Current Eye Research (CURR EYE RES )

Publisher: Taylor & Francis


The principal aim of Current Eye Research is to provide rapid publication of full papers, short communications and minireviews, all of high quality. Current Eye Research publishes articles encompassing all the areas of eye research. Subject areas include the following: clinical research, anatomy, physiology, biophysics, biochemistry, pharmacology, developmental biology, microbiology and immunology.

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    Current eye research
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  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

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Taylor & Francis

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    • STM: Science, Technology and Medicine
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    • 'Taylor & Francis (Psychology Press)' is an imprint of 'Taylor & Francis'
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between skin autofluorescence (SAF), which reflects the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and the severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Sixty-seven eyes of 67 patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled. Sixty-seven age-matched non-diabetic subjects served as controls. Diabetic patients were classified by the severity of their DR: no DR (NDR), non-proliferative DR (NPDR), and proliferative DR (PDR). SAF was measured with an autofluorescence reader. Results: SAF in the diabetes patients was significantly higher than in the controls (median 2.5 (interquartile range 2.3-2.7) and 1.8 (1.6-2.3) arbitrary unit (AU), respectively, p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant increase in SAF along with the increasing severity of DR (from NDR to NPDR: p = 0.034; NPDR to PDR: p < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis revealed that SAF (OR, 17.2; p < 0.05) was an independent factor indicating the presence of PDR. Conclusions: SAF has an independent relationship with PDR in patients with type 2 diabetes. SAF measurement with an autofluorescence reader is a non-invasive way to assess the risk of DR. SAF may, therefore, be a surrogate marker candidate for the non-invasive evaluation of DR.
    Current Eye Research 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the fibrovascular in-growth of coralline and synthetic hydroxyapatite orbital implants by reporting the enhancement patterns on Gadolinium-Dietilen triamin penta acetic acid (Gad-DTPA) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: The medical records of 26 patients who had undergone primary or secondary orbital implantation between April 2008 and February 2011 were reviewed. T1 weighted Gad-DTPA MRI was performed between 5 and 12 months (mean 9.2 ± 5.9 months) after implantation and graded as follows to evaluate the fibrovascular in-growth of the implants; grade 1 (rim enhancement), grade 2 (peripheral foci of enhancement, not including the center), grade 3 (central, non-homogenous enhancement), grade 4 (central, homogenous enhancement) and grade 5 (central, intense enhancement).Results were analysed according to vascularization patterns on Gad-DTPA MRI. Results: Central vascularization patterns (grade 3, 4 or 5) were seen 62.5% of coralline orbital implants and 46.1% of synthetic orbital implants. Central fibrovascular in-growth of the coralline implants were found significantly more than synthetic implants (p < 0.05). Central vascularization of coralline implants with primary implantation was 75% and with secondary implantation was 50%. Synthetic orbital implantation with primary surgery demonstrated 66.6% and synthetic orbital implantation with secondary surgery demonstrated 26.6% central vascularization pattern. In both natural coralline and synthetic implants, primary orbital implantation was demonstrated significantly better fibrovascular in-growth than secondary implantation (p < 0.05). Two patients with synthetic orbital implants had dehiscence that was repaired by using autogenous fascia lata. Conclusions: In both coralline and synthetic orbital implants, central vascular in-growth was observed much more with primary orbital implantation. This study indicates that coralline HA orbital implants significantly supply more rapid and homogenous vascularization than synthetic implants.
    Current Eye Research 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose/Aim: Endocan is a proteoglycan specifically secreted by endothelial cells, is a marker of angiogenesis and endothelial cell activation in response to proangiogenic signals. The aim of this study was to measure the levels of endocan in the vitreous fluid from patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and to correlate its levels with clinical disease activity and the levels of the angiogenic biomarkers vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), soluble vascular endothelial-cadherin (sVE-cadherin) and soluble endoglin (sEng). In addition, we investigated the expression of endocan and correlated it with the level of vascularization in PDR epiretinal membranes. Materials and methods: Vitreous samples from 44 PDR and 29 non-diabetic patients were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Epiretinal membranes from 14 patients with PDR were studied by immunohistochemistry. Results: Endocan, VEGF, sVE-cadherin and sEng levels were significantly higher in PDR patients than in non-diabetic patients (p < 0.001; p = 0.002; p < 0.001; p = 0.001, respectively). Endocan levels were significantly higher in patients with active PDR than in patients with inactive PDR and non-diabetic patients (p < 0.001). There were significant positive correlations between endocan levels and the levels of VEGF (r = 0.574, p < 0.001) and sVE-cadherin (r = 0.498, p < 0.001). In epiretinal membranes, vascular endothelial cells and myofibroblasts expressed endocan. There was a significant positive correlation between the number of blood vessels expressing CD34 and the number of blood vessels expressing endocan (r = 0.933, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that upregulation of endocan expression in PDR could be a reflection of endothelial cell activation associated with angiogenesis.
    Current Eye Research 05/2014;
  • Current Eye Research 09/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) is a potent hematopoietic factor that stimulates the growth of neutrophil granulocyte precursors, and also regulates the differentiation and survival of neutrophils by inhibiting apoptosis. Incidentally, GCSF is also known to act as an endogenous ligand for brain cells, counteracting acute neuronal degeneration and contributing to long-term plasticity of progenitor cells after cerebral ischemia. Since GCSF was recently reported to be present in retinal ganglions, we examined its expression in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, which, together with retinal neurons, arise from the same underlying precursor cells.
    Current Eye Research 05/2011; 36(5):469-480.
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To determine serum vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF165) levels and the association of the complement factor H gene (CFH) Y402H polymorphism in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in comparison to unaffected control subjects. METHODS: Sixty-six AMD patients and 66 healthy age- and gender-matched controls were included in this case-control study. The serum VEGF165 was assayed by ELISA (R&D). Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Chi-squared tests were used regarding the polymorphism, a t-test regarding the VEGF-levels. RESULTS: Levels of serum VEGF165 were similar in both groups (p-value = 0.2112). Genotype frequency differed significantly between patients with exudative AMD and the healthy control group (p  =  0.003136). The serum VEGF165 levels were similar irrespective of the presence of the CFH Y402H polymorphism (p  =  0.4113) and independent of the specific genotype (p  =  0.9634). CONCLUSION: In the present study, exudative AMD is not associated to serum VEGF165 levels; furthermore, our data does not establish a statistical link between VEGF165 and the CFH Y402H polymorphism.
    Current Eye Research 02/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: The major objectives were to investigate functional expression of nucleoside transporters on the rabbit cornea and to delineate mechanism of corneal permeation of acyclovir (ACV) and idoxuridine (IDU). Methods. Transport studies were conducted with isolated rabbit corneas at 34 degrees C using [(3)H]thymidine, [(3)H]ACV and [(3)H]IDU. Thymidine transport across rabbit cornea comprised of saturable (K(m) = 14.9 +/- 9.7 microM and V(max) = 0.045 +/- 0.0087 nmol/min) and non saturable (k(d) = 0.00015 +/- 0.000013 microl/min) components. Both purine and pyrimidine nucleosides including inosine inhibited transport of [(3)H]thymidine. However, nucleobases adenine and thymine did not have any inhibitory effect on thymidine transport which was sodium dependent with a Na(+): thymidine coupling ratio of greater than 1 : 1 indicating that the nucleoside transporter is of the N3 type. Although IDU inhibited transport of [(3)H]thymidine, unlabeled IDU and thymidine did not inhibit [(3)H]IDU transport suggesting that IDU was binding to the transporter but was not translocated by it. ACV did not affect transport of [(3)H]thymidine. Moreover, thymidine, adenine or unlabeled ACV did not inhibit [(3)H]ACV transport. Permeability coefficients of ACV and IDU over a 4 fold concentration range did not show any significant difference confirming that these antiviral agents permeate the cornea by passive diffusional mechanism. Functional expression of a N3 type sodium dependent nucleoside transporter has been demonstrated on the rabbit cornea. Antiviral nucleoside analogs ACV and IDU are not substrates for this transporter and appear to permeate the cornea by simple passive diffusion.
    Current Eye Research 07/2009; 26(3-4):175-83.
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    ABSTRACT: In a group of chickens studied after lid suture in the first month post hatching an unusually high myopia was found (n = 8 eyes; average: -21.87 Diopters). The non-operated eyes of these chicks had the same optical properties (n = 4; +0.93 Diopters) as the eyes of the normal control chicks (n = 12; +0.81 Diopters). Although enlargement of the whole eye occurred, the main determinant was an axial elongation (operated eyes, 18.0 mm; nonoperated, 13.7 mm; normal controls, 14.7 mm). The axial change involves an enlargement of the posterior as well as the anterior segments of the eye. Despite several structural characteristics specific to chicks, their eyes can serve as a model for myopia research.
    Current Eye Research 07/2009; 2(12):877-82.
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    ABSTRACT: Brook trout, tile fish, and squirrel fish lenses were investigated to determine if the observed optical properties can be related to their morphology. The three distinctly different birefringent regions in teleost lenses are reflected in three lens fiber patterns of the cortex, transition zone, and the nucleus. The cortex and nucleus, which display a regular, rectangular contour with limited interdigitating associations, exhibit positive birefringence, whereas the transition zone, which displays extensive membrane interlocking projections, exhibits negative birefringence. Thus, in the transition zone, the larger membranous area dominates the balance between orientation and form birefringence. This parallels previous work in fish lenses which indicates that the transition zone is also the most labile region to temperature (freeze-thawing) and pressure variations.
    Current Eye Research 07/2009; 1(12):689-94.
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    ABSTRACT: The interaction between several adrenergic agonists (epinephrine, norepinephrine and isoproterenol) and relatively specific beta 1- and beta 2-antagonists has been examined on fluid permeability of the isolated rabbit ciliary epithelium. A specific beta 1-antagonist (metoprolol) had little effect on the permeability increase induced by the agonists, whereas butoxamine (a specific beta 2-antagonist) caused an inhibition of the normal agonist-induced permeability increase. The data suggest that these three adrenergic agonists primarily affect the beta 2-receptor in the ciliary epithelium in order to induce their effects on fluid permeability.
    Current Eye Research 07/2009; 2(4):277-80.
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    ABSTRACT: Ocular tension of conscious cats and rabbits was measured after topical application of clorgyline, a selective inhibitor of type A monoamine oxidase, or deprenyl, a selective inhibitor of line (1,4 and 12%) showed a dose-related reduction of intraocular pressure, with maximal lowerings amounting to 6 to 7 mm Hg. Pretreatment of eyes with clorgyline, 1%, markedly potentiated the pressure lowering response to epinephrine, 0.1%, applied topically. Sympathetic denervation almost completely abolished the effect of clorgyline. In contrast, deprenyl (2 to 8%) did not lower intraocular pressure after topical application to cat or rabbit eyes. beta-Phenylethylamine (2 to 16%) a specific substrate for the B form of monoamine oxidase, likewise did not lower ocular tension when given either alone or after pretreatment with deprenyl. These findings suggest that the intraocular pressure lowering effect of monoamine oxidase inhibitors is due primarily to inhibition of the A form of the enzyme and is dependent on intact sympathetic innervation.
    Current Eye Research 07/2009; 1(9):501-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Corneal epithelial defects are covered rapidly by the movement of adjacent epithelium. However, the mechanism of this tissue movement is poorly understood. In this study, the quantity or cell water, protein, and DNA were determined in healing epithelium to test the hypothesis that cell enlargement contributes to the rapid coverage of the defect. In addition, light and transmission electron microscopy and [3H] thymidine incorporation into epithelial cells were used to determine whether the healing tissue moves as a unit or as individual cells. The quantitative determinations lead us to conclude that healing begins with a dramatic rise in cell water, followed by an increase in cell protein and finally by a gradual increase in DNA. The morphologic and autoradiographic evidence strongly suggests that large corneal epithelial defects in rabbits are covered by the movement of adjacent tissue as a unified, multilayered sheet of cells. Furthermore, the cells appear large than normal with minimal changes in intercellular spaces. We suggest that the increase in cell volume is due to water uptake, which plays an important role in covering the defect by increasing the cells' surface area. Protein is then accumulated, followed by cell proliferation.
    Current Eye Research 07/2009; 1(9):507-16.
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    ABSTRACT: Cell homogenates from human lens epithelium express in binding site for Parathyroid hormone. Kinetic data reveal an affinity/dissociation constant to Kd 17.5 x 10(-11) M and a maximal binding of Bmax 15 x 10(11) M. These data are comparable to previously tested tissues as lymphocytes or renal plasma membranes. No differences can be observed for the association characteristics between senile and juvenile lenticular epithelial cells.
    Current Eye Research 07/2009; 1(11):679-82.
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    ABSTRACT: A calcified cataractous lens from a 12 year old boy suffering from chronic uveitis was analysed using a microradiographic technique, X-ray crystallography and transmission electron microscopy. A 0.2 mm thick shell of calcified tissue was found in the subcapsular cortex. The mineral consisted of well-crystallized hydroxyapatite with a random orientation of the crystals. The underlying cortex consisted of a fibrous matrix containing collagen fibers. In the matrix, single or groups of epitheloid cells and fibroblast-like cells were found. Membrane-enclosed vesicles were found scattered in the matrix. The content of these vesicles had a wide range of electron density. A cell-induced mechanism for calcification is suggested.
    Current Eye Research 07/2009; 1(11):629-33.
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    ABSTRACT: The axial dimensions of eyes of macaque monkeys which had experienced long term monocular or binocular eyelid closure were measured using ultrasonography. The axial length of the vitreous chamber and total eye were significantly increased in the sutured eye of 3 monkeys and significantly decreased in the sutured eye of 2 monkeys among the 6 monocularly lid sutured subjects. Binocular eyelid suturing induced large interocular differences in these ocular dimensions. We conclude eyelid suture interrupts the regulation of posterior segment growth. This usually results in axial elongation but may also produce axial shortening.
    Current Eye Research 07/2009; 1(12):727-33.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of age on the extent of pathogenesis of Staphylococcus keratitis in the mouse. Corneas of young and aged mice (BALB/c, A/J, and C57BL/6) were scarified and topically inoculated with S. aureus. Slit lamp examination (SLE) and histopathology were performed, and bacterial colony forming units and myeloperoxidase activity were determined. SLE scores of infected eyes of aged mice were significantly higher at days 1 and 3 postinfection (PI) as compared to infected young mice. Histopathological changes observed in all aged mice were more severe than those in young mice. Young BALB/c and A/J mice demonstrated minimal signs of keratitis by day 3 PI, whereas aged mice of both strains demonstrated severe keratitis by day 3. Young C57BL/6 mice showed no clinical signs of keratitis, whereas aged C57BL/6 mice demonstrated moderate keratitis. Aged mice with S. aureus keratitis demonstrated increased pathology as compared to young mice.
    Current Eye Research 07/2009; 29(4-5):269-75.
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    ABSTRACT: Histological evidence of retinal damage associated with the clinical observation of Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) grade III was documented in preterm infants receiving the minimum dosage of vitamin E recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics (5 mg/kg/day), and exposed to high concentration/duration of oxygen at birth. Matched infants that were provided a higher oral dosage of vitamin E (100 mg/kg/day) did not develop the serious grade of retinopathy (grade III) (1,2). In this paper cytological correlates are described which substantiate pre-existing theories concerning the pathological changes associated with the development of the disease at a light microscopic level. Moreover, observations made at the electronmicroscopic level permit distinctions to be made concerning the newly formed retinal vessels, in treated versus non-treated infants, that have not been noted in the history of this disease. These retinal distinctions suggest that vitamin E may be efficacious in reducing the severity of ROP. Lastly, a mechanism is suggested for the action of vitamin E in reducing the severity of ROP.
    Current Eye Research 07/2009; 2(2):123-39.
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    ABSTRACT: A murine model of heterotopic corneal transplantation has been developed. Whole corneas were removed from either inbred Balb/cJ or C57B1/6J mice and inserted into an abdominal subcutaneous pouch in C57B1/6J recipient mice. Fresh donor tissue, donor corneas cultured at 37°C in 5 per cent CO2-95 per cent room air, or donor corneas cultured at 37°C in two atmospheres of 98 per cent 02 - 2 per cent CO2 (hyperbaric oxygen) were utilized. Twenty-one days later, the recipients were sacrificed and the heterotopic grafts were examined in a masked fashion. Rejected grafts were edematous, opaque, and vascularized. In contast, unrejected grafts were clear and nonvascularized. These results were further confirmed by histological examination of the donor grafts in a masked fashion. Control syngeneic grafts were not rejected. The fresh allografts were usually rejected (91%) as were the allografts cultured in CO2 - room air (90%). Thus, this murine model of heterotopic corneal transplantation appears to be useful for the study of the factors involved in rejection. In further studies, the donor tissue was carried in hyperbaric oxygen in order to selectively destroy cells bearing la antigens (Langerhans cells and passenger leukocytes). These allografts were rejected only 23 per cent of the time. On the basis of these experiments, we propose that corneal allograft rejection requires a two-signal process for host sensitization. The K and O region (so-called class I) antigens present on all nucleated cells serve as one-signal. It appears from these experiments that la (class II) antigen-bearing cells (Langerhans cells and any passenger leukocytes) are a potent second signal. Further, when these cells are destroyed other minor histocompatibility antigens emerge as less potent second signals. Once the host generates cyctotoxic lymphocytes they appear to recognize and destroy any cells bearing non-host alloantigens.
    Current Eye Research 07/2009; 2(6):387-97.

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