progressive choroidal changes occur in birdshot chorioretinopathy (BSCR). Retrospective chart review of all patients with BSCR who were seen over a 3-year period. Controls consisted of healthy age-matched and gender-matched patients. Choroidal thickness at baseline and final follow-up visit was measured with the use of optical coherence tomography. Results were analyzed using univariate and multivariable statistical models. A total of 11 patients (22 eyes) with BSCR were identified. The majority of BSCR eyes (86%) had clinically inactive disease. Follow-up ranged from 2 months to 27 months. Mean age was 55 years. Patients with BSCR had significantly thinner choroid compared with controls (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the rate of choroid thinning for patients diagnosed with BSCR (2.68 μm per month) was significantly higher than that of controls (0.27 μm per month) (P = 0.003). There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of choroidal thinning between the two eyes of patients with BSCR (P = 0.859), indicating that the choroidal thinning was symmetrical. Despite having clinically inactive uveitis, eyes with BSCR can develop progressive choroidal thinning. The clinical relevance of this choroidal thinning, or degeneration, remains to be fully elucidated.
    Retina 04/2015; 35(4). DOI:10.1097/IAE.0000000000000489
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To study the efficacy of intravitreal injection (IVI) of dexamethasone implant as second-line treatment in patients with resistant chronic diabetic macular edema nonresponsive to 6 monthly consecutive IVI of ranibizumab. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted over 9 months. Best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness were noted. Patients with best-corrected visual acuity <=20/40 using Snellen chart, central macular thickness >=300 [mu]m, and poor response to 6 monthly consecutive IVI of ranibizumab were included. Patients received IVI of dexamethasone implant and were examined at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months. Results: Thirteen eyes of 12 patients were included (6 men and 6 women; mean age, 64 +/- 7.8 years). Best-corrected visual acuity increased by a mean of 5.58 letters at Month 1 (P = 0.017), 4.61 at Month 3 (P = 0.05), 4.61 at Month 6 (P = 0.042), and 5.77 at Month 9 (P = 0.017). Central macular thickness decreased from 594 [mu]m to 402 [mu]m at Month 1 (P = 0.0002), 428 [mu]m at Month 3 (P = 0.002), 459 [mu]m at Month 6 (P = 0.02), and 489 [mu]m at Month 9 (P = 0.03). Mean number of dexamethasone IVI was 1.07. Two patients (15.3%) developed elevated intraocular pressure, and 1 patient was operated for cataract at 6 months (9% of phakic patients). Conclusion: Intravitreal injection of dexamethasone implant seems as an effective second-line treatment in diabetic macular edema persistent after 6 monthly consecutive intravitreal ranibizumab injections in real life.
    Retina 01/2015; DOI:10.1097/IAE.0000000000000490
  • Retina 01/2015; DOI:10.1097/IAE.0000000000000475
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of epimacular brachytherapy for the treatment of chronic, active neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Methods: A prospective, multicenter, interventional noncontrolled clinical trial recruited 53 participants with previously treated neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Participants underwent pars plana vitrectomy with a single 24 Gray dose of epimacular brachytherapy, delivered using an intraocular cannula containing a Strontium 90/Yttrium 90 source that was positioned over the active lesion. Participants were retreated with ranibizumab, administered monthly as needed, using predefined retreatment criteria. Coprimary outcomes at 24 months were the proportion of participants losing <15 Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters and mean number of ranibizumab retreatments. Results: Over 24 months, 68.1% lost <15 letters with a mean of 8.7 ranibizumab retreatments. Mean change in visual acuity was −6.3 (standard deviation, 18.9) letters. There was one case of nonproliferative radiation retinopathy. Conclusion: The apparent reduction in ranibizumab retreatment was less evident in Year 2 than Year 1, with the moderate reduction in visual acuity extending into the second year. Although radiation retinopathy occurred in one case, it was not vision threatening and safety remained acceptable.
    Retina 01/2014; 34(5):874-879. DOI:10.1097/IAE.0000000000000026
  • Retina 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling and no gas tamponade in the treatment of eyes with myopic foveoschisis. Methods: Medical records of 10 eyes of 9 consecutive patients with myopic foveoschisis without macular hole treated by vitrectomy were reviewed. Results: The patients' refractive error was −4.00 diopters to −34.00 diopters, and axial length was 28.38 mm to 35.90 mm. Six eyes had foveal retinal detachment with retinoschisis. All cases were treated by vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane removal without gas tamponade. The mean preoperative best-corrected visual acuity was 0.61 ± 0.42 in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution units (Snellen equivalent of 20/82). Myopic foveoschisis was reduced in 8 eyes (80%) with a single surgery. Two eyes without improvement developed a postoperative macular hole and were treated by additional vitreoretinal surgery. All 10 eyes showed anatomical repair, and 5 eyes showed improvement in best-corrected visual acuity to 0.47 ± 0.48 (Snellen equivalent of 20/60), by 17 months after the initial surgery. Conclusion: Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling and no gas tamponade can effectively treat some cases of myopic foveoschisis, suggesting that tractional forces at the vitreoretinal interface may contribute to the pathogenesis of myopic foveoschisis, thereby avoiding gas tamponade.
    Retina 01/2014; 34(3):455-460. DOI:10.1097/IAE.0b013e3182a0e477
  • Retina 01/2014; 34(2):414-417. DOI:10.1097/IAE.0b013e31829f7396
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To describe the spectral domain optical coherence tomography characteristics of extreme choroidal thinning in high myopia and demonstrate its compatibility with good visual acuity. Methods: This was a retrospective observational case review of nonconsecutive myopic patients with extreme choroidal thinning, defined as a subfoveal choroidal thickness of 20 [mu]m or less as measured with spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Clinical features, such as visual acuity, axial length, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography characteristics including choroidal and retinal thicknesses in four quadrants were analyzed. Results: Thirty-six eyes of 20 patients with extreme choroidal thinning were included. Mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 13.9 +/- 6.0 [mu]m, mean age was 71 years (range, 32-85 years), mean axial length was 30.7 +/- 2.2 mm, and mean follow-up duration was 44.7 +/- 15.4 months. Of these, 25 eyes (70%) had visual acuity of 20/40 or better (mean visual acuity was 20/30), whereas the remaining eyes had mean visual acuity of 20/193. All eyes with extreme choroidal thinning had prominent choroidal vessels seen under the macula documented on color fundus photography and near-infrared reflectance imaging. All eyes with visual acuity poorer than 20/40 had fovea-involving choroidal neovascularization and/or atrophy. In the 25 eyes with good visual acuity, the mean choroidal thickness was thinnest at the nasal zone, followed by inferior, superior, and temporal zones (P = 0.01); and there was no detectable decrease in choroidal thickness over time. The mean retinal thickness was thinner in the fovea and parafoveal zones when compared with highly myopic eyes without extreme choroidal thinning. Conclusion: Extreme choroidal thinning in myopic eyes is compatible with good visual acuity of 20/40 or better, may be present in a wide age range, and may not demonstrate any progressive decline over up to 70 months of follow-up; suggesting that choroidal thickness alone is not a reliable indicator of visual function.
    Retina 01/2014; DOI:10.1097/IAE.0000000000000368
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To discuss the potential role of microplasmin (ocriplasmin) as a surgical adjunct to vitrectomy in pediatric vitreoretinopathies. Methods: Literature review of the laboratory and clinical evidence to date for the use of both autologous plasmin enzyme as an adjunct to vitrectomy and more recently recombinant microplasmin (ocriplasmin) as monotherapy for focal vitreomacular traction in adults. Results: Autologous plasmin enzyme is currently being used as a surgical adjunct to vitrectomy, with supporting Levels 2 and 3 published evidence in a range of pediatric vitreoretinopathies including Stage 5 retinopathy of prematurity and congenital X-linked retinoschisis. The availability of autologous plasmin enzyme is limited. In recent Phase 3 clinical trials, intravitreal ocriplasmin versus sham injection resulted in resolution of focal vitreomacular traction in 27% versus 10% (P < 0.001, n = 652). Conclusion: Ocriplasmin may potentially be used as a surgical adjunct to vitrectomy in place of autologous plasmin enzyme. A Phase 2, randomized, placebo-controlled surgical trial is under way to assess this.
    Retina 02/2013; 33(2):339-348. DOI:10.1097/IAE.0b013e31826e86e0