Cognitive Neuropsychology (COGN NEUROPSYCHOL )

Publisher: Taylor & Francis


Cognitive Neuropsychology promotes the study of cognitive processes from a neuropsychological perspective. It publishes full-length and short empirical reports as well as theoretical articles and occasional reviews that advance our understanding of human cognition and its neural substrates. Research on cognitive disorders (including developmental disorders and disorders associated with aging), computational neuropsychology, and functional neuroimaging that illuminate theories of normal functioning is appropriate for the journal; so too are studies of rehabilitation based upon a cognitive-neuropsychological framework.

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    Cognitive Neurospychology website
  • Other titles
    Cognitive neuropsychology
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    Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

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Taylor & Francis

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    • STM: Science, Technology and Medicine
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    • 'Taylor & Francis (Psychology Press)' is an imprint of 'Taylor & Francis'
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Embodied cognition offers an approach to word meaning firmly grounded in action and perception. A strong prediction of embodied cognition is that sensorimotor simulation is a necessary component of lexical-semantic representation. One semantic distinction where motor imagery is likely to play a key role involves the representation of manufactured artefacts. Many questions remain with respect to the scope of embodied cognition. One dominant unresolved issue is the extent to which motor enactment is necessary for representing and generating words with high motor salience. We investigated lesion correlates of manipulable relative to nonmanipulable name generation (e.g., name a school supply; name a mountain range) in patients with nonfluent aphasia (N = 14). Lesion volumes within motor (BA4, where BA = Brodmann area) and premotor (BA6) cortices were not predictive of category discrepancies. Lesion symptom mapping linked impairment for manipulable objects to polymodal convergence zones and to projections of the left, primary visual cortex specialized for motion perception (MT/V5+). Lesions to motor and premotor cortex were not predictive of manipulability impairment. This lesion correlation is incompatible with an embodied perspective premised on necessity of motor cortex for the enactment and subsequent production of motor-related words. These findings instead support a graded or "soft" approach to embodied cognition premised on an ancillary role of modality-specific cortical regions in enriching modality-neutral representations. We discuss a dynamic, hybrid approach to the neurobiology of semantic memory integrating both embodied and disembodied components.
    Cognitive Neuropsychology 06/2014; 31(4):287-312.
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    ABSTRACT: The article is concerned with inferences from the behaviour of neurological patients to models of normal function. It takes the letter-by-letter reading strategy common in pure alexic patients as an example of the methodological problems involved in making such inferences that compensatory strategies produce. The evidence is discussed on the possible use of three ways the letter-by-letter reading process might operate: "reversed spelling"; the use of the phonological input buffer as a temporary holding store during word building; and the use of serial input to the visual word-form system entirely within the visual-orthographic domain such as in the model of Plaut [1999. A connectionist approach to word reading and acquired dyslexia: Extension to sequential processing. Cognitive Science, 23, 543-568]. The compensatory strategy used by, at least, one pure alexic patient does not fit with the third of these possibilities. On the more general question, it is argued that even if compensatory strategies are being used, the behaviour of neurological patients can be useful for the development and assessment of first-generation information-processing models of normal function, but they are not likely to be useful for the development and assessment of second-generation computational models.
    Cognitive Neuropsychology 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Most compound words are constituted of a head constituent (e.g., light in moonlight) and a modifier constituent (e.g., moon in moonlight); the information transmitted by these head-modifier roles is fundamental for defining the grammatical and semantic properties of the compound and for identifying a correct combination of the constituents at the conceptual level. The objective of this study is to assess how lexical processing in aphasia is influenced by the head-modifier structure of nominal compounds. A picture-naming task of 35 compounds with head-initial (pescespada, swordfish, literally fishsword) and head-final (autostrada, highway, literally carroad) forms was administered to 45 Italian aphasic patients, and their accuracy in retrieving constituents was analysed with a mixed-effects logistic regression. The interaction between headedness and constituent position was significant: The modifier emerged as being more difficult to retrieve than the head, but only for head-final compounds. The results are consistent with previous data from priming experiments on healthy subjects and provide convincing evidence that compound headedness is represented at central processing levels.
    Cognitive Neuropsychology 12/2013; in press.
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    ABSTRACT: HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM/TSP) is the most common neurological manifestation of HTLV-I, causing progressive weakness, sensory disturbance, and sphincter dysfunction. Although motor disorders have been well described, few studies have associated cognitive disorders and HTLV-I infection. In areas endemic for HTLV-I infection, the differential diagnosis between HAM/TSP and other myelopathy etiologies can be diffcult, particularly if the patient has signs and symptoms of brain involvement, since seropositive HTLV-I patients can present other neurological diseases. Here, we report one case initially diagnosed as Multiple Sclerosis (MS) which, upon further investigation, was found to be HTLV-I seropositive..
    Cognitive Neuropsychology 12/2013; 7(4):439-443.
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we examined sentence production in a sample of adults (N = 21) who had had attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as children, but as adults no longer met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria (APA, 2000). This “remitted” group was assessed on a sentence production task. On each trial, participants saw two objects and a verb. Their task was to construct a sentence using the objects as arguments of the verb. Results showed more ungrammatical and disfluent utterances with one particular type of verb (i.e., participle). In a second set of analyses, we compared the remitted group to both control participants and a “persistent” group, who had ADHD as children and as adults. Results showed that remitters were more likely to produce ungrammatical utterances and to make repair disfluencies compared to controls, and they patterned more similarly to ADHD participants. Conclusions focus on language output in remitted ADHD, and the role of executive functions in language production.
    Cognitive Neuropsychology 01/2012; 29(3).
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    ABSTRACT: VH, a 71-year-old woman with a progressive deterioration of the right temporal lobe, was shown to be gravely impaired on tests of publicly acquired semantic information, including both visual and verbal knowledge of famous people and events. In contrast, autobiographical knowledge of personally relevant people and personal event memory appeared to be completely normal. Interestingly, some information was elicited regarding public events that impinged upon the patient's own life. This represents the first quantitative study of remote memory in a patient with right temporal lobe degeneration, and a pattern of remote memory loss that has not been previously reported. We argue that VH's preserved autobiographical memory performance does not imply the presence of specialised subsystems dedicated to autobiographical versus nonautobiographical material. Instead, we propose a “supporting activation” account of retrieval from remote memory. Autobiographical memory consists of distributed representations involving multiple types of information. During a retrieval attempt, supporting activation from intact regions may assist VH's retrieval of autobiographically relevant material from her damaged right temporal lobe.
    Cognitive Neuropsychology 09/2010; 16(6):589-607.
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    ABSTRACT: A single-case study is presented of a patient w ith a modality-specific problem in visual object recognition, w hich can be linked to impaired stored descriptions for objects. Performance was poor on tasks requiring naming, semantic decisions, and object decisions to seen objects. Performance on semantic decisions w ith w ords, however, was relatively good, demonstrating that the problem was not due solely to a general semantic impairment. Moreover, in contrast to the impairments in visual object recognition, both face recognition and on-line visual word recognition w ere within normal limits. The data indicate that im pairments of object recognition can be distinguished from impairments of face and visual w ord recognition, even when the problem can be localised within the structural description system for objects. We discuss the im plications of the results for understanding the relations between object, face, and word identification.
    Cognitive Neuropsychology 09/2010; 15(3):243-277.
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    ABSTRACT: Two case studies are presented of the short-term memory performance of patients with semantic dementia. The first case showed a pervasive pattern of semantic effects in his auditory verbal short-term memory performance, in particular a marked superiority in serial recall for sequences of ''know n" words over ''unknown" w ords- words w hich he no longer comprehended. His performance in serial recall tasks was characterised by abundant phonemic errors, which occurred w ith a frequency show n to be related to semantic factors. These errors were often migrations of phonemes from one word in the list to another, suggesting that impaired semantic processing reduces the ''glue" or ''binding" that helps to maintain a structured sequence of phonemes in short-term memory. The second patient also showed some semantic effects in serial recall, and a significant but less marked pattern of phonological errors. The differing performance of the two patients is interpreted w ithin an interactive activation model of word production (Saffran & Martin, 1990; Martin, Saffran, & Dell, 1996).
    Cognitive Neuropsychology 09/2010; 14(8):1165-1216.
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    ABSTRACT: The occurrence of implicit reading in brain-damaged patients with letter-by-letter dyslexia suggests a process of covert lexical activation, whereby lexical access occurs on the basis of parallel letter encoding. The extent and limitations of this process w ere studied by examining masked orthographic and phonological w ord priming as well as orthographic neighbourhood size effects in letter-by-letter reader IH. In Exp. 1, masked repetition priming occurred with primes displayed in a case-alternate format that were show n for 100 m sec (a duration that does not reliably support overt word identification in IH). Under sim ilar exposure conditions, however, prim es that are homophones to the target failed to affect performance, in contrast to neurologically intact observers (Exp. 2). Exp. 3 showed that IH's naming latencies are reduced for words with m any (vs. few) orthographic neighbours. This result suggests that overt word recognition in the patient is not strictly mediated by sequential letter recognition, but rather that it is conjointly affected by covert lexical activation. Relative to neurologically intact subjects, however, the pattern of the neighbourhood size effect shown by IH as a function of word frequency is abnormal and suggests that lexical activation based on the parallel processing of letters is w eakened in the patient compared to normal readers. Overall, results from IH point to a w eak form of activation of abstract orthographic lexical representations on the basis of parallel letter encoding, but no significant degree of phonological access. This account is discussed in relation to other similar proposals seeking an explanation of letter-by-letter dyslexia and of the covert lexical activation phenomena that accompany the disorder.
    Cognitive Neuropsychology 09/2010; 15(1):53-92.
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the single word reading impairment of a patient with severe acquired alexia in the context of largely spared auditory-verbal language. DES shows strong effects of lexical variables when reading words; she is completely unable to read nonwords. Her “visual” reading errors (orthographically related word substitutions) reflect a strong positional bias to differ from targets toward their right sides; this positional bias was evident across several different topographic transformations of the stimuli and was present in her spelling errors. Such a pattern of positional letter retention is commonly associated with right “neglect dyslexia” and has been interpreted as indicating damage to a spatially encoded word representation. However, DES shows no sign of spatial impairment in nonlanguage tasks, fails to demonstrate several of the characteristics thought to be diagnostic of “neglect dyslexia,” and shows no evidence of neglect in sentence reading. In contrast to the spatial account, we interpret DES's primary impairment as one involving a prelexical, transient level of representation in which letter order is coded abstractly (i.e. neither spatially nor serially).
    Cognitive Neuropsychology 09/2010; 16(6):513-556.
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    ABSTRACT: Three experiments assessed visual search and target enumeration performance in a patient (DW) with damage to the right temporo-parietal region. DW was extremely accurate in single feature and conjunction visual search tasks. In enumeration tasks in which there were no distractors DW was also extremely accurate, showed a normal subitisation-counting function, and could use global shape as a guide to numerosity. However, enumeration of targets amongst distractors was only accurate for up to three or four items, after which performance decreased rapidly. The results are discussed in relation to recent theories of enumeration.
    Cognitive Neuropsychology 09/2010; 16(7):609-629.
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a patient (KW) w ho show s impaired auditory comprehension of words in the presence of relatively intact written comprehension. His ability to perform auditory discrimination, repetition, and lexical decision tasks for words he cannot understand indicates that he has a word meaning deafness. It has been proposed that this deficit results from an impairment in the mappings between auditory lexical and semantic representations. A pure deficit of this nature w ould predict intact spelling to dictation for words that cannot be comprehended by way of a direct lexical, nonsemantic route betw een auditory and orthographic lexicons. In the case of KW, ability to write to dictation is relatively well-preserved for both regular and irregular words, relative to auditory comprehension. The nature of KW 's spelling errors was considered. In particular, w e reflect on the origin of his spelling errors since these may provide evidence regarding the nature of the lexical nonsemantic route that mediates w riting to dictation. KW 's performance is discussed in terms of current models of the spelling process.
    Cognitive Neuropsychology 09/2010; 14(8):1131-1164.
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    ABSTRACT: In the present article, we investigated the reading ability of CP, a pure alexic patient, using an experimental paradigm that is known to elicit the viewing position effect in norm al readers. The viewing position effect consists of a systematic variation of word recognition performance as a function of fixation location w ithin a word: Word recognition is best when the eyes fixate slightly left from the word centre and decreases when the eyes deviate from this optimal viewing position. A mathematical model (Nazir, O'Regan, & Jacobs, 1991), which provides a good description and quantification of the prototypical shape of the viewing position effect, served to interpret CP's reading performance. The results show ed that, like normal readers, CP was able to process all letters of a w ord in one fixation. However, in contrast to normal readers, reading performance was optimal when CP w as fixating the right half of the word. This somewhat abnormal pattern of performance was due to (1) poor perceptual processing in the right visual field, and (2) poor processing of letters situated towards the end of the word, independent of visual field presentation. A similar pattern of perform ance w as obtained with normal readers under experimental conditions in which lexical know ledge was of restricted use. We suggest that CP's reading impairment stems from a dysfunction in the coupling between incoming visual information and stored lexical information. This dysfunction is thought to uncover a prelexical level of word processing, where letter information is weighted differently as a function of letter position in a word-centred space.
    Cognitive Neuropsychology 09/2010; 15(1):93-140.
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    ABSTRACT: This article investigates the relation between misremembering and source judgments in both the mis-leading information paradigm and the false memory paradigm. A computational model, CHARM (Composite Holographic Associative Recall Model), is used to simulate source monitoring in both paradigms. Despite the fact that CHARM stores memories in a composite memory trace, it is shown that the model can account for source judgements, and can explain the discrepancy between the source judgement and the recognition data in the misleading information paradigm. It also can account for the basic phenomena of the false memory paradigm, wherein thematically related items induce a memory for a nonpresented but prototypical critical item. In two experiments linking these two research lines, we presented the critical item in a different list from that used to induce the false memory effect. Although the model predicted that the presentation of the critical item should increase the false memory effect, its presentation inhibited false memories instead—but only with particular word lists and in certain treatment combinations. It seems likely that the presence of the critical item in an alter-nate list allowed people to use an exclusionary rule to inhibit the false memories. Such a rule would be straightforward to implement in CHARM, and could allow the model to account for this false memory suppression effect.
    Cognitive Neuropsychology 09/2010; 16(3).
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    ABSTRACT: We report a longitudinal investigation of the development of reading in a child (DB) who suffered a left-hemisphere stroke in the early stages of reading acquisition. Reading development was monitored over a 4-year period using tests given on three occasions. Standardised reading tests showed that DB's reading problems became more pronounced with age and a specific reading disorder evolved. Her performance on orthographic and phonological reading tests revealed a complex pattern of development over time, consistent with a phonological reading disorder, that was principally characterised by deficient nonword reading. Her segmentation skills were initially impaired but improved to a normal level over time. Furthermore, she showed a marked reduction in the effects of spelling-sound regularity on word reading that were typical for her reading age and she produced significantly more lexical errors than reading-age controls, suggesting that she used mainly lexical strategies for word reading. Her sublexical processes were primitive and were generally applied only to stimuli that were stated to be nonwords. We suggest that DB has established an acquired form of developmental phonological dyslexia; the first such case to be reported.
    Cognitive Neuropsychology 09/2010; 16(6):573-587.

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