Acta Physiologica Hungarica (ACTA PHYSIOL HUNG )

Publisher: Magyar Tudományos Akadémia, Akademiai Kiado


The journal provides a forum for important new research papers written by eminent scientists on experimental medical sciences. Both papers reporting on original workand review articlesin the fields of physiology, pathophysiology, and border disciplines wi

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    Acta physiologica Hungarica
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Akademiai Kiado

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Publications in this journal

  • Acta Physiologica Hungarica 06/2014; 101(2):216-227.
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    ABSTRACT: One of the major classes of ionotropic glutamate receptors is the class of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). Receptor activation recruits, via calcium signal transduction mechanisms which play important roles in oxidative metabolism, mitochondrial free radical production and occurrence of other mitochondrial factors which potentially contribute to excitotoxicity and neuronal death. In the present study, the effects of stimulation of NMDARs by applying N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) in the brain, liver, kidneys and pancreas on change of the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and in the amount of reduced glutathione (GSH) in blood, brain, liver and kidneys has been investigated. Statistically significant decrease of the activity of SOD, CAT and GSHPx and in the amount of reduced glutathione (GSH) was found in the examined organs after administration of NMDA, an agonist of NMDA receptors, demonstrating that NMDA administration compromises the antioxidant status in the investigated organs of the mouse.
    Acta Physiologica Hungarica 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Evaluation of voice quality parameters of esophageal speech in different neoglottis forms after total laryngectomy. Methods: Presentation of voice analysis of 20 patients, who underwent total laryngectomy. The success of acquiring this technique was estimated by means of a voice analyzing program (pitch, sound-holding, loudness, spectrogram), and by the intelligibility via the telephone. Shape of the different types of neoglottis that developed and its functioning during vocalization and continuous speech were observed by nasal endoscopy. Data obtained from the voice analysis were compared among the observed three different neoglottis forms. Results: The average dysphonia index of the 20 patients was 1.67 ± 0.38 (mean ± SD). Nasal fiberoscopic examination revealed three different types of neoglottis forms - a small mucosal button, two mucosal battens, and a mucosal lip. Voice quality of the esophageal speech of the patients with the mucosal button was found to be the closest to normal by subjective and objective acoustical evaluation. Conclusions: These findings emphasize the importance of the proper wound closure technique which can facilitate the development of a special button shape neoglottis form and help to acquire esophageal speech with the best quality parameters shortly after total laryngectomy.
    Acta Physiologica Hungarica 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: As a prevention, a physically active lifestyle including the performance of weight-bearing exercises is important to enhance and maintain bone mineral content. Fifty young women were selected for the study. Twenty-five women carried out a specific training directed by a physiotherapist in the training group (TG), while 25 women were walking for 60 minutes in the control group (CG). Total and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (ALP and BALP) and C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide (CTX) levels were measured at the beginning and at the end of exercise. The most remarkable change was seen in CTX levels (TG -28.89%, p < 0.001; CG -52.54%, p < 0.001), and there was also a significant difference in the values of CTX between TG and CG (p = 0.012). Therefore, walking more significantly reduced the level of CTX than special exercise. The decrease of BALP in TG was considerable but not significant (TG -4.63%, p = 0.091), while BALP levels dropped significantly in CG (-7.65%, p = 0.011), and there was a non-significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.22). Regarding the ALP level, a significant reduction was detected in TG and CG (-6.84%, p < 0.001 vs. -4.57%, p < 0.001). This study reveals that the 60-minute, middle-intensity training and the brisk walking have an immediate effect on bone metabolic markers.
    Acta Physiologica Hungarica 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Gastric ulcer is a common gastrointestinal disease. One suggested mechanism is increased oxidative stress. Puplished data showed that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) may limit oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation.
    Acta Physiologica Hungarica 03/2014; 101(1):77-87.
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    ABSTRACT: This study is to explore the effect of ALAD polymorphism on hematopoietic, hepatic and renal toxicity from lead in occupational exposure workers.
    Acta Physiologica Hungarica 03/2014; 101(1):59-66.
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    ABSTRACT: Effect of a new acetylcholine-esterase reactivator, K203 as a new potential antidote in organophosphate intoxications was studied on dopamine (DA), homovanillic acid (HVA), serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels in seven brain regions (cerebellum, spinal cord, hippocampus, hypothalamus, striatum, medulla oblongata and frontal cortex) of rats by an optimized and validated HPLC method. No significant change in brain level of these neurotransmitters was found either 15 or 60 min following treatment. However, when 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios were calculated as measure of turnover, significant decreases were found in the cerebellum, hippocampus, hypothalamus and the frontal cortex 15 min following K203 administration, but after 60 min only in the frontal cortex.
    Acta Physiologica Hungarica 03/2014; 101(1):40-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies of central diabetes insipidus suggested that thiazides acutely exerted a paradoxical antidiuresis by either indirectly activating volume-homeostatic reflexes to decrease distal fluid-delivery, or directly stimulating distal water-reabsorption. This study investigated whether the direct and indirect actions of bendroflumethiazide (BFTZ) simultaneously cooperated and also whether the renal nerves were involved in inducing long-term antidiuresis in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). BFTZ or vehicle was gavaged into bilateral renal denervated and innervated rats with lithium-induced NDI for 10 days, constituting four groups. At one day before (D0) and one, five and ten days after starting administration of BFTZ or vehicle, rats were placed in metabolic cages to collect urine for 6 hours. BFTZ-treatment in both renal innervated and denervated rats caused equivalent reductions in urine-flow, creatinine clearance, lithium clearance and free-water clearance, but rises in urine-osmolality, fractional proximal reabsorption and fractional distal reabsorption at all days compared to D0, as well as to those of their relevant vehicle-received group. Therefore, the chronic antidiuretic response to BFTZ in conscious NDI rats was exerted through a concomitant cooperation of its direct distal effect of stimulating water-reabsorption and its indirect effect of reducing distal fluid-delivery by activating volume-homeostatic mechanisms, which appeared independent of the renal nerves.
    Acta Physiologica Hungarica 03/2014; 101(1):88-102.
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    ABSTRACT: Lifestyle modifications (increased level of physical activity, favourable nutrition, and stress management) are important factors in the prevention of and the therapy for cardiovascular (CV) diseases.
    Acta Physiologica Hungarica 03/2014; 101(1):1-12.
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is a pathological condition which increases the risk for cardiovascular disease. The present study was designed to evaluate homocysteine, lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], apolipoprotein-B (apo-B), apolipoprotein-A-I (apo-A-I) and lipid indices and their association if any in obese South Indian men. Thirty obese men and thirty age-matched males with normal body weight (controls) were recruited in the study. Plasma homocysteine, Lp(a), lipid profile, apo-A-I and apo-B were estimated in all the subjects. Lipid indices such as lipid pentad index (LPI), lipid tetrad index (LTI), atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL)/high density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio and apo-B/apo-A-I ratio were calculated in all study subjects. Homocysteine, Lp(a), apo-B, apo-B/apo-A-I ratio and lipid indices were significantly increased in obese men, compared to controls. Both homocysteine and Lp(a) were positively correlated with BMI, waist, hip circumference and apo-B and negatively correlated with apo-A-I. Also we found highly significant positive correlation between homocysteine and Lp(a) levels. The data from the present study concludes that non-conventional risk factors like homocysteine, Lp (a), apo-B/apo-A-I ratio, LTI, LPI, non-HDL/HDL ratio and AIP were significantly elevated in obese Indian men, suggesting they are more prone to develop cardiovascular disease, than the age-matched men with normal body weight.
    Acta Physiologica Hungarica 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Aluminum (Al) and indium (In) have embryotoxic, neurotoxic and genotoxic effects, oxidative stress being one of the possible mechanisms involved in their cytotoxicity. We have recently demonstrated that indium intraperitoneal (ip) administration induced histological disorganization of testicular tissue. In the present research we aimed at investigating the effect of Al and In ip administration on systemic and testicular oxidative stress status. Studies were performed on Wistar rats ip injected with Al, In or physiological solution for two weeks. Our results showed that In significantly decreased the absolute weight of testicles. Measurements of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and paraoxonase (PON) activities showed that In induced a significant augmentation in the first parameter but no changes were observed in the second. Both Al and In caused oxidative stress in testicles by increasing malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) production. Concomitantly, thiol group (-SH) and glutathione (GSH) level were enhanced in the testicles. In the blood, while concentrations of MDA was not changed, those of GSH was significantly decreased in the Al and In groups. Our results indicated that Al and In cause oxidative stress both in blood and testicles but In has cytotoxic effect as well as negative impact on testicle weights. These findings could explain the testicular histological alterations previously described after In ip administration.
    Acta Physiologica Hungarica 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to examine how end tidal CO2 pressure (PETCO2) is controlled in impulse exercise. After pre-exercise at 25 watts for 5 min, impulse exercise for 10 sec with 200 watts followed by post exercise at 25 watts was performed. Ventilation (V̇E) significantly increased until the end of impulse exercise and significantly re-increased after a sudden decrease. Heart rate (HR) significantly increased until the end of impulse exercise and then decreased to the pre-exercise level. PETCO2 remained constant during impulse exercise. PETCO2 significantly increased momentarily after impulse exercise and then significantly decreased to the pre-exercise level. PETCO2 showed oscillation. The average peak frequency of power spectral density in PETCO2 appeared at 0.0078 Hz. Cross correlations were obtained after impulse exercise. The peak cross correlations between V̇E and PETCO2, HR and PETCO2, and V̇E and HR were 0.834 with a time delay of -7 sec, 0.813 with a time delay of 7 sec and 0.701 with a time delay of -15 sec, respectively. We demonstrated that PETCO2 homeodynamics was interactively maintained by PETCO2 itself, CO2 transportation (product of cardiac output and mixed venous CO2 content) into the lungs by heart pumping and CO2 elimination by ventilation, and it oscillates as a result of their interactions.
    Acta Physiologica Hungarica 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Urocortin 2 (Ucn 2) is a corticotrop releasing factor paralog peptide with many physiological functions and it has widespread distribution. There are some data on the cytoprotective effects of Ucn 2, but less is known about its neuro- and retinoprotective actions. We have previously shown that Ucn 2 is protective in ischemia-induced retinal degeneration. The aim of the present study was to examine the protective potential of Ucn 2 in monosodium-glutamate (MSG)-induced retinal degeneration by routine histology and to investigate cell-type specific effects by immunohistochemistry. Rat pups received MSG applied on postnatal days 1, 5 and 9 and Ucn 2 was injected intravitreally into one eye. Retinas were processed for histology and immunocytochemistry after 3 weeks. Immunolabeling was determined for glial fibrillary acidic protein, vesicular glutamate transporter 1, protein kinase Cα, calbindin, parvalbumin and calretinin. Retinal tissue from animals treated with MSG showed severe degeneration compared to normal retinas, but intravitreal Ucn 2 treatment resulted in a retained retinal structure both at histological and neurochemical levels: distinct inner retinal layers and rescued inner retinal cells (different types of amacrine and rod bipolar cells) could be observed. These findings support the neuroprotective function of Ucn 2 in MSG-induced retinal degeneration.
    Acta Physiologica Hungarica 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible role of moderate and strenuous swimming training on plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) IL-6 (interleukin-6) levels during recovery from exhaustive exercise in rats. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: sedentary control (C), moderately trained (MT) and strenuously trained (ST). MT rats underwent swimming exercise for one hour/day and 5 days/week for 8 weeks. Animals in the ST group began swimming with 1 h/day and swimming duration was progressively increased by 30 min/wk, reaching 2.5 h/day by week 4 and stayed constant for an additional 4 weeks. After all animals underwent an acute exhaustive swimming exercise, animals were divided into 3 groups, and decapitated immediately, 24 and 48 hours after exhaustion to obtain tissue samples. Muscle citrate synthase activity, plasma and CSF IL-6 levels were determined. The citrate synthase activity was found to be higher in MT and ST groups compared to the C group. Although plasma IL-6 levels were found unaltered among all groups, the CSF IL-6 concentration was found to be increased 24 hours after exhaustive exercise of the ST group. We conclude that exercise training intensity is an important factor determining cerebrospinal IL-6 concentration after exhaustive exercise.
    Acta Physiologica Hungarica 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to reveal possible common and specific neuroendocrine mechanisms of depressionand anxiety-like states in rodents. Animal models of depression and anxiety (in particular, posttraumatic stress disorder, PTSD) were applied including the learned helplessness and the stress-restress paradigms, respectively. Immunocytochemical staining revealed that depressive- and anxiety-like states in animals were accompanied by the rise in corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) immunoreactivity in the parvocellular division of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Decrease in vasopressin-immunoreactivity in early period of depressive-like state development was followed by the normalization of vasopressin content in the hypothalamic PVN in delayed period. Increased CRH and vasopressin immunoreactivity in the magnocellular part of the PVN in delayed period of anxiety-like state development was detected only in the stress-restress paradigm. These results suggest that CRH hyperdrive in the parvocellular PVN appears to be a common neuroendocrine abnormality for depressive- and anxiety-like states in animals, while over-expression of CRH and vasopressin in the magnocellular PVN represents a specific feature of anxiety/PTSD-like state.
    Acta Physiologica Hungarica 12/2013; 100(4):395-410.

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