Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America; European Paediatric Orthopaedic Society, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

Journal description

The Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics publishes high-quality, peer-reviewed papers from around the world on the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric orthopaedic disorders. It cuts across disciplinary as well as national boundaries to provide the broadest possible coverage of the unique problems facing the pediatric orthopedist.

Current impact factor: 1.47

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 1.474
2013 Impact Factor 1.426
2012 Impact Factor 1.163
2011 Impact Factor 1.156
2010 Impact Factor 1.153
2009 Impact Factor 1.226
2008 Impact Factor 1.569
2007 Impact Factor 1.036
2006 Impact Factor 1.152
2005 Impact Factor 0.897
2004 Impact Factor 0.937
2003 Impact Factor 0.673
2002 Impact Factor 0.786
2001 Impact Factor 0.698
2000 Impact Factor 0.636
1999 Impact Factor 0.603
1998 Impact Factor 0.592
1997 Impact Factor 0.595
1996 Impact Factor 0.572
1995 Impact Factor 0.473
1994 Impact Factor 0.351
1993 Impact Factor 0.275
1992 Impact Factor 0.293

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.60
Cited half-life >10.0
Immediacy index 0.20
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.58
Website Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics website
Other titles Journal of pediatric orthopedics, Journal of pediatric orthopaedics
ISSN 0271-6798
OCLC 6681640
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
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    • Pre-print must be removed upon acceptance for publication
    • Post-print may be deposited in personal website or institutional repository
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Must include statement that it is not the final published version
    • Published source must be acknowledged with full citation
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Must link to publisher version
    • NIH authors will have their accepted manuscripts transmitted to PubMed Central on their behalf after a 12 months embargo (see policy for details)
    • Wellcome Trust and HHMI authors will have their accepted manuscripts transmitted to PubMed Central on their behalf after a 6 months embargo (see policy for details)
    • Publisher last reviewed on 19/03/2015
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: The use of freeze-dried allograft as a bone graft substitute for pediatric spine surgery is safe and efficacious in the thoracic and lumbar spines. Allograft bone use in segmental instrumented fusions in the subaxial cervical spine has not been well reported in the literature. We sought to describe our experience with allograft bone in this patient cohort, and to compare union rates to patients treated with autograft. Methods: Medical records were queried over a 10-year time period (2004 to 2014). Inclusion criteria were all pediatric patients (18 y old and below) who underwent subaxial cervical spine fusion with minimum follow-up of 24 months. Variables queried included demographics, type of graft material used, diagnosis, approach (anterior, posterior, combined), levels instrumented, placement of postoperative halo, surgical-related complications, and achievement of fusion. Results: A total of 26 patients qualified for inclusion (18 allograft, 8 autograft). No differences existed between the 2 groups regarding age, sex, or number of fused levels. In the allograft cohort, average age at initial surgery was 13.3 years (range, 5 to 18 y). The most common reasons for surgery included trauma (6), tumor (3), and syndrome-associated kyphosis (3). The average number of instrumented levels was 4 (range, 2 to 13). Four patients (22%) developed a postoperative surgical complication. There were 2 asymptomatic pseudarthroses not requiring revision. At a minimum of 24-month follow-up (average, 45 mo; range, 24 to 121 mo), the allograft group demonstrated a fusion rate of 88%, which was comparable with a fusion rate of 87% in the autograft group. Conclusions: The use of allograft bone for pediatric subaxial instrumented cervical spine fusions is safe in a variety of conditions, with the same rate of fusion as autograft. Rates of complications are acceptable. To avoid donor-site morbidity from autogenous graft harvest, we recommend considering allograft bone in subaxial cervical spine fusions with modern segmental instrumentation. Level of evidence: Level IV-case series; therapeutic.
    Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 11/2015; DOI:10.1097/BPO.0000000000000691
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The management of moderate and severe slipped capital femoral epiphysis is still an issue. The main concern is represented by the choice of an intra-articular or an extra-articular osteotomy to correct the deformity. Theoretically, the intra-articular osteotomy allows the best correction, but it is technically demanding and involves a higher risk of avascular necrosis (AVN); conversely, an extra-articular intertrochanteric osteotomy (ITO) is easier and involves a lower risk of early complications, but may lead to femoroacetabular impingement, resulting in early osteoarthritis and the need for total hip replacement (THR).The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term survivorship free from THR after combined epiphysiodesis and Imhauser ITO. Methods: From 1975 to 2000, 45 patients (53 hips) underwent a combined epiphysiodesis and Imhauser ITO. There were 27 male and 18 female patients with an average age of 12.8±1.9 years. All cases showed a posterior sloping angle >40 degrees (mean, 69±16 degrees). The cumulative survivorship was determined according to Kaplan and Meier, with the end point defined as conversion to THR. Results: A total of 6 patients (6 hips; 11%) had a follow-up <2 years. Among them, no postoperative complications occurred. For the remaining 39 patients (47 hips, 89%), the mean follow-up was 21±11 years. Four early postoperative complications were reported (2 AVN, 2 chondrolysis). The cumulative 39 years' survivorship free from THR was 68.5% (95% confidence interval, 42.4%-84.7%). The age at surgery (hazard ratio=1.849 per year older, P=0.017) and the postoperative onset of AVN or chondrolysis (hazard ratio=10.146, P=0.010) affected the long-term prognosis significantly. Conclusions: The combined epiphysiodesis and Imhauser ITO is a valid surgical option in moderate to severe slipped capital femoral epiphysis, preserving the natural hip for at least 39 years in the majority of the patients. Care must be taken to avoid AVN or chondrolysis. The age at surgery affects the prognosis negatively. Level of evidence: Level III-a retrospective study.
    Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 11/2015; DOI:10.1097/BPO.0000000000000695
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The Classification for Early-onset Scoliosis (C-EOS) was developed by a consortium of early-onset scoliosis (EOS) surgeons. This study aims to examine if the C-EOS classification correlates with the speed (failure/unit time) of proximal anchor failure in EOS surgery patients. Methods: A total of 106 EOS patients were retrospectively queried from an EOS database. All patients were treated with vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib and experienced proximal anchor failure. Patients were classified by the C-EOS, which includes a term for etiology [C: Congenital (54.2%), M: Neuromuscular (32.3%), S: Syndromic (8.3%), I: Idiopathic (5.2%)], major curve angle [1: ≤20 degrees (0%), 2: 21 to 50 degrees (15.6%), 3: 51 to 90 degrees (66.7%), 4: >90 degrees (17.7%)], and kyphosis ["-": ≤20 (13.5%), "N": 21 to 50 (42.7%), "+": >50 (43.8%)]. Outcome was measured by time and number of lengthenings to failure. Results: Analyzing C-EOS classes with >3 subjects, survival analysis demonstrates that the C-EOS discriminates low, medium, and high speed of failure. The low speed of failure group consisted of congenital/51-90/hypokyphosis (C3-) class. The medium-speed group consisted of congenital/51-90/normal and hyperkyphosis (C3N, C3+), and neuromuscular/51-90/hyperkyphosis (M3+) classes. The high-speed group consisted of neuromuscular/51-90/normal kyphosis (M3N), and neuromuscular/>90/normal and hyperkyphosis (M4N, M4+) classes. Significant differences were found in time (P<0.05) and number of expansions (P<0.05) before failure between congenital and neuromuscular classes.As isolated variables, neuromuscular etiology experienced a significantly faster time to failure compared with patients with idiopathic (P<0.001) and congenital (P=0.026) etiology. Patients with a major curve angle >90 degrees demonstrated significantly faster speed of failure compared with patients with major curve angle 21 to 50 degrees (P=0.011). Conclusions: The ability of the C-EOS to discriminate the speeds of failure of the various classification subgroups supports its validity and demonstrates its potential use in guiding decision making. Further experience with the C-EOS may allow more tailored treatment, and perhaps better outcomes of patients with EOS. Level of evidence: Level 3.
    Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 11/2015; DOI:10.1097/BPO.0000000000000682
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Congenital femoral deficiency is an uncommon clinical entity. We report 3 patients who developed avascular necrosis of the hip in the long (normal) leg during longitudinal observation and/or treatment of congenital femoral deficiency. Methods: Patients were identified in limb length discrepancy clinic and their charts were retrospectively reviewed for clinical and radiographic data collection. Results: We describe the occurrence of idiopathic avascular necrosis in the normal limb in patients being followed for limb length discrepancy. Conclusions: Although no conclusion could be drawn about the etiology of the avascular necrosis, we describe a previously undocumented relationship between congenital femoral deficiency and avascular necrosis in the contralateral hip. This occurred in our congenital femoral deficiency population at a rate higher than expected compared with published incidences of avascular necrosis of the hip in children. Level of evidence: Level IV-case series.
    Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 11/2015; DOI:10.1097/BPO.0000000000000686
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Investigation into the role of vitamin D in fractures in the pediatric population has been limited despite estimates that as many as 70% of American children have inadequate vitamin D levels (measured as 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)D). The purpose of this study was to evaluate vitamin D's role in pediatric fracture risk by comparing 25(OH)D between fractured and nonfractured cohorts. Methods: A 12-month prospective case-control study was completed in children aged 2 to 14 years in an urban, academic hospital. Sixty fractured children requiring conscious sedation or general anesthesia for management were compared with 60 nonfractured controls. All participants and their guardians were surveyed for low bone density risk factors, and total serum 25(OH)D was measured. Statistical analysis was completed using Student t tests, χ tests, analysis of variance, and logistic regression models. Results: After controlling for age and daily sun exposure, lower total serum 25(OH)D was associated with higher fracture risk (odds ratio=0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.90-0.99; P=0.023). In the fractured cohort, 6 (10%) patients were deficient (25(OH)D<20 ng/mL) and 33 (55%) were insufficient (25(OH)D, 20 to 30 ng/mL). Of the nonfractured population, 8 (13%) were deficient and 19 (32%) were insufficient. There were more insufficient patients in the fractured than in the nonfractured cohort (odds ratio=2.99; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-7.0; P=0.037). Conclusions: Higher fracture incidence is associated with serum 25(OH)D insufficiency. Hypovitaminosis D may place the pediatric population at increased risk for fracture. Consideration should be given to routine assessment of vitamin D in fractured children. Level of evidence: Prognostic level III-prospective case-control study.
    Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 11/2015; DOI:10.1097/BPO.0000000000000697
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Mehta cast utilization has gained a considerable momentum as a nonoperative treatment modality for the initial management of infantile idiopathic scoliosis (IIS). Despite its acceptance, there is paucity of data that characterize the radiographic parameters associated with Mehta casting and the factors correlated with a sustained curve correction. Methods: A retrospective review of IIS patients who underwent Mehta casting was performed with a mean 2-year follow-up. X-rays were evaluated at each visit for the Cobb angle, focal deformity, rib-vertebral angle difference, and height of concavity and convexity of the apical 3 vertebrae. Concave-to-convex height ratios were calculated and tracked for each patient. Radiographic parameters were compared from precasting to after final casting, and from final casting to most recent follow-up. Results: A total of 45 patients were identified, of whom 18 (40%) were male and 27 (60%) were female, with a mean age of 18.8±9.5 months at first casting and a mean follow-up of 37.7±19.7 months. Following final casting, the mean Cobb angle (25.6 vs. 52.7 degrees), focal deformity (17.4 vs. 30.5 degrees), rib-vertebral angle difference (18 vs. 32.3 degrees), and the concave-to-convex height ratios improved relative to precast parameters, respectively (P<0.001). At final follow-up, mean Cobb angle (16.2 vs. 25.6 degrees) and concave-to-convex height ratios progressively improved when compared with final cast measurements, respectively (P<0.001). Five (11%) patients did not demonstrate sustained curve correction at final follow-up, whereas 4 (9%) required growing-rod placement. Lastly, the regression analysis demonstrated improvements in the focal deformity (17.4 vs. 30.5) and the concave-to-convex height ratios of the +1 and -1 apical vertebrae from the precast to last cast periods (P<0.001). These findings were correlated with sustained Cobb angle correction from cast removal to the most recent follow-up. Conclusions: Radiographic parameters associated with control of progressive deformity for IIS include improvements in focal deformity and concave-to-convex height ratios for +1 and -1 apical vertebrae after final casting. Mehta casting is an effective treatment for symptomatic IIS and continues to provide IIS patients with significant curve correction. Level of evidence: Level IV.
    Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 11/2015; DOI:10.1097/BPO.0000000000000698
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of bivalved versus circumferential cast immobilization on maintenance of reduction and associated complications after closed reduction (CR) of radius and/or ulna fractures in children. Methods: Two hundred two children with displaced radius and/or ulna fractures were randomized to either circumferential (n=101) or bivalved (n=101) long-arm casts after CR. The mean age was 10±3 years. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of age, sex, or initial fracture displacement or angulation. Clinical and radiographic evaluations were performed at 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks postreduction. Radiographic loss of reduction (LOR), need for remanipulation or surgery, and associated complications of compartment syndrome, cast saw injury, and neurovascular compromise were recorded. Results: Overall, the median angulation of the radius and ulna fractures improved from 20 and 18 degrees to 3 and 2 degrees after CR, respectively. The median cast index after reduction was 0.78 in the bivalved group and 0.80 in the circumferential group. The median angulation of the radius and ulna was 8 and 1 degrees at 4 weeks, with no significant difference between groups. By the fourth week of follow-up, 70 patients (34%)-35 bivalved and 35 circumferential-had radiographic LOR. Forty-seven patients (23%)-23 bivalved and 24 circumferential-underwent remanipulation or surgical reduction and fixation. There were no significant differences between groups with respect to LOR rate or need for surgical treatment. One bivalved patient sustained a cast saw injury, and 3 bivalved patients had transient neurological abnormalities. No patients developed compartment syndrome. Conclusions: Cast immobilization is effective in the majority of patients after CR of displaced forearm fractures. There were no significant differences in maintenance of reduction, need for surgery, or complications between bivalved or circumferential long-arm casts. Level of evidence: Level I-therapeutic.
    Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 09/2015; DOI:10.1097/BPO.0000000000000655
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Management of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) with a Pavlik harness is a well-known treatment.Follow-up until skeletal maturity is recommended as long-term studies mention late sequelae.The purpose of this study was to determine whether such a follow-up is necessary in patients treated successfully under a strict protocol. Methods: A retrospective review of a consecutive series of normal infants treated for DDH between January 1995 and July 2004 was undertaken.Only normal infants with frankly pathologic hips treated successfully with a Pavlik harness were included, and with a normal anteroposterior (AP) pelvis x-ray at the age of 2 years.All infants with any type of neurological disease, syndrome, other form of treatment for DDH, and failure of the Pavlik harness were excluded.At the last follow-up, a clinical examination and a standing AP pelvis x-ray were performed. Results: A total of 109 hips in 83 children were available for review. The mean follow-up was of 10 years and 2 months. All 109 hips had a normal clinical examination and a normal AP pelvis x-ray: a mean center-edge angle (CEA) of 29.5 degrees, SD±4.1 degrees, a mean acetabular index (AI) of 1457±3.74 degrees, a mean Sharp's angle of 41.92±3.42 degrees, a Seringe-Severin score of IA, a normal teardrop figure, no signs of avascular necrosis, and Moses circles <2. Conclusion: This study strongly suggests that in a selected group of patients treated for DDH with a Pavlik harness, under a strict protocol, and a normal x-ray at 2 years of age, a long-term follow-up is not necessary. Level of evidence: Level III-therapeutic.
    Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 09/2015; DOI:10.1097/BPO.0000000000000657

  • Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 09/2015; DOI:10.1097/BPO.0000000000000643
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Blount disease can be defined as idiopathic proximal tibial vara. Several etiologies including the mechanical theory have been described. Obesity is the only causative factor proven to be associated with Blount disease. The aim of this study is to assess if there is an association of vitamin D deficiency and Blount disease. Methods: This a retrospective study of preoperative and postoperative patients with Blount disease who were screened for vitamin D deficiency. Patients with genu varum due to confirmed vitamin D deficiency and rickets were excluded. The study patients had the following blood tests done: calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) hormones. Results: We recruited 50 patients. The mean age of these patients was 10.4 years (SD+/-3.88) with average body mass index of 28.7 kg/m2 (+/-10.2). Thirty (60%) patients were diagnosed with infantile, 4 (8%) juvenile, and 16 (32%) adolescent Blount disease. Eight (16%) patients were found to be vitamin D deplete (25(OH)D levels <50 nmol/L). Of these, 8 patients, 6 were insufficient (25(OH)D levels between 30 and 50 nmol/L) and the other 2 were deficient (25(OH)D levels <30 nmol/L). Conclusions: This study showed that the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children with Blount disease was similar to that of healthy children living in Johannesburg. There is no evidence that vitamin D deficiency is a factor in causing Blount disease. Level of Evidence: Level III-retrospective study. Copyright
    Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 08/2015; DOI:10.1097/BPO.0000000000000607

  • Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 08/2015; DOI:10.1097/BPO.0000000000000614
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Achondroplasia is the most common form of skeletal dysplasia that presents to the pediatric orthopaedist. More than half of achondroplasia patients are affected with knee pain. It is thought that the majority of this pain may be due to spinal stenosis, hip pathology, or knee malalignment. Discoid menisci can be a source of lateral knee joint pain in skeletally immature patients in general. We present the first case series of patients with achondroplasia who had symptomatic discoid lateral menisci treated with arthroscopic knee surgery. Methods: The charts of 6 patients (8 knees) with achondroplasia who underwent arthroscopic knee surgery for symptomatic discoid lateral menisci were collected. History and physical examination data, magnetic resonance imaging findings, and operative reports were reviewed. Meniscal tear configuration and treatment type (meniscectomy vs. repair) were noted. Results: Each patient was found to have a tear of the discoid meniscus. All menisci were treated with saucerization. In addition, meniscal repair was performed in 2 cases, partial meniscectomy in 3 cases, and subtotal meniscectomy in 3 cases. Two patients had bilateral discoid meniscal tears which were treated. Average follow-up was 2.4 years (range, 1 to 4.5 y) and the average pediatric International Knee Documentation Committee (pedi-IKDC) score was 85.3% (range, 75% to 95.4%). At final follow-up, all patients were pain free and able to return to full activities. Conclusions: Discoid meniscus tears may be a source of lateral joint line pain in patients with achondroplasia. These injuries can be successfully treated with arthroscopic surgery in this patient population. Future studies need to be done to determine the exact incidence of discoid menisci in achondroplasia patients and also to determine whether there is a genetic relationship between the 2 conditions. Level of Evidence: Level IV-case series. Copyright
    Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 08/2015; DOI:10.1097/BPO.0000000000000622

  • Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 08/2015; DOI:10.1097/BPO.0000000000000616

  • Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 08/2015; DOI:10.1097/BPO.0000000000000609
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The Kocher criteria are established clinical parameters that predict hip septic arthritis (SA) with a 93% or greater positive-predictive value when 3 or 4 variables are present. The incidence of osteomyelitis (OM) in these patients has not been reported. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the incidence of OM in patients who have 3 or 4 positive Kocher criteria. Methods: A total of 71 consecutive patients (mean age, 4.7 y) treated between January 2007 and July 2013 for suspected hip SA who had 3 or 4 positive Kocher criteria were retrospectively reviewed. The Kocher criteria variables include: non-weight-bearing status, fever>38.5[degrees]C, white blood cell>12 K, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate>40 mm/h. All patients underwent ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging as part of their workup. Results: There were a total of 71 patients with 3 or 4 positive Kocher criteria. Of these, 22.5% (n=16) had a diagnosis of SA and 47.9% (n=34) had a diagnosis of OM. Of the 71 patients, 52.1% (37/71) had a hip effusion on US. When an effusion was identified, 18.9% (7/37) had isolated SA, 18.9% (7/37) had isolated OM, and 24.3% (9/37) had combined SA and OM. When no effusion was identified, a total of 18/34 (52.9%) had underlying OM. Conclusions: Patients with 3 or 4 Kocher criteria have a high incidence (47.9%) of OM. Even in patients with a hip effusion on US, the incidence of OM was equal to that of SA. These results suggest that the combination of Kocher criteria and US alone is not sufficient to make a diagnosis in patients presenting with hip irritability and consideration should be given to adding magnetic resonance imaging to their workup. Level of Evidence: Level III-retrospective chart review. Copyright
    Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 08/2015; DOI:10.1097/BPO.0000000000000602

  • Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 08/2015; DOI:10.1097/BPO.0000000000000620
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Congenital dislocation of the knee (CDK) is a rare condition for which the treatment is difficult and remains controversial. The aim of this case series is to evaluate the results of limited open quadriceps release for treatment of CDK. Methods: Sixteen patients with CDK were managed at our institute from May 2006 to May 2014, and included 10 boys and 6 girls, with a mean age at presentation of 5 weeks (range, 1 to16 wk). Three patients who had an underlying neuromuscular syndrome were excluded. The remaining 13 patients had no identifiable syndrome. There were 9 bilateral cases and 4 unilateral, with a total of 22 dislocated knees. Treatment began with gentle manipulation and serial weekly long-leg plaster casting in the outpatient clinic. Limited open quadriceps release was performed after failure of conservative treatment or in cases that presented late (>12 wk). The mean follow-up was 26.8 months (range, 12 to 48 mo). Results: Manipulation and serial casting were successful in 6 knees. The mean postmanipulation passive arc of range of motion of the affected knees was 118 degrees (range: 100 to 140 degrees). At final follow-up, the knee outcome was excellent in 2 knees and good in 4 knees. Sixteen knees were managed by limited open quadriceps release. The age of the patients at the time of surgery ranged between 8 and 16 weeks with a mean of 10 weeks. The mean postoperative passive arc of range of motion of the affected knees was 110 degrees (range: 95 to 145 degrees). Minor degrees of flexion deformity at the knee were encountered frequently (mean 8.5 degrees). Slight instability was observed in 6 cases. At final follow-up, the knee outcome was excellent in 6 knees and good in 10 knees. Conclusions: Management of CDK preferably should be started early with gentle manipulation and serial casting. Failure of conservative treatment or delayed presentation will need surgical intervention. Limited open quadriceps release has satisfactory results. Level of Evidence: Level IV-case series. Copyright
    Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 08/2015; DOI:10.1097/BPO.0000000000000612
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Intraoperative C-arm fluoroscopy and low-dose O-arm are both reasonable means to assist in screw placement for idiopathic scoliosis surgery. Both using pediatric low-dose O-arm settings and minimizing the number of radiographs during C-arm fluoroscopy guidance decrease patient radiation exposure and its deleterious biological effect that may be associated with cancer risk. We hypothesized that the radiation dose for C-arm-guided fluoroscopy is no less than low-dose O-arm scanning for placement of pedicle screws. Methods: A multicenter matched-control cohort study of 28 patients in total was conducted. Fourteen patients who underwent O-arm-guided pedicle screw insertion for spinal fusion surgery in 1 institution were matched to another 14 patients who underwent C-arm fluoroscopy guidance in the other institution in terms of the age of surgery, body weight, and number of imaged spine levels. The total effective dose was compared. A low-dose pediatric protocol was used for all O-arm scans with an effective dose of 0.65 mSv per scan. The effective dose of C-arm fluoroscopy was determined using anthropomorphic phantoms that represented the thoracic and lumbar spine in anteroposterior and lateral views, respectively. The clinical outcome and complications of all patients were documented. Results: The mean total effective dose for the O-arm group was approximately 4 times higher than that of the C-arm group (P<0.0001). The effective dose for the C-arm patients had high variability based on fluoroscopy time and did not correlate with the number of imaged spine levels or body weight. The effective dose of 1 low-dose pediatric O-arm scan approximated 85 seconds of the C-arm fluoroscopy time. All patients had satisfactory clinical outcomes without major complications that required returning to the operating room. Conclusions: Radiation exposure required for O-arm scans can be higher than that required for C-arm fluoroscopy, but it depends on fluoroscopy time. Inclusion of more medical centers and surgeons will better account for the variability of C-arm dose due to distinct patient characteristics, surgeon's preference, and individual institution's protocol. Level of Evidence: Level III-case-control study. Copyright
    Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 08/2015; DOI:10.1097/BPO.0000000000000608
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    ABSTRACT: There is a dearth of literature examining the causes of cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and when such morphology appears. The purpose of the current study was to analyze how the ossific portion of the proximal femur develops over time with respect to standard cam-type FAI parameters. A collection of 193 femurs from cadavers aged 4 to 21 years were evaluated. The age, sex, ethnicity, and status of the proximal femoral physes (open or closed) of each were recorded. Each specimen was digitally photographed in standardized anteroposterior and modified axial positions. From these photographs, the anterior offset, anterior offset ratio (AOR), and α-angle were determined. A cam lesion was defined as an α-angle >55 degrees on the lateral view. The mean age of the specimens was 17.5±4.2 years. The majority were male (69%) and African American (79%) with closed physes (78%). There were significant differences among discrete age groups with respect to α-angle (P=0.01), anterior offset (P<0.01), and AOR (P<0.01). In addition, younger femurs with open physes had a significantly higher mean α-angle (P<0.01), lower mean anterior offset (P<0.01), and higher mean AOR (P<0.01) compared with older ones with closed physes. Specimens defined as having a cam deformity had a statistically higher α-angle (P<0.01) and lower anterior offset (P<0.01), but there was no difference in AOR values compared with specimens without a cam lesion (P=0.1). The apparent decline in α-angles as age increases indicates that the traditional α-angle in younger patients measures a different anatomic parameter (ossified femur excluding the cartilaginous portion) than in older patients (completely ossified femur). This suggests that the bony α-angle is inappropriate in the evaluation of cam lesions in the immature physis. The AOR, rather than the anterior offset, may be more accurate in the evaluation of the growing proximal femur. This study provides novel insight into, and enhances the understanding of, the development of cam-type FAI.
    Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 06/2015; DOI:10.1097/BPO.0000000000000605