Clinical Materials (Clin Mater)

Publisher: Elsevier

Journal description

Incorporated into Biomaterials

Current impact factor: 0.00

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Website Clinical Materials website
Other titles Clinical materials (Online)
ISSN 0267-6605
OCLC 60639532
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Elsevier

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    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the potential of coralline calcium phosphate ceramics to support osteoblast growth for a proposed bone-ceramic composite for skeletal tissue repair. The goal was the development of a matrix with both osteogenic and osteoconductive properties, as compared to ceramic alone, which is solely osteoconductive. MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells were seeded onto sintered and non-sintered porous coralline hydroxyapatite (HA), and onto non-porous hydroxyapatite discs. These in-vitro studies demonstrated that coralline HA supported the growth of osteoblast-like cells. Porous discs supported higher numbers of cells than non-porous discs. Sintering encouraged cell growth, with higher numbers of cells adhered to sintered porous HA discs by day seven. The results suggest that HA can provide a support for osteoblast cells as part of a matrix which may prove to be osteogenic in vivo and may, accordingly, enhance the bone repair process.
    Clinical Materials 02/1994; 17(2):85-91. DOI:10.1016/0267-6605(94)90016-7
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    ABSTRACT: Changes either within the bone cement or at the cement-bone interface are known to contribute to loosening and hence failure of many cemented joint replacements. This study examines the in vitro changes in the fracture properties of bone cement as a result of storage, at both 21 and 37 degrees C, in air, water, Ringer's solution and lipid over a period of 2 years. Specimens stored in the fluid media were found to behave in a more ductile manner than those stored in air. Samples stored at 37 degrees C behaved in a more brittle manner than those stored at 21 degrees C. Although the work of fracture values measured for the samples stored in the water-based media increased during the first 18 months, this was followed by a decrease in the subsequent 6 months.
    Clinical Materials 02/1994; 16(4):211-6. DOI:10.1016/0267-6605(94)90119-8
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this experimental investigation was to study the incorporation of porous glassy carbon in bone. Cylinders of porous glassy carbon were implanted in drill holes in diaphyses and metaphyses of rabbits tibia for 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks. Bone ingrowth into the glassy carbon implants was examined by radiographic, histologic, fluorocrome and microradiographic methods. The material caused no pathological reaction. Tissue ingrowth into pores was seen by all examination methods. The amount of bone in the pores increases with time. The ingrowth was most distinctive in those areas where the implant was in close contact with cortical bone or trabeculae of the cancellous bone. Porous glassy carbon can be used as bone substitute, although the small size of implant available is at the present a limitation for its clinical use.
    Clinical Materials 02/1994; 17(2):93-8. DOI:10.1016/0267-6605(94)90017-5
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    ABSTRACT: The principal cause of the clinical failure of bioprosthetic heart valves fabricated from glutaraldehyde-pretreated bovine pericardial valves is calcification. The present investigation describes the mineralization of glutaraldehyde-treated bovine pericardium (GBP), in an extra-circulatory environment and the possible methods of prevention via metal ions. Calcification was examined on GBP incubated in metastable solutions of calcium phosphate and the role of certain anesthetic drugs, ferric ions and magnesium ions in the media was evaluated. It seems that the addition of ethyl alcohol, pentothal and xylocaine in the calcium phosphate solutions, variably inhibited the GBP calcification. The metals like Fe3+ ions and Mg2+ ions and their combinations also substantially reduced the GBP mineralization. It is assumed that ferric ions may slow down or retard the calcification process by delaying the proper formation of hydroxyapatite while magnesium ions disrupt the growth of these crystals by replacing Ca2+. Hence, it is conceivable that a combination therapy--via local delivery of low levels of ferric ions and magnesium ions--may prevent the GBP-associated calcification. Further, a very low daily intake of alcohol appears to be beneficial to reduce the profile of calcium deposition at tissue interfaces.
    Clinical Materials 02/1994; 17(4):165-72. DOI:10.1016/0267-6605(94)90032-9
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    ABSTRACT: Five different nanoparticles, potentially useful in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after venous administration, were studied for their hemocompatibility. The in vitro methodology evaluated these materials by several parameters: cytotoxicity towards cells cultured in vitro, aggregation ability of platelets, hemolysis inducibility, intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathway activation, and complement activation. With the proposed clinical dose, regardless of the cell type used (murine cell line or human endothelial cells) no toxicity was observed. The presence of the particles in blood did not produce any considerable damage: either hemolysis or platelet aggregation or blood coagulation were recorded. However, a slight decrease in aggregation ability of platelets was noticed as well as an increase in partial thromboplastin time. Because of the quick removal of the particles from the bloodstream, these phenomena must be short-lived, thus avoiding significant adverse clinical effects.
    Clinical Materials 02/1994; 15(4):293-301. DOI:10.1016/0267-6605(94)90061-2
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    ABSTRACT: Cell culture systems may be of value in testing the biocompatibility of prosthetic materials before they are introduced into clinical use. In recent years, in vitro methods for assaying biomaterials have gained in importance owing to the growing concern over the use of animals for biomaterials testing. Significant effort is therefore being focused toward developing predictive and quantitative, but also simple and reliable, methods of testing using cultured cells. At present, a number of methods for measuring both the cytotoxicity and the specific cytocompatibility of different materials are available. The usefulness of these systems is no longer confined to screening new materials; they can be used to study the mechanisms of action of various materials during tissue/material interaction. This paper reviews the published literature on the use of cell culture models in evaluating biocompatibility and reports on the personal experience of the authors, who have been using cell culture systems for many years and for different purposes.
    Clinical Materials 02/1994; 15(3):173-90. DOI:10.1016/0267-6605(94)90081-7
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    ABSTRACT: In order to evaluate the potential use of polyarylamide fibers as a prosthetic material for ligament replacement, resected sheep anterior cruciate ligaments were replaced by braided devices routed through a tibial tunnel and over the top of the lateral femoral condyle. Twelve sheep were used and sacrificed between 3 and 12 months. The tissue response to the implant was evaluated histologically. Morphologic features of the fibers and the abraded particles were measured by image analysis. Simultaneously, the tensile properties as well as the creep and fatigue properties of non-implanted prostheses were measured under laboratory conditions. It was shown that the polyarylamide fibers exhibited high strength, a high modulus, but low fatigue abrasion properties. At autopsy, 1 prosthesis was broken, 6 had frayed and 5 were intact. There was no adverse tissue response to the intact fibers. Inflammation was always linked to the presence of polymeric particles. A large bony ingrowth in the tibial tunnel through the prostheses strands was observed. There was no material resorption throughout the experiment. Polyarylamide fibers appear to be a suitable material for ligament replacement provided that abrasion against bone can be avoided.
    Clinical Materials 02/1994; 15(1):69-75. DOI:10.1016/0267-6605(94)90011-6
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes the issues related to glucose sensing in the framework of the concept of disposable implants. The possibility of providing a diabetic patient with a continuous access to his blood glucose concentration and of detecting nocturnal hypoglycaemia would be a major breakthrough in diabetes therapy. To this end, our laboratories have developed a miniaturized, subcutaneous glucose sensor for glucose monitoring. It is based on the enzymatic, amperometric detection of glucose. This glucose sensor has been extensively evaluated in rats, dogs and more recently in human volunteers. Under experimental conditions, a controlled increase in blood glucose concentration is followed by an increase in the current delivered by the sensor. It is then possible to transform this current into an estimation of the glucose concentration. Experiments in rats have shown that the glucose sensor functions for up to 10 days when implanted in the subcutaneous tissue. Experiments in conscious dogs have shown that it works in a subcutaneous tissue closer to the human one. More recently, the glucose sensor was investigated in non-diabetic volunteers. These studies have demonstrated that this subcutaneous glucose sensor is able to provide a reliable estimation of blood glucose concentration in man, making it suitable for blood glucose monitoring. Biocompatibility of the glucose sensor, and particularly long-term tolerance, remains to be demonstrated.
    Clinical Materials 02/1994; 15(4):241-6. DOI:10.1016/0267-6605(94)90052-3
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    ABSTRACT: A collagen and chondroitins 4-, 6-sulphate biomaterial designed for the coverage of severe burns was optimized in terms of mechanical strength by addition of 20% (wt/vol) of chitosan to the starting material. Chitosan should create ionic bonds with collagen and thus increase the tensile strength and Young's modulus of the sponge. On the other hand, sterilization by h-irradiation of the biomaterial induced a decrease in its mechanical properties that could be avoided by sterilization using beta-irradiation. The thickness, pore size and morphology of the biomaterial were optimized before freeze-drying by freezing the mixture at -60 degrees C at a weight/volume concentration of 1.25% and a volume of 270 mul/cm2. The biomaterial obtained under these conditions may further the vascularization and cellular colonization of the porous structure by the host cells of the wound bed and therefore may accelerate the regeneration of a new dermis.
    Clinical Materials 02/1994; 15(4):259-65. DOI:10.1016/0267-6605(94)90055-8
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    ABSTRACT: Recent developments in laparoscopic hernia repair techniques have led to the design of titanium staples. In a laparoscopic hernia repair, a polypropylene mesh is stapled over the direct and indirect hernia sites in the inguinal region. The effectiveness of these staples in holding the prosthetic mesh, and therefore providing adequate strength to the abdominal wall, has not been yet investigated. We have characterized the bursting strength (BS) of an experimental hernia mesh repair fixed with Prolene suture, which is used extensively for this procedure, and the BS of repairs fixed with two currently available staplers, the Endopath EMS endoscopic multifeed stapler and the Endo Hernia stapler. We first simulated abdominal wall hernias in 16 piglets by creating incisions on both sides of the abdomen of each animal. Each defect was then covered with a polypropylene mesh, which was fixed on one side with Prolene sutures and on the other side using either the Endopath EMS (Group 1) or the Endo Hernia stapler (Group 2). The abdominal tissue with the mesh covering the defect was then excised and the BS evaluated using an Instron machine. Since many mechanical characteristics contribute to the BS of a repair, we investigated these characteristics in vitro, including tensile properties of the staples and the prosthetic mesh as well as the suture-tearing resistance of the mesh. Polypropylene mesh exhibits the same elongation in the three directions, i.e. 0 degrees , 45 degrees and 90 degrees . This elongation was estimated at 136% (SD = 130).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Clinical Materials 02/1994; 16(2):81-89. DOI:10.1016/0267-6605(94)90101-5
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this investigation was to determine a static elastic modulus of dentine using a three point beam test and a dynamic modulus in the frequency range of 0.1 Hz and 10 Hz across a temperature range of 27-37 degrees C. At body temperature, the mean static modulus was 8.6 GPa, (standard deviation 0.86 GPa). The dynamic test produced a range of modulus values. At 0.1 Hz the modulus ranged from 14.3 to 15.2 GPa; for 1.0 Hz the range was 14.6-15.5 GPa and for 10 Hz the range was 14.9-15.8 GPa. The results are of value in the design and analysis of restorative materials.
    Clinical Materials 02/1994; 17(1):11-5. DOI:10.1016/0267-6605(94)90042-6
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to investigate the immediate/early effects of a bioabsorbable implant on a growing bone and monitor the strength retention. Fifty-eight rats were used as experimental animals. In 29 animals a 1.1 mm self-reinforced (SR-PGA) polyglycolic acid implant was placed through a transphyseal drill channel up to the diaphysis of the femur. In another 29 rats similar implants were placed in both femora and in the dorsal subcutis. After a follow-up time of 1-28 days a histologic and a roentgenographic analysis of the femora was undertaken and the shear and bending strengths of the removed implants in the other group were measured. The implant was broken at the plane of the growth plate by 21 days. No permanent growth disturbance occurred in the operated femora compared to the control side. The SR-PGA implants lost a substantial part of their mechanical strength in 2 weeks.
    Clinical Materials 02/1994; 17(4):197-201. DOI:10.1016/0267-6605(94)90036-1
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    ABSTRACT: Composite veneering of amalgam is the most aesthetical solution to extensive direct tooth restoration and is applied with success in specific clinical situations. An in-vitro technique has been used to evaluate the mechanical performance of one amalgam bonded to four different composites. The amalgam-composite interfaces were subjected to tensile stress and shear stress at break tests, using dumb-bell and sandwich specimens in a PC-controlled electronic dynamometer equipped with innovative grips. Mean values were higher for tensile stress than for shear stress. Further studies and clinical experimentation will be necessary to explore the question of long-term reliability.
    Clinical Materials 02/1994; 17(3):147-50. DOI:10.1016/0267-6605(94)90138-4
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    ABSTRACT: Fluoride content in the enamel and dentine of ancient teeth has been measured using a nuclear analysis technique. Analysed teeth were found in a vast necropolis of Sicily (Italy) which is archeologically datable between the 13th and the 8th century B.C. Measurements gave high fluoride concentrations, of the order of 10 mg per gram of hydroxyapatite, comparable with the content of fluorotic teeth of patients living nowadays in regions rich in fluorinated drinking water. Results suggest that the dental caries process was probably unknown to the tribal population living in this geographical area.
    Clinical Materials 02/1994; 17(3):151-4. DOI:10.1016/0267-6605(94)90139-2
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    ABSTRACT: In cases of severe burns, it seems necessary to excise burnt tissues as soon as possible and to cover the excised area immediately with a skin substitute, when few autografts are available. We report here the first clinical uses of a dermal substrate made of collagen--GAG--chitosan grafted immediately after early excision, then epidermalized either with autologous meshed autograft or with autologous cultured epidermis. The dermal substrate replaces the excised dermis by adhering to the underlying tissue, promoting fibrovascular ingrowth. Then after 15 days it can be epidermalized. The quality of the underlying dermis obtained permitted 100% take after epidermalization with large-meshed autograft, and tended to avoid the usual typical diamond aspect of the meshed skin. After epidermalization with autologous cultured autograft, the quality of the underlying dermis permits a good take. The best aspect is obtained by combining dermal substrate and autologous cultured epidermis. Even if it still does not replace the high quality of a homograft, this dermal substrate is a promising solution for replacement of dermis. It is always available, can be stored and is exempt from micro-organism transmission.
    Clinical Materials 02/1994; 15(4):273-6. DOI:10.1016/0267-6605(94)90057-4
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    ABSTRACT: The initial mechanical strength and strength retention in vitro and in vivo of novel absorbable and self-reinforced polyglycolide (SR-PGA) screws for the fixation of fractures and osteotomies were determined. The SR-PGA screws showed initial bending strength values comparable with those of yield strength of standard stainless steel. The SR-PGA screws lost all their bending and shear strengths in 6 weeks in vivo. The strength retention properties of SR-PGA screws are sufficient for safe fixation of relatively rapidly consolidating fractures and osteotomies of cancellous bone that are not exposed to hard mechanical stresses.
    Clinical Materials 02/1994; 17(3):119-23. DOI:10.1016/0267-6605(94)90134-1
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the validity with which the finite element method could model synthetic bone and thereby determine the appropriateness of such femur analogues for application in pre-clinical tests. The performance of these synthetic femora was compared with cadaveric bone when employing the same geometric and material definition protocols. A four-point bend loading configuration was selected for this analysis. Four synthetic femurs and an embalmed cadaveric bone were tested experimentally to determine the structural bending stiffness (k) for the diaphysis of these bones. A finite element (FE) model was generated and an analysis performed for each bone type to estimate the Young's modulus (E) required to obtain a model stiffness equivalent to that obtained experimentally. The estimated material elastic modulus in the FE model for the synthetic femur was found to be very similar to available data for this bone analogue. The estimated cadaveric bone modulus however was found to differ significantly from documented values for cortical bone. A theoretical analysis demonstrated the great sensitivity of the estimated modulus value to the accuracy of the geometric definition. The very low variability found in the experimental test on the synthetic bones together with their more regular geometry and the possibility of achieving greater accuracy in geometric definition was shown to enable the production of a valid FE model of this bone for an isotropic homogeneous material description. Conversely, the greater irregularity of geometry, together with the less obvious differentiation between the cortical and cancellous bone in the cadaveric specimen makes accurate geometric description of this bone very difficult. This fact, together with the uncertainty concerning the quality of the cadaveric bone and its viscoelastic response during mechanical testing, makes reproduction of its behaviour in a FE model a much more demanding task. It is suggested that this greater capability of reproducing the experimental behaviour of the synthetic bone makes them a very useful model for both experimental and numerical studies which involve in-vitro pre-clinical testing of implant design and stem-bone behaviour.
    Clinical Materials 02/1994; 17(3):131-40. DOI:10.1016/0267-6605(94)90136-8
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    ABSTRACT: Highly porous dental implants of a cylindrical shape were fabricated from commercial grade titanium REP-atomized powders by EDC. They were intended to have the maximum porosity for maximum osseointegration, but to maintain the minimum mechanical properties functionally required. Two level full factorial experiments were conducted with respect to the sample weight, capacitance, input energy and electrode configuration. All samples were X-rayed prior to tests to ascertain the presence, extent and distribution of internal macroscopic voids. Torque and compression tests were conducted to evaluate the yield or ultimate strengths (34-90 cm N and 205-502 MPa, respectively). These results indicate that macroscopic void-free, highly porous implants can be fabricated.
    Clinical Materials 02/1994; 17(4):203-9. DOI:10.1016/0267-6605(94)90037-X
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    ABSTRACT: A calcia base investment has high stability even with melted titanium and, therefore, can produce an excellent titanium casting. In this study, titanium powder was distributed to a calcia base investment as an expanding agent, and the firing temperature of the mold was controlled at 800 degrees C. The calcia base investment with 6.1% wt titanium powder expanded 1.7% during 2 h heating at 800 degrees C. The marginal discrepancies between the die and the titanium crown were improved by the addition of the titanium powder to the investment. The mean thickness of the cement layer between the epoxy teeth and the crown using 6.1% wt titanium powder content was from 40-80 microns.
    Clinical Materials 02/1994; 16(3):155-60. DOI:10.1016/0267-6605(94)90111-2
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    ABSTRACT: Successful adhesive dentistry is reliant on the strength and durability of the resin-bond. This is affected by the alloy and its preparation, the properties of the luting resin, and the condition of the tooth. This in-vitro study investigated three months of preparation of the alloy surfaces and three different types of one resin luting cement. Results demonstrated that alumina-blasted nickel-chromium alloy specimens were significantly more resistant to failure under tensile loading than gold alloy samples however prepared. Alumina-blasted, heat-treated gold alloy specimens showed significantly higher tensile failure loads than those of alumina-blasted gold. The performance of the different resins with the alumina-blasted nickel-chromium or the alumina-blasted, heat-treated gold alloy specimens was similar. However, for the alumina-blasted gold alloy specimens, there was a significant difference when comparing resin types.
    Clinical Materials 02/1994; 17(2):105-9. DOI:10.1016/0267-6605(94)90019-1