International Agrophysics (INT AGROPHYS )


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Publications in this journal

  • International Agrophysics 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The heterogeneity of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and water retention was measured with a high spatial resolution on a transect using an evaporation method. Fifteen undisturbed soil cores of 10 cm height were taken every 10 cm at a potential water repellent sandy site. Five dynamic water retention curves (h) and four unsaturated conductivity curves Ku(h) were determined for each core. We conducted measurements without further saturation in the laboratory in order to achieve field-like conditions. The initial water contents were heterogeneous, indicating different hysteretic conditions and water repellent areas. The scattering of the water retention curves was high, while the heterogeneity of Ku(h) was unexpectedly low. Two different approaches of scaling were used to describe the heterogeneity: with and without considering hysteresis The concept of scaling applies well to describing the heterogeneity of both hydraulic functions. Including hysteresis leads to similar results than excluding hysteresis. The distribution of the hydraulic conductivity and the water retention were independent from each other. The results give important information for the numerical simulation of water flow with heterogeneous hydraulic functions.
    International Agrophysics 04/2014; 28, 349-358.
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    ABSTRACT: Processes of compaction of granular materials were described using selected models. The analysis of their accuracy on the example of wheat was the basis for the discussion on their applicability to the processing of plant-origin materials. Parameters of the model equations for wheat, compressed at 10-18% moisture content were calculated, and the relations between these parameters and wheat moisture were determined. It was found that the analyzed models described the pressure compaction of granular plant material with different accuracy, and were highly dependent on moisture. The study also indicated that the model of Ferrero et al. fits the experimental results well. The parameters of this model reflected very well the physical phenomena which occur during compression.
    International Agrophysics 02/2014; 28(1).
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    ABSTRACT: The actual denitrification to N2O and denitrification capacity to N2O after flooding of different soil samples stored for over 25 years in air-dry conditions and fresh, air dried samples were compared in our study. Zero N2O release was observed from the stored soils but the fresh soil samples had very low actual denitrification to N2O. NO3- addition significantly increased the amount of N2O (denitrification capacity to N2O) released after flooding, which depended on the length of storage and type of soils and was much higher in stored soils. Prolonged exposure of the soils to drought conditions caused a greater decrease in the Eh value compared with the fresh soil. The total cumulative release of N2O from the stored and fresh soils was correlated with the reduced NO3- and organic C content in soils enriched with NO3 -. Some soils showed the capability of N2O consumption. CO2 release depended on the length of storage and type of soils under flooding after prolonged drought. On average, CO2 release was higher from the stored rather than fresh soils. The organic C content in the stored soils was generally lower than in the fresh soils, probably due to the storage effect. The cumulative CO2 release from the stored soils was well correlated with the organic C while no correlation was observed for the fresh soil samples.
    International Agrophysics 01/2014; 28(3):371 - 381.
  • International Agrophysics 01/2014; 28(4):529.
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    ABSTRACT: Gasification biochar represents one of the biochar types tested for agricultural needs. The aim of this study was to clarify the physico-chemical and biological changes occurring in a peat-sand substrate amended with hardwood-derived gasification biochar in the rates of 2, 4 and 20 g l-1. The pH(H2O) of the substrate with 4 g l-1 and 20 g l-1 biochar was increased from 5.6 to 6.2 and 6.7, respectively. The testing of the substrate in the re-spirometry device showed that the increase in the biochar rate led to a decrease in the amount of CO2 evolved at the maximum pressure drop. The continuous decrease in pressure observed in the respirometry bottles filled with pure biochar allows explaining this effect by biochar sorption activity. Addition of 2 and 4 g l-1 biochar to the peat-sand substrate stimulated the growth of cucumbers in an 18-day pot vegetation experiment. An increase in the number of root tips and root volume with a decreasing average root diameter was shown in the presence of biochar. Stimulation of plant growth on the background of low rates of biochar requires a further study with emphasis on the specific combination of biochar, soil type, plant species, and climatic conditions.
    International Agrophysics 01/2014; 28.