American Journal of Dermatopathology (AM J DERMATOPATH )

Description

The American Journal of Dermatopathology offers outstanding coverage of the latest diagnostic approaches and laboratory techniques, as well as insights into contemporary social, legal, and ethical concerns. Each issue features review articles on clinical, technical, and basic science advances and illuminating, detailed case reports.

Impact factor 1.43

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    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    1.43
  • Cited half-life
    8.80
  • Immediacy index
    0.27
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    0.44
  • Website
    American Journal of Dermatopathology, The website
  • Other titles
    The American journal of dermatopathology
  • ISSN
    0193-1091
  • OCLC
    5058734
  • Material type
    Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publications in this journal

  • American Journal of Dermatopathology 01/2015; 37(1):90-2.
  • American Journal of Dermatopathology 01/2015; 37(1):52-3.
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    ABSTRACT: : Alemtuzumab is a humanized mouse antibody targeting the CD52 cell surface, which has been effective in patients with advanced stage mycosis fungoides (MF) including erythrodermic MF and Sézary syndrome. There are a few descriptions of large cell transformation after its administration. A young patient with an acute onset of Sézary syndrome treated initially unsuccessfully with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide and later on successfully with alemtuzumab has been described. Three weeks after the beginning of therapy, however, she developed transformed T-cell lymphoma indistinguishable from CD30 anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. After bone marrow transplantation, the transformed CD30 cutaneous T-cell lymphoma recurred as a transformed CD30 plaque MF. All 3 types of lesions showed the same T-cell receptor clonal gene rearrangement, which supports the notion that Sézary syndrome, CD30 anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, and MF are interrelated.
    American Journal of Dermatopathology 01/2015; 37(1):73-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The differentiation between Spitz nevi (SN) and Spitzoid malignant melanomas (SMM) represents a challenge to dermatopathologists. We recently demonstrated differential expression of vimentin and Actin in SN and SMM by mass spectrometry (MS). We sought to investigate whether this differential expression could be detected using conventional immunohistochemistry or automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) of histological sections. Cases of SN and SMM, which were previously studied by MS and have readily available blocks and enough material in the block, were selected from the Yale Spitzoid Neoplasm Repository. The cases were stained for vimentin and muscle-specific actin using standard protocols. H-scores were calculated by multiplying the percentage of cells staining and the intensity of staining. Selected cases were also studied for quantitative immunofluorescent staining using the AQUA method. All 21 cases of SN showed strong and diffuse staining for vimentin; 19 of 21 (91%) cases had an H-score of 300 (average, 294). Similar staining results were observed in SMM; 13 of 14 (93%) cases had an H-score of 300 (average, 297). Muscle-specific actin was weakly and focally positive in 5 of 21 (24%) SN (H-score = 3.3) and 5 of 14 (39%) SMM (H-score = 3.5). The AQUA method showed no significant difference in the staining intensity of SN and SMM for both vimentin and actin. There was no difference in the expression of vimentin and actin in SN and SMM shown by conventional immunohistochemistry or the AQUA method. This study shows that MS has much grater sensitivity in detecting the differential expression of these proteins.
    American Journal of Dermatopathology 01/2015; 37(1):46-51.
  • American Journal of Dermatopathology 01/2015; 37(1):87.
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    ABSTRACT: : Cutaneous lupus erythematosus may present as an isolated condition or as part of a systemic disease, being acute cutaneous lupus erythematosus, the skin manifestation, more closely related to systemic involvement. The histopathologic findings may show a wide variety of features, which show overlap among different clinical presentations. The exclusive involvement of the eccrine units, including eccrine coils, dermal ducts, and acrosyringia is extremely uncommon. We present the second case of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with histopathologic involvement mostly located in the acrosyringia. The patient was a 37-year-old male with multiorgan failure who, in the context of flare-up of SLE, presented cutaneous lesions consisting of erythematous and edematous macules and plaques on the face, arms, and anterior chest. Histopathologic examination demonstrated necrotic keratinocytes confined to the acrosyringia as the main finding. It was associated with sparse inflammatory infiltrate in the superficial dermis, mostly composed of lymphocytes. The epidermis between the acrosyringia was spared. Our case was clinically almost identical to the one previously described, being a patient with a severe SLE and widespread cutaneous involvement and receiving treatment in the intensive care unit. The main differential diagnosis, both clinically and histopathologically was drug-related erythema multiforme. Clinicopathologic correlation is necessary to establish a correct diagnosis. SLE with histopathologic involvement mostly of the acrosyringia is a rare histopathologic variant of the disorder.
    American Journal of Dermatopathology 12/2014; 36(12):994-6.
  • American Journal of Dermatopathology 12/2014; 36(12):992-3.
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    ABSTRACT: : The clinical differential diagnosis of erythroderma is extensive and includes both benign and malignant causes. The authors present an exceptional case of erythroderma secondary to pre-B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia cutis, with diagnostic findings on biopsy.
    American Journal of Dermatopathology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: : T-follicular helper (Tfh) lymphocytes represent the neoplastic cells of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma and have been observed also in several cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) and extracutaneous T-cell lymphomas, including peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified, mycosis fungoides (MF), cutaneous CD4 small/medium T-cell lymphoma (CD4SMTCL), and Sezary syndrome. We studied a large number of different types of primary CTCL for expression of Tfh markers, including 36 biopsies from 21 patients with MF (with sequential biopsies from patch stage and tumor stage of 15 patients), 13 patients with CD4SMTCL, 9 with lymphomatoid papulosis, 11 with cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (cALCL), 2 with cutaneous γ/δ T-cell lymphoma, 8 with subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma, 3 with cutaneous aggressive epidermotropic CD8 cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma, 6 with cutaneous peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified, and 1 with Sezary syndrome. Expression of at least 3 of 5 markers (PD-1, CXCL-13, ICOS, Bcl-6, and CD10) in >10% of tumor cells was observed in 33 biopsies (MF = 20; CD4SMTCL = 11; 1 each cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma and subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma, respectively). Our study shows that a Tfh phenotype is very common in MF and CD4SMTCL but can be observed rarely also in other types of CTCL. Expression of Tfh markers should not be used for classification of any entity of CTCL and may only integrate other immunohistochemical stainings for a more accurate characterization of these disorders. Precise distinction of Tfh-positive CTCLs from secondary skin manifestations of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma cannot rest on demonstration of a Tfh phenotype alone and should be achieved by a synthesis of clinical, histological, and phenotypic features.
    American Journal of Dermatopathology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: : Brooke-Spiegler syndrome (BSS) and its phenotypic variants, multiple familial trichoepithelioma (MFT) and familial cylindromatosis, are rare autosomal dominant hereditary diseases. They are characterized by the presence of multiple adnexal tumors, especially cylindromas, spiradenomas, spiradenocylindromas, and trichoepitheliomas. Implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease is the gene CYLD, which is localized on the long arm of chromosome 16. This gene encodes an evolutionarily conserved protein belonging to the deubiquitinating enzymes family, which plays a key role in many signaling pathways, especially in NF-κB, JNK, and Wnt. Less than 90 germline mutations of CYLD have been identified in patients with BSS/MFT. These mutations are mostly small alterations in the coding sequence and at exon-intron junction sites. One patient with an intronic mutation and another with a large CYLD deletion have also been recorded. In this study, the authors have analyzed a cohort of 14 patients with BSS/MFT from 13 families for large genome rearrangements by array comparative genome hybridization followed by confirmatory sequencing. We identified 2 large deletions, namely c.-34111_*297858del378779 and c.914-6398_1769del13642ins20 in patients with MFT and BSS, respectively. All other analyzable patients did not reveal any copy number alteration. It is concluded that the large rearrangements are relatively rare in patients without a germline CYLD mutation demonstrable by conventional sequencing. The pathogenetic mechanisms in patients with BSS/MFT lacking germline sequence alterations or large rearrangements in the CYLD gene remain to be clarified.
    American Journal of Dermatopathology 11/2014; 36(11):868-74.
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    ABSTRACT: : Complete spontaneous regression of multiple melanocytic nevi after melanoma is an extremely rare phenomenon. We report 3 cases of patients with a history of melanoma that showed regression of almost all melanocytic nevi over time. One of the patients had 2 simultaneous primary cutaneous melanomas without metastasis. In the other 2 patients, regression of the melanocytic nevi was seen after the development of metastasis in lymph nodes. These patients had spontaneously developed an efficient immune response against melanocytes, and they would represent paradigmatic examples of the spontaneous immune responses in melanoma patients. Better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the complete regression of melanocytic lesions would lead to a better selection of melanoma patients for immunotherapy.
    American Journal of Dermatopathology 11/2014; 36(11):e183-8.
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    ABSTRACT: : Indeterminate leprosy (IL) is the early phase of Hansen disease and reword (APCs). Langerhans cells and dermal dendrocytes FXIIIa positive (DDFXIIIa) are the major APCs in the skin and can be identified by the expression of CD1a and FXIIIa, respectively, by immunohistochemical techniques. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) are another type of dermal dendrocytes with a questionable antigen-presenting function and can be highlighted by anti-CD123 expression. To our knowledge, there are no studies evaluating DDFXIIIa and PDC in IL. The purpose was to investigate the involvement of these cells in the pathogenesis of IL. The authors performed a retrospective study on 18 cases of IL (10 confirmed and 8 suspected) to investigate expression of FXIIIa, CD1a, and CD123. The results were compared with normal skin (for CD1a and FXIIIa only). A higher amount of FXIIIa-positive cells (P < 0.05) in confirmed and suspected IL cases was noted when comparing with normal skin. However, CD1a showed no quantitative differences in the epidermis of IL lesions when comparing with normal skin and CD123 expression was negligible. Based on these findings, the authors postulate that Langerhans cells and PDCs do not have a major role in IL and that DDFXIIIa may be the main APCs in IL. Further study is required to establish this.
    American Journal of Dermatopathology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: : Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (C-ALCL) is the second most common type of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The median age of onset of C-ALCL is 60 years. Presented here is a case of congenital CD30-positive (CD30) primary C-ALCL in a 10-day-old neonate who presented with a large erythematous indurative plaque in the right postauricular area. A systemic workup of the patient excluded other potential causes. The neonate was treated with wide excision, but chemotherapy or radiation therapy was not administered, as the patient's parents did not consent to such treatment. The patient has been monitored for 30 months after excision and there has been no disease recurrence. C-ALCL rarely occurs in children, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a neonate with congenital primary C-ALCL.
    American Journal of Dermatopathology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: : Tufted angioma (TA) is a rare benign vascular neoplasm characterized histopathologically by the proliferation of endothelial cells arranged in lobules in the dermis and subcutaneous fat. To date, about 200 cases have been reported, most of which are of Japanese ethnicity. TA predominantly affects children and young adults, developing in 80% of patients younger than 10 years. A white 72-year-old renal transplant recipient presented with 2 asymptomatic dusky red papules on his right leg. The lesions appeared 5 years after the start of immunosuppressive treatment. Histopathologic examination showed a proliferation of poorly canalized capillary-sized vascular structures with typical "cannonball" pattern in the dermis and subcutaneous fat. Eccrine glands were also evident focally in the stroma of capillary lobules. On immunohistochemistry, endothelial cells in the vascular tufts stained positive for CD31 and CD34 but were negative for factor VIII-related antigen, human herpes virus 8, and podoplanin (clone D2-40); α-smooth muscle actin stained pericytes disposed in a single layer in capillary-sized vessels and in 2-3 or more layers in vessels of larger size, respectively. The microscopic findings were suggestive of TA. In the deep dermis, venules with smooth muscle wall and arterioles, as shown by Van Gieson staining, normally not found at that level, were present and appeared surrounded by capillary lobules. Onset of TA in adulthood is rare and may be associated with pregnancy, varicella zoster virus infection, and pharmacological immunosuppression. A case of acquired adult-onset TA associated with an arteriovenous malformation in an elderly transplanted patient is described.
    American Journal of Dermatopathology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of mutations in malignant melanoma varies remarkably according to the subtype of melanoma, and this in itself is affected by racial and geographical factors. Studies screening melanoma case series for different types of mutations are relatively rare.
    American Journal of Dermatopathology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: : Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL), granuloma annulare (GA), and sarcoidosis usually are distinguished by clinical presentation and routine microscopy, but their distinction can sometimes be challenging. Historically, a clue to diagnosing NL or GA has been the identification of lipid droplets in the areas of altered collagen, but such studies have required fresh frozen tissue, making them impractical. Here, we present the first report of immunohistochemical staining to detect adipophilin, a membrane protein in lipid droplets, in NL (n = 12), GA (n = 19), sarcoidosis (n = 12), and, as a control for nonspecific tissue damage, nongranulomatous cutaneous necrosis (n = 13). Four patterns of labeling were identified: (1) extracellular, within zones of altered collagen; (2) both intracellular and extracellular, after the distribution of palisaded or scattered histiocytes; (3) intracellular, within clustered histiocytes; and (4) periadnexal. All cases of NL demonstrated pattern 1; nearly all cases of GA (18/19) demonstrated pattern 2; most sarcoidosis (10/12) demonstrated pattern 3; and nongranulomatous necrosis demonstrated either pattern 4 (6/13) or did not stain (6/13), confirming that the antibody to adipophilin did not adhere nonspecifically to the damaged tissue. An additional set of 3 biopsies with overlapping or partially sampled features of NL, GA, and/or sarcoidosis subsequently confirmed the potential utility of adipophilin staining in diagnostically challenging cases. We conclude that the pattern of adipophilin expression is a useful adjunct in the evaluation of granulomatous dermatitis.
    American Journal of Dermatopathology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: : The discovery of BRAF mutations in 40%-60% of melanomas led to the development of BRAF inhibitors, which exhibit objective response in over 50% of patients. However, up to 98% of the patients develop at least 1 side effect. We report for the first time a patient with metastatic melanoma harboring BRAF V600E mutation that develops a primary, cutaneous small/medium CD4 T-cell lymphoma secondarily to the treatment with vemurafenib. A 54-year-old man with a history of metastatic melanoma treated with the oral BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib presents, 4 months after the initiation of the treatment, with multiple, nodular firm nonulcerated lesions on his back. Two skin biopsies from the lesions revealed a primary, cutaneous small/medium CD4 T-cell lymphoma.The extensive use of recently approved mutation-specific RAF inhibitors seems to be speeding up the emergence of unknown nonpreventable toxicities of these agents. Our patient developed a primary, cutaneous small/medium CD4 T-cell lymphoma, which presented 4 months after the commencement of vemurafenib. Although no treatment interruption is normally required, a close monitoring of the patients with advanced melanomas treated with vemurafenib seems imperative to optimize the management strategies.
    American Journal of Dermatopathology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: : P75 neurotrophin receptor (p75) is a transmembrane protein in the tumor necrosis receptor superfamily useful for the diagnosis of desmoplastic melanomas, desmoplastic trichoepitheliomas, and more recently used for detecting perineural invasion in oral and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). P75 staining in cutaneous SCCs is more controversial with initial staining reported as negative but more recent reports indicating that it may be a useful immunohistochemical marker of perineural invasion. A poorly differentiated pleomorphic epithelioid cell proliferation, which had strong p75 staining in the periphery of epithelioid cell nests, is being reported. Both low and high molecular weight keratins were positive and SOX10, S100, and HMB-45 staining were negative, consistent with a poorly differentiated SCC. To our knowledge, this pattern has not yet been reported and most likely reflects reiteration of the basal layer epithelium, which normally stains positively for p75. Reports of p75 staining in cutaneous SCCs are still limited, and a larger scale study may prove useful in determining its role as a marker for perineural invasion.
    American Journal of Dermatopathology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: : In the diagnostic approach to histiocytic proliferations, immunohistochemistry may be a source of both confusion and clarification. We present a case of a 60-year-old man with a generalized pruritic eruption that demonstrated positive staining for CD1a, but negative staining for langerin and S100 protein. This immunophenotype is neither representative nor characteristic of any recognized dendritic cell tumor but has been previously described in 3 cases of skin-limited histiocytosis. However, our patient also demonstrated pulmonary histiocytic infiltrates that were positive for both CD1a and S100 proteins. This differing expression of S100 protein witnessed in 2 separate organ systems affords us insight into the pathophysiology of these histiocytic proliferations.
    American Journal of Dermatopathology 10/2014;