The American Journal of Chinese Medicine (AM J CHINESE MED)

Publisher: Institute for Advanced Research in Asian Science and Medicine, World Scientific Publishing

Current impact factor: 2.76

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 2.755
2013 Impact Factor 2.625
2012 Impact Factor 2.281
2011 Impact Factor 1.979
2010 Impact Factor 1.383
2009 Impact Factor 1.422
2008 Impact Factor 1.058
2007 Impact Factor 1.122
2006 Impact Factor 0.71
2005 Impact Factor 0.743
2004 Impact Factor 0.593
2003 Impact Factor 0.627
2002 Impact Factor 0.738
2001 Impact Factor 0.511
2000 Impact Factor 0.583
1999 Impact Factor 0.532
1998 Impact Factor 0.293
1997 Impact Factor 0.329
1996 Impact Factor 0.453
1995 Impact Factor 0.07
1994 Impact Factor 0.06
1993 Impact Factor 0.147
1992 Impact Factor 0.052

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.17
Cited half-life 6.40
Immediacy index 0.26
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.34
Website American Journal of Chinese Medicine website
Other titles The American journal of Chinese medicine, Mei-chou Chung-kuo i hsüeh tsa chih
ISSN 0192-415X
OCLC 4655940
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

World Scientific Publishing

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • Author's pre-print on any website or open access repository
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website, institutional repository, subject repository or funding agency designated repository
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Set statement to accompany pre-print and authors post-print - see policy
    • Must link to publisher version with DOI
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Electroacupuncture (EA) is an extension technique of acupuncture based on traditional acupuncture combined with modern electrotherapy. Here, we conducted a systematic review specifically to assess effectiveness and safety of EA for acute ischemic stroke. Eight databases were searched for randomized-controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of EA for acute ischemic stroke published from inception to June 2013. Ultimately, 67 studies claimed RCTs. Eighteen studies with 1411 individuals were selected for the analyses, which got ≥4 ‘yes’ in the domains of Cochrane risk of bias tool. The meta-analysis showed a significant effect of EA for improving Barthel Index (P<0.00001), Fugl-Meyer Assessment (P<0.00001), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (P<0.00001) and Revised Scandinavian Stroke Scale (P<0.00001) compared with western conventional treatments (WCTs). In analysis of total clinical efficacy rate, there was a significant difference between EA and WCTs (P=0.0002). Adverse effects were monitored in 6 studies, and were well tolerated in all stroke patients. According to the GRADE approach, the quality of evidence was most of high or moderate. In conclusion, this systematic review revealed the evidence in support of the use of EA for acute ischemic stroke, although further larger sample-size and rigorously designed RCTs are required.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 12/2015; 43(8):1-26. DOI:10.1142/S0192415X15500883
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid, is known to exert antitumor activity in breast, lung, liver and colon cancers. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanism of ursolic acid in prostate cancer cells still remains unclear. In the present study, we report the chemotherapeutic effects of ursolic acid as assessed using in vitro and in vivo models. Treatment of human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP and PC-3) with UA inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis in both cell lines as characterized by the increased Annexin V-binding. The induction of apoptosis by UA was associated with a decrease in the levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, survivin, and activated caspase-3. Treatment with UA also inhibited the expression of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR signaling proteins. Further, administration of UA significantly inhibited the growth of LNCaP prostate tumor xenografts in athymic nude mice, which was associated with inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis of tumor cells and decreased expression of PI3K downstream factors, such as p-Akt and p-mTOR in tumor xenograft tissues. Our study demonstrates that UA not only inhibits cell growth but also induces apoptosis through modulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in human prostate cancer cells. We suggest that UA may be a new chemotherapeutic candidate against prostate cancer.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 10/2015; DOI:10.1142/S0192415X15500834
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Berberine (BBR), an alkaloid component isolated from Chinese medicinal herb Huang Lian, has aroused broad interests for its antitumor effect in recent years. The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), plays critical roles in malignant transformation and progression and was found to be constitutively activated in a variety of human cancers. In this study, we show that BBR inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and suppressed tumor spheroid formation of lung cancer cell lines. These effects were correlated with BBR-mediated suppression of both phosphorylated and total levels of STAT3 protein. Furthermore, BBR promoted STAT3 degradation by enhancing ubiquitination. Importantly, we demonstrated that BBR was able to inhibit doxorubicin (DOX)-mediated STAT3 activation and sensitize lung cancer cells to the cytotoxic effect of DOX treatment. Given that BBR is widely used in clinic with low toxicity, our results are potentially important for the development of a novel combinatorial therapy with BBR and DOX in the treatment of lung cancer.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 10/2015; DOI:10.1142/S0192415X15500846
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plays a systemic role in disease treatment, targeting multiple etiological factors simultaneously. Based on clinical experience, rhubarb and Salvia miltiorrhiza are commonly prescribed together for the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and have been proven to be very effective. However, the rationale of the combination remains unclear. The major active ingredients of these two herbs are rhein (RH) and danshensu (DSS), respectively. The aim of this paper is to investigate the renoprotective effects of RH and DSS in vitro and in vivo, and the underlying mechanism. A total of 5/6 nephrectomy rats and HK-2 cells were subjected to chronic renal injury. The combination of RH and DSS conferred a protective effect, as shown by a significant improvement in the renal function, blood supply, and fibrotic degree. Proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules were suppressed by RH and DSS through NK-κB signaling. The combination also inhibited apoptosis by up-regulating Bcl-2 and down-regulating Bax. Inhibiting the TGF-β/Smad3 pathway was at least in part involved in the antifibrotic mechanism of the combination treatment of RH and DSS. This study demonstrates for the first time the renoprotective effect and the mechanism of RH and DSS combination on chronic renal injury. It could provide experimental evidence to support the rationality of the combinatorial use of TCM in clinical practices.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 10/2015; DOI:10.1142/S0192415X15500780
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ginger is a commonly used spice and herbal medicine worldwide. Besides its extensive use as a condiment, ginger has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for the management of various medical conditions. In recent years, ginger has received wide attention due to its observed antiemetic and anticancer activities. This paper reviews the potential role of ginger and its active constituents in cancer chemoprevention. The phytochemistry, bioactivity, and molecular targets of ginger constituents, especially 6-shogaol, are discussed. The content of 6-shogaol is very low in fresh ginger, but significantly higher after steaming. With reported anti-cancer activities, 6-shogaol can be served as a lead compound for new drug discovery. The lead compound derivative synthesis, bioactivity evaluation, and computational docking provide a promising opportunity to identify novel anticancer compounds originating from ginger.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 10/2015; DOI:10.1142/S0192415X15500767
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Solanum lyratum (SLEC) Thunberg (Solanaceae) has been used as a traditional herbal medicine in China for centuries. Numerous studies have shown that SLEC Thunberg (Solanaceae) extract inhibited cancer cell growth in vitro. Herein, we investigated cell death-induced by EcoAc, water, chloroform, butanol extract of SLEC in human oral cancer cell lines (HSC-3, SAS, and CAL-27) in vitro. Different SLEC extract induced cytotoxic effects in human oral cancer cells were examined by contrast phase microscopy. We selected the chloroform extract of SLEC to examine the cytotoxic effects by using DAPI staining, comet assays, flow cytometric assay, Western blotting and examination of confocal laser microscopy. SLEC decreased the percentage of viable cells, induced G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis. These effects were concentration- and time-dependent manners. SLEC increased protein levels of p21, p16, CDK2, and cyclin D1 in HSC-3, SAS, and CAL-27 cells. Also, SLEC increased CDK6 in HSC-3 and CAL-27 cells, but inhibited CDK6 in SAS cells. Cyclin E in HSC-3 and SAS cells was increased by SLEC, but it was inhibited in CAL-27 cells. SLEC suppressed the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, but increased the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bad in HSC-3, SAS, and CAL-27 cells. SLEC promoted the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca (2+), decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and stimulated NO production in HSC-3, SAS, and CAL-27 cells. Specific caspase inhibitors (caspase-8 inhibitor: Z-IETD-FMK; caspase-9 inhibitor: Z-LEHD-FMK and caspase-3 inhibitor: Z-DEVD-FMK) for caspase-8, -9, and -3 blocked SLE-activated caspase-8, -9, and -3 activities which were associated with an increase in the percentage of viable cells. Taken together, SLE induced G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis via extrinsic- and intrinsic-dependent pathways in HSC-3, SAS, and CAL-27 cells.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 10/2015; DOI:10.1142/S0192415X15500822
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Antrodia cinnamomea (A. cinnamomea) is a Chinese medicinal herb that possesses a broad range of bioactivities, including anti-inflammation. Given that the proinflammatory cytokine IL-17 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, we investigated whether A. cinnamomea could inhibit the development of Th17 cells, the main producer of IL-17, and exhibit therapeutic effects on an animal model of psoriasis. We found that A. cinnamomea extract (AC) inhibited the differentiation of Th17 cells as well as the production of IL-17A, IL-21, and IL-22 from these cells. This effect was associated with the inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation and RORγt expression. Notably, the oral administration of AC reduced psoriasis-like inflammation in imiquimod-mediated dermal damage, repressed the expression of IL-17A, IL-22, and TNF-α in skin lesions, and decreased the infiltration of CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, and neutrophils into the dermis. Finally, serum levels of IL-17A were decreased in AC-treated mice with psoriasis-like skin inflammation. Taken together, these findings indicate that AC inhibits Th17 cell differentiation, suggesting a role for A. cinnamomea in the treatment of psoriasis and other Th17 cell-mediated inflammatory diseases.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 10/2015; DOI:10.1142/S0192415X15500792
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cudraxanthone H (CH) is a natural compound isolated from a methanol extract of the root bark of Cudrania tricuspidata, a herbal plant also known as Moraceae. However, the effect of CH on human cancer cells has not been reported previously. The aim of this study was to investigate the anticancer effects and mechanism of action of CH on oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. CH exerted significant antiproliferative effects on OSCC cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. CH also induced apoptosis in OSCC cells, as evidenced by an increased percentage of cells in the sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle, annexin V-positive/propidium iodide-negative cells, and nuclear morphology. This antiproliferative effect of CH was associated with a marked reduction in the expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E, with a concomitant induction of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) expression (p21 and p27). CH inhibited the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB-αand the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. Furthermore, CH treatment down-regulated PIN1 mRNA and protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. PIN1 overexpression by infection with adenovirus-PIN1 (Ad-PIN1) attenuated the CH-induced growth-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing effects, blocked CH-enhanced CDKI expression and restored cyclin levels. In contrast, inhibiting PIN1 expression via juglone exerted the opposite effects. The present study is the first to demonstrate antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects of CH, which exerts its effects by inhibiting NF-κB and PIN1. These data suggest that it might be a novel alternative chemotherapeutic agent for use in the treatment of oral cancer.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 10/2015; DOI:10.1142/S0192415X15500810
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played important roles in health protection and disease treatment for thousands of years in China and has gained the gradual acceptance of the international community. However, many intricate issues, which cannot be explained by traditional methods, still remain, thus, new ideas and technologies are needed. As an emerging system biology technology, the holistic view adopted by metabolomics is similar to that of TCM, which allows us to investigate TCM with complicated conditions and multiple factors in depth. In this paper, we tried to give a timely and comprehensive update about the methodology progression of metabolomics, as well as its applications, in different fields of TCM studies including quality control, processing, safety and efficacy evaluation. The herbs investigated by metabolomics were selected for detailed examination, including Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge, Atractylodes macrocephala Kidd, Pinellia ternate, etc.; furthermore, some valuable results have been obtained and summarized. In conclusion, although the study of metabolomics is at the early phase and requires further scrutiny and validation, it still provides bright prospects to dissect the synergistic action of multiple components from TCM. Overall, with the further development of analytical techniques, especially multi-analysis techniques, we expect that metabolomics will greatly promote TCM research and the establishment of international standards, which is beneficial to TCM modernization.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 10/2015; DOI:10.1142/S0192415X15500731
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Traditional Chinese herbal products (CHPs) have been described in ancient medicine systems as treatments for various stroke-associated ailments. This study is aimed to investigate the prescription patterns and combinations of CHPs for ischemic stroke in Taiwan. Prescriptions of CHPs for ischemic stroke were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. Every prescription with a leading diagnosis of ischemic stroke made during 2000-2010 was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were applied to the pattern of co-prescriptions. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess demographic and risk factors that are correlated with CHP use. The dataset of inpatient claims data contained information on 15,896 subjects who experienced ischemic stroke from 2000 to 2010. There was an average of 5.82 CHPs in a single prescription for subjects with ischemic stroke. Bu-yang-huan-wu-tang (BYHWT) (40.32%) was by far the most frequently prescribed formula CHP for ischemic stroke, and the most commonly used combination of two-formula-CHP was BYHWT with Shu-jin-huo-xue-tang (SJHXT) (4.40%). Dan Shen (16.50%) was the most commonly used single CHP for ischemic stroke, and the most commonly used combination of two single CHPs was Shi Chang Pua with Yuan Zhi (4.79%). We found that BYHWT and Dan Shen were the most frequently prescribed formula and single CHP for ischemic stroke, respectively. These results provide information about individualized therapy and may contribute to further pharmacologic experiments and clinical trials.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 10/2015; DOI:10.1142/S0192415X15500779
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Astragalus and Panax notoginseng are commonly used to treat cardio-cerebrovascular diseases in China and are often combined together to promote curative effect. We speculate that the enhancement of the combination on anticerebral ischemia injury may come from the main active components. The purpose of this work was to probe the effects and mechanisms of Astragaloside IV (the active component of Astragalus) combined with Ginsenoside Rg1, Ginsenoside Rb1, and Notoginsenoside R1 (the active components of P. notoginseng) to antagonize ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury via inflammation and apoptosis. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into sham, model, Astragaloside IV, Ginsenoside Rg1, Ginsenoside Rb1, Notoginsenoside R1, four active components combination, and Edaravone groups. After administration for 3 days, bilateral common carotid arteries (CCA) were occluded with artery clip for 20 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h. Our results showed that the survival rate of nerve cell in hippocampal CA1 decreased while the apoptotic rate increased, and the level of caspase-3 protein in brain tissues was elevated, the expressions of TNF-a, IL-1, and ICAM-1 mRNA as well as phosphorylated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) inhibitor protein α (p-IκBa) in brain tissues were up-regulated, and the nuclear translocation rate of NF-κB was raised. Additionally, the protein expressions of phosphorylated tyrosine kinase 1 (p-JAK1), phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (p-STAT1), glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78), caspase-12, and phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1/2 (p-JNK1/2) in brain tissues were also significantly strengthened after I/R for 24 h. All drugs could increase neurocyte survival rate in hippocampal CA1, decrease the apoptotic rate, and inhibit caspase-3 protein expression, in contrast, the effects of four active components combination were better than those of active components alone. In addition, Astragaloside IV and Ginsenoside Rg1 could down-regulate the level of TNF-α, and ICAM-1 mRNA, respectively, Notoginsenoside R1 reduced both TNF-α and ICAM-1 mRNA, and the combination of the 4 effective components had inhibitory effects on the expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, and ICAM-1 mRNA. Astragaloside IV, Ginsenoside Rg1, Notoginsenoside R1, and 4 effective components combination were able to restrain the phosphorylation of IκBα, and relieve the nuclear translocation rate of NF-κB. Moreover, the effects of the combination are greater than those of active components alone. All drugs could suppress the phosphorylation of JAK1 induced by I/R; meanwhile the expression of p-STAT1 exhibited a decrease in Ginsenoside Rg1 and four active components combination groups. The decreases of p-JAK1 and p-STAT1 in the four active components combination group were more obvious than those in active components alone groups. Astragaloside IV, Ginsenoside Rg1, and Notoginsenoside R1 further augmented GRP78 expression caused by I/R, Notoginsenoside R1 attenuated caspase-12 protein expression, Astragaloside IV and Ginsenoside Rg1 lessened the phosphorylation of JNK1/2, and the four active components combination was capable of up-regulating GRP78 protein while down-regulating the expressions of caspase-12 and p-JNK1/2. Similarly, the effects of the four active components combination were greater than those of effective components alone. These suggested that the combination of the main active components of Astragalus and Panax notoginseng could strengthen protective effects on cerebral ischemia injury via anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammation, and the mechanisms might be associated with restraining the activation of NF-κB and JAK1/STAT1 signal pathways and regulating endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) after cerebral ischemia.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 10/2015; DOI:10.1142/S0192415X15500809
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tanshinones are a group of bioactive constituents isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, a widely prescribed traditional Chinese herb. In the current study, the anticancer properties of total tanshinones (TDT) were evaluated using 95D lung cancer cells. Tanshinone IIA was identified as the main component of TDT. Compared with tanshinone IIA, TDT showed more cytotoxic effects on the 95D cells. Annexin V/7-AAD double staining, the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) (Δψ), the up-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins, such as cleaved-PARP, cleaved-caspase-3, Bax, and Bad, and the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were evidence of TDT-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, TDT-induced autophagy as demonstrated by monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining and the up-regulation of autophagy-associated proteins, such as LC3-II, Beclin-1, Atg3, Atg5, Atg7, and Atg12. Autophagy inhibitors, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and bafilomycin A1, enhanced TDT-induced cell death. 3-MA pretreatment enhanced the TDT-induced up-regulation of Bax and cleaved-PARP. In addition, TDT induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was reversed by N-acetylcysteine (NAC). NAC also reversed TDT-induced depolarization of Δψ, MDC staining, up-regulation of Bax, cleaved-PARP, Beclin-1, LC3-II, and cell viability. In conclusion, our findings showed that TDT-induced apoptosis and protective autophagy in 95D cells mediated by increasing intracellular ROS production.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 09/2015; 43(6):1-15. DOI:10.1142/S0192415X1550072X
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have shown that the in vitro hepatic microsomal metabolism of pyranocoumarin compound decursinol angelate (DA) to decursinol (DOH) exclusively requires cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, whereas the conversion of its isomer decursin (D) to DOH can be mediated by CYP and esterase(s). To provide insight into specific isoforms involved, here we show with recombinant human CYP that 2C19 was the most active at metabolizing D and DA in vitro followed by 3A4. With carboxylesterases (CES), D was hydrolyzed by CES2 but not CES1, and DA was resistant to both CES1 and CES2. In human liver microsomal (HLM) preparation, the general CYP inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT) and respective competitive inhibitors for 2C19 and 3A4, (+)-N-3-benzylnirvanol (NBN) and ketoconazole substantially retarded the metabolism of DA and, to a lesser extent, of D. In healthy human subjects from a single-dose pharmacokinetic (PK) study, 2C19 extensive metabolizer genotype (2C19*17 allele) tended to have less plasma DA AUC0-48h and poor metabolizer genotype (2C19*2 allele) tended to have greater DA AUC0-48h. In mice given a single dose of D/DA, pretreatment with ABT boosted the plasma and prostate levels of D and DA by more than an order of magnitude. Taken together, our findings suggest that CYP isoforms 2C19 and 3A4 may play a crucial role in the first pass liver metabolism of DA and, to a lesser extent, that of D in humans. Pharmacogenetics with respect to CYP genotypes and interactions among CYP inhibitor drugs and D/DA should therefore be considered in designing future translation studies of DA and/or D.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 09/2015; 43(6):1-20. DOI:10.1142/S0192415X1550069X
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Asthma is a chronic respiratory symptoms with variable airflow limitation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and causes high economic burden. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long-lasting history of using herbal medicine in the treatment of various respiratory diseases including asthma. In the last several decades, an increasing number of herbs have been shown to be effective in the treatment of asthma in clinical trials or asthmatic inflammation in animal models. Literature about the effects of TCM on the immune system were searched in electronic databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus from 2000 to 2014. 'TCM' and 'asthma' were used as keywords for the searches. Over 400 literatures were searched and the literatures about the immune system were selected and reviewed. We only reviewed literatures published in English. Accumulating evidence suggests that TCM can directly inhibit the activation and migration of inflammatory cells, regulate the balance of Th1/Th2 responses, and suppress allergic hyperreactivity through inducing regulatory T cells or attenuating the function of dendritic cells (DCs). These studies provided useful information to facilitate the use of TCM to treat asthma. This review was conducted to classify the findings based on their possible mechanisms of action reported.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 09/2015; 43(6):1-23. DOI:10.1142/S0192415X15500615
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rosmarinic Acid (RA), a caffeic acid ester, has been shown to exert anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant and antiallergic effects. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of RA in sodium taurocholate (NaTC)-induced acute pancreatitis, both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, RA (50 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally 2 h before sodium taurocholate injection. Rats were sacrificed 12 h, 24 h or 48 h after sodium taurocholate injection. Pretreatment with RA significantly ameliorated pancreas histopathological changes, decreased amylase and lipase activities in serum, lowered myeloperoxidase activity in the pancreas, reduced systematic and pancreatic interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, and inhibited NF-κB translocation in pancreas. In vitro, pretreating the fresh rat pancreatic acinar cells with 80 μmol/L RA 2 h before 3750 nmol/L sodium taurocholate or 10 ng/L TNF-α administration significantly attenuated the reduction of isolated pancreatic acinar cell viability and inhibited the nuclear activation and translocation of NF-κB. Based on our findings, RA appears to attenuate damage in sodium taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis and reduce the release of inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB. These findings might provide a basis for investigating the therapeutic role of RA in managing acute pancreatits.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 09/2015; 43(6):1-19. DOI:10.1142/S0192415X15500640
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Uncaria sinensis (US) has long been used as a traditional Korean medicine to treat cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases, including hypertension and cerebral ischemia. Several recent studies have indicated that US has neuroprotective and cerebrovascular protective effects in ischemic brain injury; however, little is known about the anti-inflammatory effects of US. Therefore, the present study was designed to validate the anti-inflammatory effects of US. The anti-neuroinflammatory properties of US on pro-inflammatory mediators were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine BV2 microglia and injured brains induced by photothrombotic cortical ischemia. Hexane extracts of US (HEUS) significantly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia and inhibited LPS-induced expression of iNOS and COX-2 in a dose-dependent manner without causing cytotoxicity in BV2 cells. In addition, HEUS significantly reduced the generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. Moreover, HEUS treatment inhibited the transcriptional activity and nuclear translocation of NF-ΰB in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. In an in vivo study, treatment of HEUS resulted in significantly reduced infarct volume and improved neurological function 48 h after ischemic brain injury, possibly through the inhibition of the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. HEUS inhibits LPS-stimulated production of pro-inflammatory mediators and prevents cerebral ischemic damage, suggesting that US may have therapeutic potential for the prevention and treatment of ischemic stroke accompanied by microglia activation. © 2015 World Scientific Publishing Company & Institute for Advanced Research in Asian Science and Medicine.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 09/2015; 43(6):1-17. DOI:10.1142/S0192415X15500639
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Icaritin (ICT) is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb proved to be neuroprotective and exerts promoting effects on cardiac differentiation. However, its role in cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury remains largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ICT treatment on MI/R injury and the underlying mechanisms. Rats were subjected to 30 min of myocardial ischemic insult followed by 3 h of reperfusion. ICT (3, 10, and 30 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally 10 min before reperfusion. ICT treatment at the dose of 10 and 30 mg/kg improved cardiac function and limited infarct size following MI/R. Meanwhile, ICT reduced plasma creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in I/R heart tissue. Moreover, ICT treatment not only inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α production and increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 level in myocardium but also reduced the increase in the generation of superoxide content and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation and simultaneously increased the anti-oxidant capability in I/R hearts. Furthermore, ICT treatment increased Akt phosphorylation and inhibited PTEN expression in I/R hearts. PI3K inhibitor wortmannin inhibited ICT-enhanced Akt phosphorylation, and blunted ICT-mediated anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects and cardioprotection. Our study indicated for the first time that ICT reduces inflammation and oxidative stress and protects against MI/R injury in rats, which might be via a PI3K-Akt-dependent mechanism.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 09/2015; 43(6):1-15. DOI:10.1142/S0192415X15500627