Personality and Individual Differences (PERS INDIV DIFFER)

Publisher: International Society for the Study of Individual Differences, Elsevier

Journal description

Personality and Individual Differences is devoted to the publication of articles (experimental, theoretical, review) which aim to integrate as far as possible the major factors of personality with empirical paradigms from experimental, physiological, animal, clinical, educational, criminological or industrial psychology or to seek an explanation for the causes and major determinants of individual differences in concepts derived from these disciplines. The editors are concerned with both genetic and environmental causes, and they are particularly interested in possible interaction effects. Ultimately they believe that human beings are bio-social organisms and that work on individual differences can be most fruitfully pursued by paying attention to both these aspects of our nature. They believe that advances are more likely to be made by the use of the hypothetical-deductive method, though empirical data based on sound research and providing interesting new findings, would of course not be rejected simply because they might not have a good theoretical underpinning. All in all, the traditional type of work on traits, abilities, attitudes, types and other latent structures underlying consistencies in behavior has in recent years been receiving rather short shrift in traditional journals of personality; Personality and Individual Differences aims to reinstate it to its proper place in psychology, equal in importance with general experimental work, and interacting with it to make up a unitary science of psychology. The Second International Conference on Child & Adolescent Mental Health takes place in Kuala Lumpur, 6-10 June 2000. Topics include: Assessment, diagnosis, education and treatment of children and adolescents, Child and adolescent psychopathology/social and emotional development, Cross cultural differences, Mental health issues, Model service delivery programs, Educational practices.

Current impact factor: 1.86

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2009 Impact Factor 1.878

Additional details

5-year impact 2.31
Cited half-life 8.10
Immediacy index 0.26
Eigenfactor 0.02
Article influence 0.78
Website Personality and Individual Differences website
Other titles Personality and individual differences
ISSN 0191-8869
OCLC 4965018
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print allowed on any website or open access repository
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on authors' personal website, or institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository, without embargo, where there is not a policy or mandate
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months .
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The current study tested the hypotheses that 1) psychological adaptations calibrate Openness to Experience to facilitate or deter pursuit of short-term mating, and 2) this calibration varies as a function of mating strategy, physical attractiveness, and sex—individual differences that shift the costs and benefits of alternative personality strategies. Participants completed a personality inventory before and after reading vignettes describing mating opportunities of different durations (short- and long-term) with individuals of differing levels of attractiveness. Among study findings, participants presented with short-term mating opportunities with individuals of average attractiveness exhibited down-regulated openness relative to those presented with highly attractive mates. Moreover, these effects varied as a function of the interaction between participants’ sex, mating strategy, and attractiveness. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that evolved psychological mechanisms adaptively calibrate Openness levels in response to short-term mating opportunities. More broadly, they highlight the heuristic value of an evolutionary framework for the study of personality and individual differences.
    Personality and Individual Differences 12/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The numerous negative and positive consequences of playing violent video games are well-documented. Specifically, violent games improve many aspects of cognition and attention but can also increase aggression. Compared to these established effects of exposure to violent video games, very little is known about who plays violent video games and why they play them. Taking an evolutionary psychological approach to address this gap, in two studies we surveyed 1000 men and women who reported playing video games in the past 30 days. We assessed three classes of predictors of violent video game exposure: demographic, status-related, and mating-related. In both studies, women who played the most violent video games reported feeling a greater sense of mate value than women who played fewer violent video games. Women also reported being motivated to play violent video games because doing so enhanced their sense of attractiveness to romantic partners. In both studies, men reported playing more violent video games than women as did both men and women who reported higher sexual interest. These findings highlight the counterintuitive and complex motivations underlying violent video game exposure. We discuss the need for more research on who plays violent video games and why they play them.
    Personality and Individual Differences 11/2015; 86. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.06.018
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the factorial invariance of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition (WISC-V) between samples of male and female children. A higher-order 5-factor model was tested on a nationally-representative sample of 2200 children aged 6 to 16 years. The results demonstrated full factorial invariance between genders. The WISC-V subtests demonstrate the same underlying theoretical latent constructs, the same strength of relationships among factors and subtests, the same validity of each first-order factor, and the same communalities, regardless of the gender, thus supporting the same interpretive approach and meaningful comparisons of the WISC-V between male and female children.
    Personality and Individual Differences 11/2015; 86. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.05.020
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the predictive value of personality factors, character defenses and psychopathology indexes in discerning between a clinical sample of Internet-addicted college students and a random sample of non-addicted college students. A discriminant analysis identified the variables which enabled discerning Internet addicts from non-addicts in 78% of all subjects. Internet-addicted students presented with higher frequency of connecting to the Internet, more time spent online, higher impulsivity, higher help-rejecting complaining and lower sublimation. Indexes of overt symptomatology did not assist in discerning clinical cases from controls. In conclusion, employing a test battery which includes not only measures of Internet addiction but also measures of inheritable personality factors and character defenses can be of assistance both in clinical work and in epidemiological research.
    Personality and Individual Differences 11/2015; 86. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.05.030
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    ABSTRACT: Disciplinary alternative education programs are academic environments where students are detained for 45 days by the county or court for delinquent and/or deviant behavior in their traditional schools. This study examined individual differences in academic performance, violence, willingness to delay gratification, and substance abuse of 391 students enrolled in a disciplinary alternative middle school program. Results revealed that students who reported a high propensity to delay gratification and low tendencies towards violent behavior and substance abuse obtained high math scores on the state standardized test. In addition, the negative association between violent behavior on math scores was attenuated by race/ethnicity status. Socio-economic status was not significantly associated with math test scores. Implications for further studies and educational implications are discussed.
    Personality and Individual Differences 11/2015; 86. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.05.028
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    ABSTRACT: Higher-order mentalising is the ability to represent the beliefs and desires of other people at multiple, iterated levels — a capacity that sets humans apart from other species. However, there has not yet been a systematic attempt to determine what cognitive processes underlie this ability. Here we present three correlational studies assessing the extent to which performance on higher-order mentalising tasks relates to emotion recognition, self-reported empathy and self-inhibition. In Study 1a and 1b, examining emotion recognition and empathy, a relationship was identified between individual differences in the ability to mentalise and an emotion recognition task (the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task), but no correlation was found with the empathy quotient, a self-report scale of empathy. Study 2 investigated whether a relationship exists between individual mentalising abilities and four different forms of self-inhibition: motor inhibition, executive inhibition, automatic imitation and temporal discounting. Results demonstrate that only temporal discounting performance relates to mentalising ability; suggesting that cognitive skills relevant to representation of the minds of others' are not influenced by the ability to perform more basic inhibition. Higher-order mentalising appears to rely on the cognitive architecture that serves both low-level social cognition (emotion recognition), and complex forms of inhibition.
    Personality and Individual Differences 11/2015; 86. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.05.021
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    ABSTRACT: We used a stress and coping model to examine the association of dispositional mindfulness, defined as the tendency to intentionally bring non-judgmental attention and awareness to one's experience in the present moment, with psychological and physical health in adults with HIV. Data were collected at baseline of a randomized controlled trial of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR). Four facets of mindfulness (acting with attention/awareness, non-judging of inner experience, observing, and describing) were examined as correlates of appraisal, positive and negative affect, coping, and indicators of psychological well-being and physical health. We found that mindfulness was inversely related to depression, stress appraisal, and negative affect, and positively related to positive affect. Mindfulness was also inversely related to escape/avoidance and self-blame forms of coping. Mediational analyses indicate that perceived stress and negative affect were the most consistent mediators of the association of mindfulness and psychological well-being. The findings from this paper contribute to a growing understanding of the potential adaptive role of mindfulness in people living with the stress of serious illness.
    Personality and Individual Differences 11/2015; 86. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.05.039
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    ABSTRACT: While aging anxiety is associated with the threat of deterioration that leads to death, death anxiety is related to the threat of non-existence and to fears from an unknown afterlife, and both anxieties can lead to ageism. The current study examined the unexplored relationship between these two existential anxieties and ageism. Measures of aging and death anxieties, ageism (in the form of ageist attitudes), and various measures of physical health were collected from 1073 older adults at the age range of 50–86. When death anxiety was low, aging anxiety was positively related to ageism, but when aging anxiety was low, death anxiety was positively related to ageism. The interaction between both anxieties and ageism remained significant after controlling for a myriad of background characteristics and physical health measures. These findings, which point at the distinctive and complementary roles that both anxieties have in connecting between one another and ageist attitudes, are discussed in light of theories on ageism.
    Personality and Individual Differences 11/2015; 86. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.05.022
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    ABSTRACT: Psychopathic patients show a lack of affective reactivity in threatening situations. Previous research has shown that this lack of affective reactivity can be explained by diminished processing of goal-irrelevant information once psychopathic individuals initiate goal-directed behavior. Although the response modulation theory of psychopathy has claimed that this is caused by deficits in top-down–bottom-up integration of information, it is currently unclear whether it is predominantly bottom-up or top-down attention that is affected. To investigate which aspect of attention is causing these deficits, we administered three visual search tasks in which top-down attention was required to find the target (i.e., search for a specific feature) in the presence or absence of bottom-up and top-down cues. The research group consisted of 30 violent offenders, with varying degrees of psychopathy. Dimensional analyses showed no relationship between psychopathy and deficits in processing bottom-up cues but a strong correlation with deficits in processing top-down cues and core psychopathic personality traits. The current study corroborates the notion that psychopathic traits are associated with response modulation problems, and adds that this is predominantly related to deficits in top-down incorporation of contextual information. Interestingly, this failure of top-down incorporation was observed even when top-down cues were beneficial for current goals.
    Personality and Individual Differences 11/2015; 86. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.06.009
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    ABSTRACT: Murstein's (1970) “stimulus–value–role” theory suggests that mate selection consists of three stages. At each stage people seek different types of information. This study extends previous research on couple similarity by focusing on the “stimulus” stage where people attend to stimulus information—the most salient personal information. This stage has received less attention than the “value” and “role” stages. A sample of 641 married couples from Central Alberta, Canada provided information on a wide range of stimulus characteristics including background, physical and perceptual variables, as well as spirituality and growth orientation for comparison. Correlation results showed evidence for strong and consistent couple similarity on stimulus characteristics, suggesting that those characteristics are important domains to partner selection. Structural equation modeling results indicated that couple similarity (measured by absolute and directional difference score) overall was not a strong predictor of marital satisfaction; however, discrepancies in age, spirituality, and growth orientation were significant predictors of dissatisfaction.
    Personality and Individual Differences 11/2015; 86. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.06.005
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    ABSTRACT: Three different theoretical frameworks for understanding social behaviour and experience, the Big Five (B5), HEXACO, and Interpersonal Circumplex (IPC), are compared empirically by aligning them to the same circular structure. In this study (N = 206), we map the major empirically defined interpersonal dimensions of the B5 (Big Five Aspect Scales) and the HEXACO (HEXACO Personality Inventory — Revised) onto the IPC structure using Procrustean rotation. Congruence coefficients demonstrated that the assertiveness aspect of B5 extraversion and the compassion aspect of B5 agreeableness are congruent with IPC dominance and warmth, respectively, replicating recent efforts to integrate these frameworks. HEXACO agreeableness aligned closer to the politeness (versus compassion) aspect of B5 agreeableness, whereas HEXACO extraversion was rotated towards the enthusiasm (versus assertiveness) aspect of B5 extraversion. Finally, HEXACO honesty-humility was congruent with the politeness aspect of B5 agreeableness. These findings provide a means for translating more clearly between these different descriptive frameworks, which is essential for the integration of knowledge emerging from different traditions within this field.
    Personality and Individual Differences 11/2015; 86. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.05.038
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    ABSTRACT: This paper explore the effect of intelligence on financial development using data from 180 nations, over the period 2000–2012. The results provide strong support for the claim that intelligence is positively associated with the supply of finance to economy. This paper establishes that, moving from country with the mean IQ score (84.1) to the highest national IQ score (107.1) is associated with 3.6 fold increase in the size of banking sector. The positive effect of intelligence remains intact when we control for other antecedents of financial development.
    Personality and Individual Differences 11/2015; 86. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.06.017
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    ABSTRACT: Optimism and pessimism are cognitive expectancies regarding future events, whereas counterfactual thinking is the cognitive process of imagining alternatives to events that occurred in the past. The purpose of this study was to conceptualize dispositional optimism and pessimism within the context of norm theory and examine relationships between dispositional optimism and pessimism and counterfactual thinking. Undergraduate students (N = 833) completed measures of counterfactual thinking and optimism and pessimism. After controlling for the effects of positive and negative affect, it was found that downward counterfactual thinking (imagining how things could have been worse) was associated with optimism and that upward styles of counterfactual thinking (imagining how things could have been better) were associated with pessimism. These results suggest that thinking about past events is consistent with expectations about the future.
    Personality and Individual Differences 11/2015; 86. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.06.010