The American Journal of Chinese Medicine (AM J CHINESE MED)

Publisher: Institute for Advanced Research in Asian Science and Medicine, World Scientific Publishing

Journal description

Current impact factor: 2.63

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 2.625
2012 Impact Factor 2.281
2011 Impact Factor 1.979
2010 Impact Factor 1.383
2009 Impact Factor 1.422
2008 Impact Factor 1.058
2007 Impact Factor 1.122
2006 Impact Factor 0.71
2005 Impact Factor 0.743
2004 Impact Factor 0.593
2003 Impact Factor 0.627
2002 Impact Factor 0.738
2001 Impact Factor 0.511
2000 Impact Factor 0.583
1999 Impact Factor 0.532
1998 Impact Factor 0.293
1997 Impact Factor 0.329
1996 Impact Factor 0.453
1995 Impact Factor 0.07
1994 Impact Factor 0.06
1993 Impact Factor 0.147
1992 Impact Factor 0.052

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.97
Cited half-life 6.30
Immediacy index 0.23
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.28
Website American Journal of Chinese Medicine website
Other titles The American journal of Chinese medicine, Mei-chou Chung-kuo i hsüeh tsa chih
ISSN 0192-415X
OCLC 4655940
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

World Scientific Publishing

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • Author's pre-print on any website or open access repository
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website, institutional repository, subject repository or funding agency designated repository
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Set statement to accompany pre-print and authors post-print - see policy
    • Must link to publisher version with DOI
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Epimedii Folium (Yinyanghuo in Chinese) is one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese medicines. Its main active components are flavonoids, which exhibit multiple biological activities, such as promotion of bone formation and sexual function, protection of the nervous system, and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Flavonoids also show anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. Various effective methods, including genetic and chemical approaches, have been developed for the quality control of Yinyanghuo. In this review, the studies conducted in the last decade about the chemical constituents, quality control, and bioactivity of Yinyanghuo are summarized and discussed.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 08/2015; DOI:10.1142/S0192415X15500494
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    ABSTRACT: Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cuss., an annual plant of the Umbelliferae species is one of the most widely used traditional herbal medicines and its fruits have been used to treat a variety of diseases in China, Vietnam, and Japan. The aim of this review is to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicity and contraindication of Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cuss. and to provide future directions of research on this plant. To date, 350 compounds have been isolated and identified from Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cuss., including the main active constituent, coumarins. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that osthole and other coumarin compounds possess wide range of pharmacological properties for the treatment of female genitals, male impotence, frigidity, skin-related diseases, and exhibit strong antipruritic, anti-allergic, antidermatophytic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-osteoporotic effects. Although coumarins have been identified as the main active constituents responsible for the observed pharmacological effects, the molecular mechanisms of their actions are still unknown. Therefore, further studies are still required to reveal the structure-activity relationship of these active constituents. In addition, toxicological and clinical studies are also required to provide further data for pharmaceutical use.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 08/2015; DOI:10.1142/S0192415X15500500
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    ABSTRACT: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and bile reflux gastritis (BRG) are common gastrointestinal (GI) disorders with unmet medical needs. Traditional Chinese medicine has long been used for the treatment of GERD and BRG whereas the ginger-containing formula Wendan decoction (WDD) targets homeostatic disturbances characterized by "reflux" and "gut-juice exposure" problems. Here we used WDD as a therapeutic tool to unravel the common pathogenesis of GI reflux disorders. Control clinical trials reporting the WDD-treated patients with GERD and BRG were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Outcome measurements were clinical efficacy defined by symptom relief with normal GI endoscopy, radiology, and pathology. Eventually, 33 studies involved 3253 participants (1351 vs. 1035 of the BRG in 20 publications, 449 vs. 418 of the GERD in 13 studies, and 194 vs. 159 of relapse rate in 6 trials). Pooled data showed a consistent therapeutic efficacy of WDD on BRG (OR = 6.00, 95%CI = 4.68-7.69) and GERD (OR = 4.39, 95%CI = 2.72-7.07). The relapse rate was 12.4% for WDD, significantly lower than 44.0% for conventional therapies (OR = 0.14, 95%CI = 0.08-0.26). The consistent therapeutic efficacy of the single TCM formula on GERD and BRD indirectly indicates reflux as a common pathogenesis in reflux-associated GI disorders.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 08/2015; DOI:10.1142/S0192415X15500524
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    ABSTRACT: In the past decade, no significant improvement has been made in chemotherapy for osteosarcoma (OS). To develop improved agents against OS, we screened 70 species of medicinal plants and treated two human OS cell lines with different agent concentrations. We then examined cell viability using the MTT assay. Results showed that a candidate plant, particularly the rhizomes of Anemone altaica Fisch. ex C. A. Mey aqueous extract (AAE), suppressed the viability of HOS and U2OS cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that AAE significantly increased the amount of cell shrinkage (Sub-G1 fragments) in HOS and U2OS cells. Moreover, AAE increased cytosolic cytochrome c and Bax, but decreased Bcl-2. The amount of cleaved caspase-3 and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) were significantly increased. AAE suppressed the growth of HOS and U2OS through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Data suggest that AAE is cytotoxic to HOS and U2OS cells and has no significant influence on human osteoblast hFOB cells. The high mRNA levels of apoptosis-related factors (PPP1R15A, SQSTM1, HSPA1B, and DDIT4) and cellular proliferation markers (SKA2 and BUB1B) were significantly altered by the AAE treatment of HOS and U2OS cells. Results show that the anticancer activity of AAE could up-regulate the expression of a cluster of genes, especially those in the apoptosis-related factor family and caspase family. Thus, AAE has great potential as a useful therapeutic drug for human OS.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 07/2015; DOI:10.1142/S0192415X15500597
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    ABSTRACT: The ubiquitous nuclear protein, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), is released by activated macrophages and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and functions as a late mediator of experimental sepsis. Aspalathin (Asp) and nothofagin (Not), which have been reported to have anti-oxidant activity, are the two major active dihydrochalcones found in green rooibos. In this study, we investigated the antiseptic effects and underlying mechanisms of Asp and Not against HMGB1-mediated septic responses in HUVECs and mice. The anti-inflammatory activities of Asp and Not were determined by measuring permeability, monocyte adhesion and migration, and activation of proinflammatory proteins in HMGB1-activated HUVECs and mice. According to the results, Asp and Not effectively inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of HMGB1, and suppressed HMGB1-mediated septic responses, such as hyperpermeability, adhesion and migration of leukocytes, and expression of cell adhesion molecules. In addition, Asp and Not suppressed the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) by HMGB1. Collectively, these results indicate that Asp and Not could be potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of various severe vascular inflammatory diseases via the inhibition of the HMGB1 signaling pathway.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 07/2015; DOI:10.1142/S0192415X15500573
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    ABSTRACT: Spiranthes sinensis is an east Asian wild orchid used in Chinese folk medicine. In this study, an ethyl acetate fraction from S. sinensis (SSE) was found to suppress the production of LPS-stimulated inflammatory mediators in RAW264.7 cells and BALB/c mice. SSE inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide ( NO ), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumo necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-1β, and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. SSE also significantly suppressed LPS-stimulated protein levels of iNOS and mPGES-1 by blocking IκB phosphorylation, NF-κB nuclear translocation, and MAPKs phosphorylation. In addition, SSE treatment also enhanced protein levels of HO -1 and anti-oxidant enzymes (SOD-1, CAT, and GPx-1) through the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In vivo, we demonstrated that SSE attenuated the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators ( NO , TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6), ALT, and AST in the serum of LPS-stimulated BALB/c mice. Western blotting revealed that SSE enhanced HO -1 expression in lung and liver tissue after LPS injection in mice. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of SSE involve the suppression of iNOS , mPGES-1, and inflammatory mediators by inducing the HO -1 pathway in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and BALB/c mice.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 07/2015; DOI:10.1142/S0192415X15500561
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    ABSTRACT: Cinnamon is a traditional folk herb used in Asia and has been reported to have antidiabetic effects. Our previous study showed that cinnamaldehyde (CA), a major effective compound in cinnamon, exhibited hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects together in db/db mice. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the effects of CA on the transcriptional activities of three peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, (PPAR) α, δ, and γ. We studied the effects of CA through a transient expression assay with TSA201 cells, derivatives of human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293). Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis was also performed to evaluate mRNA expression levels. We show here that CA induced PPARδ, PPARγ and retinoid X receptor (RXR) activation. CA may activate PPARγ in a different manner than pioglitazone, as CA selectively stimulated PPARγ S342A mutant while pioglitazone did not. In addition, CA and L-165041 had a synergistic effect on PPARδ activation. To gather the biological evidence that CA increases PPARs transcription, we further measured the expressions of PPARδ and PPARγ target genes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The data showed CA induced the expression of PPARδ and PPARγ target genes, namely aP2 and CD36, in differentiated adipocytes. As a result, PPARδ, PPARγ and their heterodimeric partner RXR appear to play a part in the CA action in the target tissues, thereby enhancing insulin sensitivity and fatty acid β-oxidation and energy uncoupling in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 07/2015; DOI:10.1142/S0192415X15500512
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    ABSTRACT: (+)-catechin is a flavanol that possesses various health and medicinal values, which include neuroprotection, anti-oxidation, antitumor and antihepatitis activities. This study investigated the modulatory effects of (+)-catechin on the lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 cells. (+)-catechin attenuated LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inhibited microglial NO and ROS production. Additionally, (+)-catechin suppressed the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6, while augmenting IL-4. (+)-catechin attenuated LPS-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 nuclear translocation via the inhibition of IκB-α phosphorylation. Moreover, (+)-catechin blocked the activation of Akt and its inhibition was shown to play a crucial role in LPS-induced inflammation in BV-2 microglial cells. (+)-catechin also attenuated the LPS-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), and p-38 mitogen activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK) and specific inhibitors of ERK1/2 (UO126) and p38 MAPK (SB202190) subsequently down-regulated the expression of the proinflammatory mediators iNOS and COX-2. Further mechanistic study revealed that (+)-catechin acted through the amelioration of the LPS-induced suppression of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. Taken together, our data indicate that (+)-catechin exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in BV-2 cells by suppressing the production of proinflammatory mediators and mitigation of NF-κB through Akt, ERK, p38 MAPK, and AMPK pathways.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 07/2015; DOI:10.1142/S0192415X15500548
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    ABSTRACT: Epimedium Herb (EH) is a medicinal herb used in traditional Eastern Asia. In this study described, we investigated the biological effects of Epimedium Herb water extract (EHWE) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammation in macrophages and local inflammation in vivo. We also investigated the biological effects of EHWE on the production of inflammatory mediators, pro-inflammatory cytokines and related products, as well as nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation in LPS-stimulated macrophages. The analgesic effect of the acetic acid-induced writhing response and inhibitory activity on xylene-induced ear edema was also evaluated in mice. EHWE exhibited anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the production of nitric oxide ( NO ), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β. In addition, EHWE strongly suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase ( iNOS ), a NO synthesis enzyme, induced heme oxygenase-1 ( HO -1) expression, and inhibited NF-κB activation as well as MAPK pathway phosphorylation. Furthermore, EHWE exhibited an analgesic effect on the writhing response and an inhibitory effect on ear edema in mice. For the first time, we demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects and inhibitory mechanism in macrophages, as well as the inhibitory activity of EHWE in vivo. Our results indicate a potential use of EHWE as an inflammatory therapeutic agent developed from a natural substance.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 07/2015; DOI:10.1142/S0192415X1550055X
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    ABSTRACT: Purple sweet potato leaves (PSPLs) are healthy vegetable that is rich in anti-oxidants. A solution of boiling water extract of PSPL (PSPLE) is believed to be able to prevent obesity and metabolic syndrome in the countryside of Taiwan, but its efficacy has not yet been verified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible anti-adipogenesis effect of PSPLE in vitro. PSPLE was used to treat the 3T3-L1 cells, and the effects on cell proliferation and adipogenesis were investigated. The results showed that PSPLE caused a dose-dependent decrease in the cell proliferation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, but did not alter the cell viability. In addition, PSPLE induced ERK inactivation in the 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Furthermore, pre-treatment of confluent 3T3-L1 cells with PSPLE led to reduced lipid accumulation in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. The inhibition of lipogenesis could result from the PSPLE-induced down-regulation of the expression of the C/EBPα and SREBP-1 transcription factors during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. These results suggest that PSPLE not only inhibits cell proliferation at an early stage but also inhibits adipogenesis at a later stage of the differentiation program.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 07/2015; DOI:10.1142/S0192415X15500536
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    ABSTRACT: The herb Orostachys japonicus has been traditionally used to treat chronic diseases, such as hepatitis, hemorrhoids, and cancer, in Asia. In this study, we investigated the effect of Orostachys japonicus water extract (OJWE) on the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone loss. We found that OJWE inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in a dose-dependent manner without affecting bone resorption in bone marrow-derived macrophage cells. Interestingly, OJWE significantly reduced serum levels of C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) 5b, markers of bone resorption and osteoclast number, respectively, in an animal model of bone loss. Furthermore, OJWE suppressed the RANKL-induced up-regulation of nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) expression, and activation of the p38 signaling pathway, but prevented the RANKL-mediated down-regulation of interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF-8), which is known to be an anti-osteoclastogenic factor that represses NFATc1 expression. We also identified gallic acid and quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside as the OJWE components that inhibit RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. These results suggest that OJWE inhibits osteoclast differentiation by inhibiting RANKL-induced NFATc1 expression, which prevents osteoclast differentiation and bone loss. The present study elucidated a mechanism of action underlying the inhibitory effect of OJWE on osteoclast differentiation. Our findings suggest that O. japonicus has therapeutic potential for use in the treatment of bone diseases.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 07/2015; DOI:10.1142/S0192415X15500585
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    ABSTRACT: Cordyceps militaris is a traditional Chinese medicine frequently used for tonic and therapeutic purposes. Reports from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that extracts of the cultivated fruiting bodies of C. militaris (CM) exhibit a potent cytotoxic effect against many cancer cell lines, especially human leukemia cells. Here, we further investigated the underlying mechanism through which CM is cytotoxic to cancer cells. The CM-mediated induction of PARP cleavage and its related DNA damage signal (γH2AX) was diminished by caspase inhibitor I. In contrast, a ROS scavenger failed to prevent CM-mediated leukemia cell death. Moreover, two signaling molecules, AKT and p38 MAPK, were activated during the course of apoptosis induction. Employing MTT analysis, we found that a p38 MAPK inhibitor but not an AKT inhibitor could rescue cells from CM-mediated cell death, as well as inhibit the cleavage of PARP, formation of apoptotic bodies and up-regulation of the γH2AX signal. These results suggest that CM-mediated leukemia cell death occurs through the activation of the p38 MAPK pathway, indicating its potential therapeutic effects against human leukemia.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 07/2015; DOI:10.1142/S0192415X15500603
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    ABSTRACT: The present study is to evaluate the anti-obesity effects of Eriobotrya japonica (EJ), Nelumbo nucifera (NN), and their mixture (MIX, 1:1 ratio) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and high-fat diet-induced obese mice. The treatment of EJ, NN, and MIX in 3T3-L1 adipocytes effectively inhibited lipid accumulation, significantly decreased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP1c), and adipocyte lipid-binding protein (aP2), and significantly increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Moreover, oral treatment of MIX showed stronger effects than individual treatment. C57BL/6J mice (6 week old) were divided into two groups; low fat diet (LFD) containing 10% calories from fat and high fat diet (HFD) containing 60% calories from fat. The HFD groups were further divided into five subgroups; treated with distilled water (HFD), treated with 400 mg/kg EJ (EJ400), treated with 400 mg/kg NN (NN400), treated with 200 mg/kg MIX (MIX200), and treated with 400 mg/kg MIX (MIX400) during 13 weeks. In our results, the administration of EJ, NN, and MIX significantly decreased body weight (BW), fat weight, liver weight, hepatic triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC), lipid droplets in the liver, food efficacy ratio, and the plasma TG, TC, glucose, insulin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in a dose-dependent manner, and MIX treatment showed stronger effect than their individual treatments. Similarly, MIX treatment decreased the expression of PPARγ, SREBP-1c, FAS, and ACC more strongly in the adipose tissue than single treatments. In conclusion, the MIX of EJ and NN extract may strongly regulate BW gain than EJ or NN alone, and its anti-obesity effect is associated with the control of lipid metabolism, including adipogenesis and lipogenesis.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 07/2015; DOI:10.1142/S0192415X15500421
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    ABSTRACT: Butein is a polyphenol, one of the compounds of chalcones, which are flavonoids that are widely biosynthesized in plants, and exhibits different pharmacological activities. Plants containing butein have been used in Chinese traditional medicine. Recently, it has been reported that butein suppresses proliferation and triggers apoptosis in various human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate its pro-apoptotic effect and mechanisms in two cultured human ovarian cancer cells (ES-2 and TOV-21G). The effects of butein on cell viability were assessed by a MTT assay at 3, 10, 30, and 100 μ/M. The apoptotic pathway related factors, including the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP), cytochrome c, caspase cascade, and Bcl-2 family proteins, were examined. MTT assay revealed that butein was cytotoxic to both ovarian cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. JC-1 flow cytometry, cytochrome c, and caspase activity assays revealed that butein damaged the MTP, increased the level of cytosol cytochrome c and the activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9 in the two ovarian cancer cells. Western blot analysis revealed that butein down-regulated the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and increased the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bad. These findings suggest that butein-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells via the activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. In addition, butein also down-regulated the expressions of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins, XIAP, survivin, CIAP-1, and CIAP-2. This indicates that the inhibition of IAP proteins was also involved in butein-induced apoptosis. The results of our study suggest that butein may be a promising anticancer agent in treating ovarian cancer.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 06/2015; DOI:10.1142/S0192415X15500482
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    ABSTRACT: Chemopreventive agents can be identified from botanicals. Recently, there has been strong support for the potential of 6-shogaol, a natural compound from dietary ginger (Zingiber officinale), in cancer chemoprevention. However, whether 6-shogaol inhibits the growth of colorectal tumors in vivo remains unknown, and the underlying anticancer mechanisms have not been well characterized. In this work, we observed that 6-shogaol (15 mg/kg) significantly inhibited colorectal tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model. We show that 6-shogaol inhibited HCT-116 and SW-480 cell proliferation with IC50 of 7.5 and 10 μM, respectively. Growth of HCT-116 cells was arrested at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, primarily mediated by the up-regulation of p53, the CDK inhibitor p21(waf1/cip1) and GADD45α, and by the down-regulation of cdc2 and cdc25A. Using p53(-/-) and p53(+/+) HCT-116 cells, we confirmed that p53/p21 was the main pathway that contributed to the G2/M cell cycle arrest by 6-shogaol. 6-Shogaol induced apoptosis, mainly through the mitochondrial pathway, and the bcl-2 family might act as a key regulator. Our results demonstrated that 6-shogaol induces cancer cell death by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. 6-Shogaol could be an active natural product in colon cancer chemoprevention.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 06/2015; DOI:10.1142/S0192415X15500469
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    ABSTRACT: Alpinia oxyphylla MIQ (Alpinate Oxyphyllae Fructus, AOF) is an important traditional Chinese medicinal herb whose fruits is widely used to prepare tonics and is used as an aphrodisiac, anti salivary, anti diuretic and nerve-protective agent. Protocatechuic acid (PCA), a simple phenolic compound was isolated from the kernels of AOF. This study investigated the role of PCA in promoting neural regeneration and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Nerve regeneration is a complex physiological response that takes place after injury. Schwann cells play a crucial role in the endogenous repair of peripheral nerves due to their ability to proliferate and migrate. The role of PCA in Schwann cell migration was determined by assessing the induced migration potential of RSC96 Schwann cells. PCA induced changes in the expression of proteins of three MAPK pathways, as determined using Western blot analysis. In order to determine the roles of MAPK (ERK1/2, JNK, and p38) pathways in PCA-induced matrix-degrading proteolytic enzyme (PAs and MMP2/9) production, the expression of several MAPK-associated proteins was analyzed after siRNA-mediated inhibition assays. Treatment with PCA-induced ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 phosphorylation that activated the downstream expression of PAs and MMPs. PCA-stimulated ERK1/2, JNK and p38 phosphorylation was attenuated by individual pretreatment with siRNAs or MAPK inhibitors (U0126, SP600125, and SB203580), resulting in the inhibition of migration and the uPA-related signal pathway. Taken together, our data suggest that PCA extract regulate the MAPK (ERK1/2, JNK, and p38)/PA (uPA, tPA)/MMP (MMP2, MMP9) mediated regeneration and migration signaling pathways in Schwann cells. Therefore, PCA plays a major role in Schwann cell migration and the regeneration of damaged peripheral nerve.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 06/2015; DOI:10.1142/S0192415X15500408
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    ABSTRACT: The Artemisia group of plants has long been used as a traditional remedy for various conditions. The present study assessed the sleep-promoting (sedative-hypnotic) effects of Artemisia capillaris Thunberg (A. capillaris), and elucidated a possible mechanism behind its effect. ICR mice were given A. capillaris extract (oral) at different dosages (50, 100, 200, 300, or 400 mg/kg), distilled water (oral; control), or diazepam (intraperitoneal; reference drug). One hour after administration, locomotion (open-field test) and motor coordination (rota-rod test) were assessed. The extract's effect on pentobarbital-induced sleep was also evaluated. Additionally, electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were measured in rats. To evaluate a possible mechanism behind its effects, changes in chloride ( Cl (-)) ion influx were measured in human neuroblastoma cells. As compared to the control group, mice treated with A. capillaris demonstrated significantly decreased locomotor activity and impaired motor balance and coordination. The extract also shortened the onset and lengthened the duration of sleep induced by pentobarbital sodium. These effects were comparable to that induced by diazepam. Furthermore, A. capillaris-treated rats showed increased delta and decreased alpha EEG waves; an electroencephalographic pattern indicative of relaxation or sedation. In neuroblastoma cells, the extract dose-dependently increased Cl (-) ion influx, which was blocked by co-administration of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor competitive antagonist, suggesting that its effects are mediated through the GABAA receptor- Cl (-) ion channel complex. Altogether, the results of the present study demonstrate that A. capillaris possesses potent sedative-hypnotic effects, which are probably mediated through potentiation of the GABAA receptor- Cl (-) ion channel complex.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 06/2015; DOI:10.1142/S0192415X1550041X