Current Eye Research Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Informa Healthcare

Journal description

The principal aim of Current Eye Research is to provide rapid publication of full papers, short communications and minireviews, all of high quality. Current Eye Research publishes articles encompassing all the areas of eye research. Subject areas include the following: clinical research, anatomy, physiology, biophysics, biochemistry, pharmacology, developmental biology, microbiology and immunology.

Current impact factor: 1.66

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1.663
2012 Impact Factor 1.71
2011 Impact Factor 1.28
2010 Impact Factor 1.36
2009 Impact Factor 1.513
2008 Impact Factor 1.519
2007 Impact Factor 1.443
2006 Impact Factor 1.208
2005 Impact Factor 1.116
2004 Impact Factor 1.097
2003 Impact Factor 1.113
2002 Impact Factor 1.311
2001 Impact Factor 1.3
2000 Impact Factor 1.511
1999 Impact Factor 1.385
1998 Impact Factor 1.261
1997 Impact Factor 1.182
1996 Impact Factor 1.171
1995 Impact Factor 1.285
1994 Impact Factor 1.291
1993 Impact Factor 0.962
1992 Impact Factor 1.267

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.70
Cited half-life 9.80
Immediacy index 0.30
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.52
Website Current Eye Research website
Other titles Current eye research
ISSN 0271-3683
OCLC 6629649
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Informa Healthcare

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • On author's personal website or institution website
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • On a non-profit server
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • NIH funded authors may post articles to PubMed Central for release 12 months after publication
    • Wellcome Trust authors may deposit in Europe PMC after 6 months
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The corneal subbasal nerve plexus (SNP) offers high potential for early diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Changes in subbasal nerve fibers can be assessed in vivo by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and quantified using specific parameters. While current study results agree regarding parameter tendency, there are considerable differences in terms of absolute values. The present study set out to identify factors that might account for this high parameter variability. In three healthy subjects, we used a novel method of software-based large-scale reconstruction that provided SNP images of the central cornea, decomposed the image areas into all possible image sections corresponding to the size of a single conventional CLSM image (0.16 mm(2)), and calculated a set of parameters for each image section. In order to carry out a large number of virtual examinations within the reconstructed image areas, an extensive simulation procedure (10,000 runs per image) was implemented. The three analyzed images ranged in size from 3.75 mm(2) to 4.27 mm(2). The spatial configuration of the subbasal nerve fiber networks varied greatly across the cornea and thus caused heavily location-dependent results as well as wide value ranges for the parameters assessed. Distributions of SNP parameter values varied greatly between the three images and showed significant differences between all images for every parameter calculated (p < 0.001 in each case). The relatively small size of the conventionally evaluated SNP area is a contributory factor in high SNP parameter variability. Averaging of parameter values based on multiple CLSM frames does not necessarily result in good approximations of the respective reference values of the whole image area. This illustrates the potential for examiner bias when selecting SNP images in the central corneal area.
    Current Eye Research 03/2015; DOI:10.3109/02713683.2015.1010686
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract PURPOSE: To perform prediction analysis between topographic, pachymetric and wavefront parameters in keratoconus, suspects, and normal cases and to look at the possibility of a unified equation to evaluate keratoconus. METHODS: This cross-sectional, observational study was done in cornea services of a specialty hospital. Fifty eyes of 50 candidates with a diagnosis of normal, keratoconus suspect, and keratoconus were included in each group (total 150 eyes). All eyes underwent detailed analysis on Scheimplug + Placido device (Sirius, CSO, Italy). Main parameters evaluated were topographic [maximum keratometry (Max Km), average keratometry and astigmatism at 3, 5, and 7 mm], pachymetric [central and minimum corneal thickness (MCT) and their difference, corneal volume] and corneal aberrations [higher order aberrations root-mean-square (HOARMS), coma, spherical, residual].Central tendency, predictive fits and regression models, were computed. RESULTS: The measured variables had a significant difference in mean between the three groups (Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.001). Max Km, MCT, and HOARMS had significant fits with other topographic, pachymetric and wavefront parameters, respectively. Inter-relations between these three (Max Km, MCT, and HOARMS) were also stronger for keratoconus (R2 from 0.75 to 0.33) compared to suspect/normal eyes (R2 from 0.15 to 0.003). These three variables (Max Km, MCT and HOARMS) were used as representative variables to create the unified equations. The equation for the pooled data was (Kmax = 59.5 + 2.3 × HOARMS-0.03 × MCT; R2 = 0.7, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Major variables used for grading keratoconus (MaxKm, MCT, HOARMS) can be linked by linear regression equations to predict the pathology's behavior. KEYWORDS: Classification; higher order aberrations; keratoconus; pachymetry; predictive analysis; topography
    Current Eye Research 03/2015;
  • Current Eye Research 02/2015; DOI:10.3109/02713683.2015.1004723
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To compare bactericidal activities of daptomycin (DAP) and vancomycin (VAN) in an experimental rabbit model of Enterococcus faecalis endophthalmitis. Materials and methods: The right vitreous cavities of 24 New Zealand rabbits were inoculated with 100 colony-forming units of E. faecalis; and after 24 h, rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. DAP group (n = 8, 0.2 mg/0.05 ml intravitreally), VAN group (n = 8, 1 mg/0.05 ml intravitreally) and balanced salt solution group (BSS, n = 8, 0.05 ml intravitreally). Clinical examination scores were recorded, and vitreous aspirates were obtained for microbiological analysis on days 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4. Rabbits were sacrificed, and the eyes were enucleated for histopathological assessment. Results: There was no difference between the DAP, VAN and BSS groups in terms of the clinical grading of endophthalmitis 24 h after the inoculation. The bacterial counts were similar between the VAN and DAP groups except on day 1, where it was significantly lower than those in the VAN group (p = 0.003). On day 4, 62% of the eyes treated with DAP, and 50% of the eyes treated with VAN were sterilized. All of the eyes from the BSS group showed increasing bacterial growth from day 0 to day 4. There was no difference between the DAP and VAN groups in terms of the histopathological and clinical examination scores, while they were significantly lower than those in the BSS group. Conclusions: This study demonstrates evidence of the effectiveness of DAP for the treatment of experimental E. faecalis endophthalmitis.
    Current Eye Research 02/2015; DOI:10.3109/02713683.2015.1004722
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To investigate the association of nailfold capillaroscopy, heart rate variability (HRV), and clinical characteristics of glaucoma with the plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) level in normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). Materials and methods: We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional study on 25 patients with NTG. Subjects with systemic diseases were excluded. The patients underwent a complete ophthalmic examination and were referred to the Rheumatology Department, where nailfold capillaroscopy and HRV assessment were performed. The patients were assigned to the lowest and highest HRV groups according to the standard deviation value of the qualified normal-to-normal intervals of the HRV assessment. Blood samples from all the subjects were assayed for MMP-9 concentrations. Results: The systemic MMP-9 level was significantly associated with the nailfold capillaroscopy result (ρ = 0.439, p = 0.032). Of the 25 patients, seven had optic disc hemorrhage (ODH). The mean MMP-9 concentration was 4375.6 ± 2923.2 pg/ml in ODH patients and 5932.1 ± 1265.4 pg/ml in patients without ODH. However, there was no significant association of HRV parameters or disc hemorrhage with the systemic MMP-9 level. Conclusions: The systemic MMP-9 level was associated with the nailfold capillaroscopy results in patients with NTG but had no direct association with ODH.
    Current Eye Research 02/2015; DOI:10.3109/02713683.2014.971937
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: A test of validation study was conducted to investigate the use of a novel computerized portable pupillometer to detect and quantify relative afferent pupillary defects (RAPDs). Materials and methods: Binocular pupillary response curves were recorded in patients with RAPDs clinically graded by an examiner (n = 32) and in normal subjects (n = 31) with RAPDs simulated using quantifiable dimmed light intensities. In 14 normal subjects, testing was repeated within two months. Pupillary constriction amplitude (CA), velocity (CV) and onset latency (COL) were used to calculate RAPDs. Results: RAPDs in normal subjects were 0.16 ± 0.12 log units (LU) (range = 0-0.38). In retested normals, inter-visit variability was 0.21 ± 0.12 LU (range = 0-0.42). Significant correlation was found between RAPD values and dimmed light intensity in normal subjects (Pearson's r = 0.87, p < 0.0001) and between clinician and pupillometer grading of RAPDs in patients (r = 0.81, p < 0.0001). Using the upper limit of the one-sided 95% confidence interval (CI) of the ratio of percentage change in CA (LU) as determined from normals, 21/23 (91%) patients with RAPDs ≥ 0.5 LU were distinguished from normals. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for distinguishing RAPDs ≥ 0.5 LU was 0.98 (95% CI = 0.95-1.00). RAPDs calculated using CA and CV correlated more strongly with the clinician's grading compared to COL (Steiger's test p < 0.0001). Conclusions: This novel pupillometer correlated strongly with an expert examiner's clinical grading of RAPDs and detected clinically significant RAPDs with high sensitivity and specificity, suggesting it may have a prominent role as an objective clinical tool in the screening of patients with vision loss.
    Current Eye Research 02/2015; DOI:10.3109/02713683.2014.980007
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effects of the neuroprotective agents riluzole and resveratrol on the survival of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) when administered alone or in combination. Materials and methods: Experimental glaucoma was induced by injecting hyaluronic acid into the anterior chamber of Wistar albino rats weekly for a six-week period. Intraocular pressure was measured before and immediately after glaucoma induction. The neuroprotective effects of daily intraperitoneal injections of riluzole (8 mg/kg) and resveratrol (10 mg/kg) were evaluated and compared. After the six-week period, dextran tetramethylrhodamine was applied into the optic nerve and the density of surviving RGCs was evaluated by counting the labeled RGCs in whole mount retinas for retrograde labeling of RGCs. Results: The mean numbers of RGCs were significantly preserved in all treatment groups compared to the vehicle-treated glaucoma group (G). The mean number of RGCs in mm(2) were 1207 ± 56 in the control group (C), 404 ± 65 in G group, 965 ± 56 in riluzole-treated group in the early phase of glaucoma (E-Ri), 714 ± 25 in riluzole-treated group in the late phase of glaucoma (L-Ri), 735 ± 29 in resveratrol-treated group in the early phase of glaucoma (E-Re), 667 ± 20 in resveratrol-treated group in the late phase of glaucoma (L-Re), and 1071 ± 49 in riluzole and resveratrol combined-treated group in the early phase of glaucoma (E-RiRe group). Conclusions: When used either alone or in combination, both riluzole and resveratrol, two agents with different mechanisms of action in glaucoma, significantly delayed RGC loss in this study's experimental glaucoma model.
    Current Eye Research 02/2015; DOI:10.3109/02713683.2015.1004719
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose/aim: Cultured autologous oral mucosal epithelial cells (OMECs) have proven useful in the treatment of ocular surface disorders. This study is the first to investigate the potential of expanding OMEC in a xenobiotic- and serum-free medium using therapeutic contact lenses (CLs) as a substrate and carrier. Materials and methods: Porcine OMEC were seeded on laminin-coated lotrafilcon A therapeutic CLs with the density of 8 × 10(4) cells/lens and cultured in a defined serum and xenobiotic-free medium. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy was used to analyze the following: (1) cellular morphology by using rhodamine-phalloidin staining of F-actin, (2) phenotype by applying antibodies against the progenitor cell marker p63 and the putative stem cell marker ABCG2 and (3) cell viability by using propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342 dual staining. Results: Porcine OMEC attached well to the CLs, and cell-to-cell contacts were evident. After three days in culture, the OMEC displayed a confluent monolayer with uniform cobblestone morphology, whereas stratified cultures with 2-3 layers were formed after six days. No significant difference in expression of p63 was observed after three-day culture (79.4 ± 14.8%) compared with six-day culture (60.3 ± 18.9%). ABCG2 expression in the basal cell layer was 6.3 ± 1.0% and 4.8 ± 1.8% after three- and six-day culture, respectively. The basal layer viability of cultured OMECs was 99.3 ± 0.2% and 82.8 ± 1.1% after three and six days culture, respectively. Conclusions: The use of therapeutic CLs has potential as a substrate and carrier for OMEC cultured in a xenobiotic- and serum-free culture system.
    Current Eye Research 02/2015; DOI:10.3109/02713683.2015.1004720
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To establish a mouse model with histologic characteristics of uveal melanoma for investigation of intraocular tumor biology of melanoma. Methods: After injection of 1 × 10(5) of HCmel12 melanoma cells, a cutaneous melanoma cell line, into the vitreous of CX3CR1(+/GFP) or C57Bl/6 mice (n = 12), tumor growth patterns, clinicopathological features, angiogenesis and metastatic behavior were analyzed by histology (hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff without hematoxylin) and immunohistochemistry (HMB45/MART-1-Ab, F4/80-Ab, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-Ab and VE-cadherin-Ab). Results: HCmel12 cells formed intraocularly growing tumor masses, which showed histologic features of intraocular melanoma such as angiotropism, intratumoral endothelial-lined vasculature, vasculogenic mimicry including prognostic significant extravascular matrix patterns, and invasion by inflammatory cells, in particular macrophages. There was no difference in tumor growth characteristics between CX3CR1(+/GFP) and C57Bl/6 mice. Five of 10 mice proceeded to extrascleral tumor growth and three of these developed metastases. Conclusions: Intraocularly injected HCmel12 cells developed tumor masses with histologic characteristics of aggressive melanoma similar to human uveal melanoma. Since hematogenous dissemination to the liver was not observed, intravitreally injected HCmel12 cells do not qualify as a model for metastasizing intraocular melanoma. However, since the eye represents a semi-closed compartment with access to constant blood supply, these intraocular tumors represent a model for studies of isolated parameters in general tumor biology of intraocular melanoma.
    Current Eye Research 02/2015; DOI:10.3109/02713683.2015.1004721
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Aim: Our aim was to evaluate the serum prolidase activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) in patients with keratoconus. Material and method: A total 69 keratoconus patients and 72 control subjects with similar age and gender were evaluated within the scope of this study. The keratoconus group was divided into four stages with the modified Krumeich classification. Serum prolidase activity, TAC and TOS were measured and compared between the patient and control groups. Results: The median serum prolidase enzyme activity value was 528.3 (684.1-416.7) U/L in the keratoconus group and 606.2 (812.9-482.3) U/L in the control group. The difference between the groups was statistically significant (p = 0.027). The median TAC value was 1.24 (1.37-1.05) mmol/L in the keratoconus group and 1.29 (1.38-1.18) mmol/L in the control group. The median TOS value was 2 (4-1) μmol/L in the keratoconus group and 3 (4-2) μmol/L in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of TAC or TOS (p = 0.113 and p = 0.366, respectively). There was a positive correlation between TAC and TOS in keratoconus group but not in the control group (r = 0.670, p = 0.001 and r = 0.141, p = 0.241, respectively). No significant relationship was seen between the keratoconus group stages and serum prolidase activity, TAS or TOS (p = 0.894, p = 0.155 and p = 0.381, respectively). Conclusion: In conclusion, a significant relationship was found between decreased serum prolidase activity and keratoconus but there was no significant relationship between keratoconus and serum TAC or TOS.
    Current Eye Research 02/2015; DOI:10.3109/02713683.2015.1004717
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: Glaucoma is a group of optic neuropathies characterized by the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Since ocular hypertension (OHT) is a main risk factor, current therapies are predominantly based on lowering eye pressure. However, a subset of treated patients continues to lose vision. More research into pathological mechanisms underlying glaucoma is therefore warranted in order to develop novel therapeutic strategies. In this study we investigated the impact of OHT from eye to brain in mice. Methods: Monocular hypertension (mOHT) was induced in CD-1 mice by laser photocoagulation (LP) of the perilimbal and episcleral veins. The impact on the retina and its main direct target area, the superficial superior colliculus (sSC), was examined via immunostainings for Brn3a, VGluT2 and GFAP. Alterations in neuronal activity in V1 and extrastriate areas V2L and V2M were assessed using in situ hybridization for the activity reporter gene zif268. Results: Transient mOHT resulted in diffuse and sectorial RGC degeneration. In the sSC contralateral to the OHT eye, a decrease in VGluT2 immunopositive synaptic connections was detected one week post LP, which appeared to be retinotopically linked to the sectorial RGC degeneration patterns. In parallel, hypoactivity was discerned in contralateral retinotopic projection zones in V1 and V2. Despite complete cortical reactivation 4 weeks post LP, in the sSC no evidence for recovery of RGC synapse density was found and also the concomitant inflammation was not completely resolved. Nevertheless, sSC neurons appeared healthy upon histological inspection and subsequent analysis of cell density revealed no differences between the ipsi- and contralateral sSC. Conclusion: In addition to RGC death, OHT induces loss of synaptic connections and neuronal activity in the visual pathway and is accompanied by an extensive immune response. Our findings stress the importance of looking beyond the eye and including the whole visual system in glaucoma research.
    Current Eye Research 01/2015; DOI:10.3109/02713683.2014.990983
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose of the study: Cytotoxic-T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) has been shown to play an important role in the development and progression of thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). A number of case-control studies focused on the association between CTLA-4 +49A/G polymorphism and risk for TAO. But the results were not always consistent. So we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the precise association between this polymorphism and risk for TAO. Materials and methods: All publications on the association between CTLA-4 +49A/G polymorphism and TAO were searched in the following electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane library and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, with the last report up to May 2014. This meta-analysis was assessed by Review Manager 5.1. Results: A total of 14 studies were involved in this meta-analysis, including 1128 cases and 2539 controls. Overall, we found a significant association between CTLA-4 +49A/G polymorphism and TAO (G versus A: OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.40-1.92, p < 0.00001; GG versus AG + AA: OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.59-2.57, p < 0.00001; GG + AG versus AA: OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.66-2.43, p < 0.00001; GG versus AA: OR = 2.74, 95% CI = 1.83-4.10, p < 0.00001; AG versus AA: OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.42-2.15, p < 0.00001). The results were not materially altered after the studies which did not fulfill Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were excluded. Significant association was also detected in both Caucasian and Asian populations in subgroup analysis divided by different ethnicity. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis supports the association between the CTLA-4 +49A/G polymorphism and TAO.
    Current Eye Research 01/2015; DOI:10.3109/02713683.2014.993767
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: The canonical role of glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is as an enzyme in glycolysis. GAPDH is also a principal "moonlighting" protein with additional roles at diverse sites in a variety of cells. Surface GAPDH on mammalian, yeast, and bacterial cells acts as a receptor and also mediates cell contacts. In neurons, extracellular GAPDH localizes at synapses. Two GAPDH binding partners at synapses are α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid glutamate receptor (AMPA) GluA2 subunit at dendritic spines and L1 cell adhesion molecule at pre-synaptic membranes, and both proteins are also expressed in lenses. Fiber cell membrane protrusions and dendritic spines have similar size, shape, and spacing, contain F-actin, and express clathrin/AP-2 Adaptor at their surfaces linked with Tyr-phosphatase STEP-regulated endocytosis of AMPA/GluA2 receptors. AMPA receptors work with NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) and GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) receptors, calcium calmodulin kinase II (CaMKIIα), channel proteins, STEP, and ephrin receptors, which are also expressed in lenses. In neurons, coordinate AMPA/GluA2 receptor endocytosis with GAPDH is linked with disease. GAPDH was previously characterized as a fiber cell membrane protein and shown to decrease substantially in interior fiber cells in human age-related cataract. Here, we examined GAPDH spatial expression in healthy lenses in two vertebrate species. Methods: In situ methods were used to examine GAPDH expression in lenses of healthy young adult rabbits and chickens. Immunoblots were used to detect L1 in lenses. Results: The present study demonstrated that GAPDH is present at fiber cell borders in adult rabbit and chicken lenses with evidence of focal concentrations along the fiber cell perimeter, and overlapped with detection of p-Tyr-GluA2, L1, STEP, actin and clathrin. We observed that L1-140 kDa was the prominent form in lens. Conclusions: Our findings indicate investigations into GAPDH "moonlighting" activities similar to its role in cell-cell interactions at neuron surfaces are warranted in the lens.
    Current Eye Research 01/2015; DOI:10.3109/02713683.2014.997886
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: Unstable tear film characterized by shorting of tear break-up time (BUT) is associated with discomfort and dryness in contact lens wearers. The glycocalyx is thought to be crucial in maintaining the wettability and lubrication of the ocular surface. We evaluated the ocular surface glycocalyx in soft contact lens (SCL) wearers using a fluorescein-labeled wheat germ agglutinin (F-WGA) as a marker to demonstrate the ocular surface glycoconjugates in vivo. Methods: Twenty experienced SCL wearers and 20 healthy volunteers with no history of CL wearing (controls) were enrolled in the study. After applying a 5% F-WGA solution to the eyes of study individuals, fluorescent intensities in their respective central corneas were measured by fluorophotometry. The relationship between F-WGA intensity in the corneal surface and clinical parameters associated with contact lens wear were analyzed. Results: F-WGA fluorescence intensity in the SCL group was 418.5 ± 103.3, which was significantly lower than that of the controls (825.0 ± 179.8; p < 0.0001, Mann-Whitney test). F-WGA fluorescence intensity was not correlated with Schirmer's test values or age, whereas a statistically significant correlation between F-WGA fluorescence intensity and tear film BUT was observed (r = 0.77, p < 0.0001). The decrease in F-WGA fluorescence intensity could be reversed by discontinuation of SCL use. Conclusion: Reduction and/or compositional alteration of ocular surface glycocalyx may be one of the causative factors of SCL-induced eye dryness.
    Current Eye Research 01/2015; DOI:10.3109/02713683.2014.999948
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: A predominant function of Müller cells is to regulate glutamate levels, but these cells are compromised in oxygen-induced retinopathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in regulating glutamate levels in retina under hypoxia. Materials and methods: One-week-old C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 75% oxygen for 5 days and then kept in room air for another 5 days to establish the oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mouse model. Mice received intravitreous injections of 2 μg PEDF or vehicle on postnatal (P)12 and P14, respectively. Antibody against interleukin-1Beta (IL-1β) (IL-1ab) was used to neutralize the activity of IL-1β, mice received intravitreous injections of 500 ng IL-1ab or vehicle on P12 and P14, respectively, too. At P17, the mice were euthanized and their eyes were enucleated. The expression levels of IL-1β, glutamine synthetase (GS) and l-glutamate/l-aspartate transporter (GLAST) in retinas with different treatments were detected. In addition, wild-type C57BL/6J mice received intravitreous injections of IL-1β or PEDF. After 24 h, the expression of GS and GLAST in the retinas was also detected. Furthermore, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to determine the glutamate concentrations in retinas with different treatments. Results: The expression of IL-1β and levels of glutamate were increased in retinas with OIR, while the expression of GS and GLAST was decreased. Administration of PEDF ameliorated the characteristic changes in retinas of OIR mice. And neutralization of IL-1β by administration of IL-1ab increased GS and GLAST expression in retinas with OIR. Moreover, the effects of IL-1β on GS and GLAST expression and unbalanced glutamate levels were inhibited after receiving intravitreous injections of PEDF in retinas of normal mice. Conclusions: These results suggested that PEDF might up-regulate GS and GLAST expression and decrease glutamate levels by suppressing the role of IL-1β as an anti-inflammatory factor under hypoxia, and these functions may underlie the neuroprotective effects of PEDF.
    Current Eye Research 12/2014; DOI:10.3109/02713683.2014.990639
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of retinal vein bypass surgery for induced branch retinal-vein occlusion (BRVO) in the living porcine eye. Methods: Fifteen minipigs were used in the study. Seven days before vascular surgery, hyaluronidase and plasmin were intravitreally injected for induction of posterior vitreous detachment. Aspirin and warfarin were oral administered daily starting 5 d prior to vascular surgery for anti-coagulation. The minipigs were anethetized with an intraperitoneal injection of 300 mg/kg chloral hydrate for intravitreal injection procedure and vascular surgery. Temporary keratoprosthesis vitrectomy was performed, and intraoperative video fluorescein angiography (VFA) was possible. The central and posterior vitreous was removed together with the posterior hyaloid membrane to facilitate vascular maneuvers. BRVO was induced by bipolar diathermy on the vein at the main vein's first branching. Polyimide tubes (50.8-μm internal diameter and 7.6-μm wall thickness) were used as artificial vessels. Vascular manipulation was performed in a bimanual manner. Both end of a prepared tubing was inserted into venous lumen by puncturing and catheterization, and the vein bypass bridging the occlusion was created. Then, the patency of the bypass graft was assessed by intraoperative VFA. Results: The retinal vein bypass surgery was surgically accomplished in 33% (5/15) of the eyes, and the immediate graft patency was confirmed by intraoperative VFA only in one eye. We observed and recorded fluorescein flow from the branch vein to the main vein through the bypass graft which bridging the occlusive vein segment. Conclusions: We demonstrated the feasibility of retinal vein bypass for induced BRVO in the living porcine eye, and the immediate graft patency was successfully evaluated by intraoperative VFA. Despite the potential, there are still some significant hurdles in vivo retinal vein bypass surgery, and modification of both surgical instruments and maneuvers is needed for further study.
    Current Eye Research 12/2014; DOI:10.3109/02713683.2014.997887
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: Ab interno glaucoma surgery, such as trabecular aspiration or ab interno trabeculotomy, has been introduced as an alternative, non-filtering procedure to lower intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients. The purpose of the present study was to assess the feasibility of intraoperative spectral domain optical coherence tomography (iOCT) for improving ab interno glaucoma surgery. Materials and Methods: Intraoperative optical coherence tomography was performed to visualize the anterior chamber angle, the aspiration canula during trabecular aspiration, and the trabectome device during ab interno trabeculotomy. A commercially available 840-nm iOCT was used in a clinical setting, a 1310-nm spectral-domain OCT in an experimental setting. Results: In the clinical setting using the 840-nm iOCT, visualization of the aspiration canula and the trabectome device was possible, however, with rather limited visibility of the chamber angle and the trabecular meshwork. In the experimental setting, the 1310-nm OCT enabled excellent visualization of the chamber angle and detailed evaluation of the instrument-trabecular meshwork relation. Conclusions: Intraoperative use of optical coherence tomography may be helpful for ab interno glaucoma surgery. Adjustments of the commercially available iOCT, including longer wavelengths and oblique scanning options, are necessary for the clinical use.
    Current Eye Research 12/2014; DOI:10.3109/02713683.2014.995311
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To identify the molecular basis and clinical phenotype in three Chinese families with hereditary cataracts. Methods: Detailed family history and clinical data were recorded. The phenotypes were documented using slit-lamp photography. Candidate genes sequencing was performed to screen out the disease causing mutation. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to predict the function of mutant genes. Results: The phenotypes of the families were identified as nuclear cataract in Family 1, pulverulent cataract in Family 2, and nuclear cataract in Family 3. Direct sequencing revealed transversions of C > T at c.218 (p. S73F) in GJA8 in Family 1, A > C at c.125 (p. E42A) in GJA3 in Family 2, and C > T at c.268 (p. L90F) in GJA3 in Family 3. These mutations co-segregated with all affected individuals in the family and were not found in unaffected family members nor in the 100 unrelated controls. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that S73F in GJA8, E42A and L90F in GJA3 are highly conserved. S73F in GJA8, E42A and L90F in GJA3 could possibly be damaging predicted by PolyPhen-2, with score of 0.858, 1.000, 1.000, respectively. Conclusions: This study identified three mutations in three Chinese families with hereditary cataracts. Of the three mutations, two were novel (c.125 A > C in GJA3 and c.268 C > T in GJA3), one was previously reported (c.218 C > T in GJA8).
    Current Eye Research 12/2014; DOI:10.3109/02713683.2014.997885
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    ABSTRACT: Our eyes are, both literally and figuratively, windows to the world, and ophthalmic approaches offer a tremendous space for conducting research to learn more. Male/female differences in ocular health and disease are prevalent but we know far too little about root causes to design and implement diagnostic, preventive, and treatment strategies to address sex- and gender-based disparities in eye health. Herein, we discuss several ophthalmic diseases and other conditions with ocular manifestations, with a focus upon those that disproportionately affect women. Because the vast majority of biomedical research in this area comes from studies of mixed-gender populations, or of male-predominant populations, there is a pressing need for sex- and/or gender-based research at various points along the basic to clinical biomedical research continuum. Moreover, the multitude of factors that affect eye health call for a balanced look at the influence of biology, culture, and societal contributors. As clinicians, we owe our patients the best care for their needs, and that care must be derived from research that shows what is effective, for whom, and under what conditions.
    Current Eye Research 12/2014; 40(2). DOI:10.3109/02713683.2014.986333