Personality and Individual Differences (PERS INDIV DIFFER )

Publisher: International Society for the Study of Individual Differences, Elsevier

Description

Personality and Individual Differences is devoted to the publication of articles (experimental, theoretical, review) which aim to integrate as far as possible the major factors of personality with empirical paradigms from experimental, physiological, animal, clinical, educational, criminological or industrial psychology or to seek an explanation for the causes and major determinants of individual differences in concepts derived from these disciplines. The editors are concerned with both genetic and environmental causes, and they are particularly interested in possible interaction effects. Ultimately they believe that human beings are bio-social organisms and that work on individual differences can be most fruitfully pursued by paying attention to both these aspects of our nature. They believe that advances are more likely to be made by the use of the hypothetical-deductive method, though empirical data based on sound research and providing interesting new findings, would of course not be rejected simply because they might not have a good theoretical underpinning. All in all, the traditional type of work on traits, abilities, attitudes, types and other latent structures underlying consistencies in behavior has in recent years been receiving rather short shrift in traditional journals of personality; Personality and Individual Differences aims to reinstate it to its proper place in psychology, equal in importance with general experimental work, and interacting with it to make up a unitary science of psychology. The Second International Conference on Child & Adolescent Mental Health takes place in Kuala Lumpur, 6-10 June 2000. Topics include: Assessment, diagnosis, education and treatment of children and adolescents, Child and adolescent psychopathology/social and emotional development, Cross cultural differences, Mental health issues, Model service delivery programs, Educational practices.

Impact factor 1.86

  • 5-year impact
    2.31
  • Cited half-life
    8.10
  • Immediacy index
    0.26
  • Eigenfactor
    0.02
  • Article influence
    0.78
  • Website
    Personality and Individual Differences website
  • Other titles
    Personality and individual differences
  • ISSN
    0191-8869
  • OCLC
    4965018
  • Material type
    Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Elsevier

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print allowed on any website or open access repository
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on authors' personal website, arXiv.org or institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository, without embargo, where there is not a policy or mandate
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months .
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The field of personality psychology offers a wealth of robust empirical research and a successful descriptive taxonomy, but neither explains the origins of the structure of human personality nor elaborates a generative framework for predicting the specific conditions that evoke the development of distinct personality traits. Exploration of traditional personality constructs within an evolutionary adaptive individual differences framework may help fill this explanatory gap. Personality traits exhibit functional features and patterns of variation expected from psychological adaptations designed to solve survival- and reproduction-related challenges recurrently faced during our species’ evolutionary history. Condition- dependent evolutionary models of personality have been proposed for decades, but only recently have begun to see empirical investigation. These models posit that species-typical psychological mechanisms take as input cues from the individual’s phenotype that would have been ancestrally linked to differential cost–benefit tradeoffs of alternative personality strategies, and produce as output personality trait levels with the greatest probabilistic net benefit for the individual. This paper elaborates a more nuanced conceptual framework that builds on earlier conceptualizations of condition-dependent traits to yield new and untested hypotheses about personality trait variation and covariation. It then describes clear future research directions for empirically investigating these readily testable hypotheses.
    Personality and Individual Differences 12/2015; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886914005741.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The current study tested the hypotheses that (1) psychological adaptations calibrate Openness to Experience to facilitate or deter pursuit of short-term mating, and (2) this calibration varies as a function of mating strategy, physical attractiveness, and sex—individual differences that shift the costs and benefits of alternative personality strategies. Participants completed a personality inventory before and after reading vignettes describing mating opportunities of different durations (short- and long-term) with individuals of differing levels of attractiveness. Among study findings, participants presented with short-term mating opportunities with individuals of average attractiveness exhibited down-regulated Openness relative to those presented with highly attractive mates. Moreover, these effects varied as a function of the interaction between participants’ sex, mating strategy, and attractiveness. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that evolved psychological mechanisms adaptively calibrate Openness levels in response to short-term mating opportunities. More broadly, they highlight the heuristic value of an evolutionary framework for the study of personality and individual differences.
    Personality and Individual Differences 12/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The current study tested the hypotheses that 1) psychological adaptations calibrate Openness to Experience to facilitate or deter pursuit of short-term mating, and 2) this calibration varies as a function of mating strategy, physical attractiveness, and sex—individual differences that shift the costs and benefits of alternative personality strategies. Participants completed a personality inventory before and after reading vignettes describing mating opportunities of different durations (short- and long-term) with individuals of differing levels of attractiveness. Among study findings, participants presented with short-term mating opportunities with individuals of average attractiveness exhibited down-regulated openness relative to those presented with highly attractive mates. Moreover, these effects varied as a function of the interaction between participants’ sex, mating strategy, and attractiveness. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that evolved psychological mechanisms adaptively calibrate Openness levels in response to short-term mating opportunities. More broadly, they highlight the heuristic value of an evolutionary framework for the study of personality and individual differences.
    Personality and Individual Differences 12/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: In this study we test the possible implications of high empathising skills on bodily self–other distinction by measuring the strength of a body ownership illusion and a related experience of illusory pain. One-hundred adult participants completed the Empathy Quotient (EQ) questionnaire. Twenty participants from the top quintile and 20 participants from the bottom quintile of the EQ distribution took part in a laboratory experiment. In the experiment, a classical Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) was induced followed by the presentation of a series of painful stimuli to the rubber hand. Participants were asked to self-rate the strength of their subjective experience of the RHI and of the illusory pain. A proprioceptive location judgment on the position of the hidden hand was also required before and after RHI induction, to record drifts towards the rubber hand. We found a significant difference between high- and low-empathy participants in RHI and pain score. The EQ was not related with the proprioceptive location judgement drift. It thus appears to be a better predictor of subjective ownership feelings and phenomenological self–other merging than of the behavioural components of bodily illusions.
    Personality and Individual Differences 04/2015; 77.
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    ABSTRACT: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and substance use have been associated with increased suicide ideation, but have rarely been examined within a larger theoretical context of suicide risk. The interpersonal theory of suicide posits that feeling disconnected from others (i.e., thwarted belongingness) and feeling like a burden on others (i.e., perceived burdensomeness) are associated with increased suicide ideation. We hypothesized that perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness would mediate the relation between PTSD symptoms and suicide ideation, and that using substances to cope would moderate these relations. Participants were 254 college students reporting exposure to potentially traumatic experiences. Findings from a moderated mediation analysis indicated that perceived burdensomeness, but not thwarted belongingness, mediated the relation between PTSD symptoms and suicide ideation, and using substances to cope moderated this relation. Therapeutic interventions aimed at reducing suicide ideation might benefit from decreasing perceived burdensomeness and the use of substances to cope.
    Personality and Individual Differences 04/2015; 77.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Research has linked trauma-sequelae, such as posttraumatic stress disorder, to aggression. However, not all who experience a trauma become violent, suggesting non-trauma factors, such as emotion dysregulation, influence aggression expression and if confirmed, may influence treatment approaches. Aggression can be considered a multifaceted construct with Impulsive Aggression (IA) as emotional, reactive, and uncontrolled and Premeditated Aggression (PA) as deliberate, planned, and instrumental. We hypothesized that parceling apart IA and PA may further refine predictors of aggression in the context of trauma exposure. We tested this hypothesis in undergraduate women (N = 208) who completed trauma, emotion, and aggression measures. Path analysis indicated that Borderline Features, including emotion dysregulation, mediated the relationship between trauma exposure and IA and PA. The finding extends clinical literature by providing evidence that emotion dysregulation influences both IA and PA in a non-clinical sample, while clinical sample research shows emotion dysregulation more specifically mediated the relationship between trauma and IA. Factors responsible for these differences are discussed.
    Personality and Individual Differences 04/2015; 76.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although callous–unemotional (CU) traits are associated with maladjustment in youth, literature predicting CU using prospective designs is rare. In the present study we examine associations between exposure to community violence, supportive relationships with caregivers, and CU in a sample of 236 low-income youth (M age = 13.00 years, SD = 1.56 years; 43% male; 92% African American) participating in a 3-wave longitudinal study of violence exposure and adjustment. Both promotive and protective models of linkages between exposure to community violence, support, and CU were investigated. Given known sex differences in CU, sex was explored as a moderator. Regression analysis revealed that witnessing and hearing about community violence, aggregated over 2 waves, were positively associated with CU at the final study wave. Supportive relationships with caregivers, aggregated over 2 waves, were negatively associated with CU but did not interact with violence exposure, suggesting that supportive relationships with caregivers has a promotive but not a protective association with CU in the context of exposure to violence. The pattern of associations did not vary by sex. This study informs our understanding of factors that contribute to the development of CU.
    Personality and Individual Differences 04/2015; 77.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous research has demonstrated that people set and pursue more self-concordant goals in domains where they experience the satisfaction of psychological needs (Milyavskaya, Nadolny, & Koestner, 2014). However, the mechanism for this has not been investigated. The present study proposes that authenticity experienced in a domain mediates the relationship between domain need satisfaction and goal self-concordance. Using multilevel structural equation modeling, we investigate two components of authenticity and find that only authentic behaviour, but not authentic awareness, relates to goal self-concordance and acts as a mediator. We also test an alternative model, ruling out the possibility that need satisfaction is influenced by authenticity.
    Personality and Individual Differences 04/2015; 77.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ‘Impulsivity’ refers to a range of behaviours including preference for immediate reward (temporal-impulsivity) and the tendency to make premature decisions (reflection-impulsivity) and responses (motor-impulsivity). The current study aimed to examine how different behavioural and self-report measurements of impulsivity can be categorised into distinct subtypes.
    Personality and Individual Differences 04/2015; 76.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The current study had the dual purpose of identifying consequences associated with perfectionistic self-presentation (PSP) and evaluating these factors as mediator of the proposed link between PSP and Problematic use of Internet communicative services (GPIU). The present study hypothesized that a self-presentation style characterized by the need to avoid displaying imperfections is associated with GPIU because communicating online rather than in person affords greater control through the reduction of non-verbal cues and the greater temporal flexibility. A sample of 200 university student participants completed measures assessing PSP, GPIU, and perceived controllable aspects of behaviors associated with relying on computer mediated communications (i.e. managing nonverbal displays and buying more time before having to respond). Structural equation modeling confirmed that those who systematically try to avoid revealing their supposed ‘‘less than perfect’’ behaviors or performance place great emphasis on the reduction of nonverbal cues and the temporal flexibility offered by the computer mediated interactions, which, in turn predicts GPIU levels. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for GPIU and for the perfectionism social disconnection model.
    Personality and Individual Differences 04/2015; 76:187-192.
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    ABSTRACT: Power may enhance well-being via authenticity, but it can also lead to misery, which arises as a consequence of assertiveness. To address inconsistencies in the results of previous studies, we took the literature regarding well-being and personality of agency into account. Consequently, we formed a hypothesis in which the complex effects of power on subjective well-being could be explained via agency and unmitigated agency. Because power increases agency, which contributes to subjective well-being, it could enhance subjective well-being by encouraging people to become more agentic. However, when agency is not mitigated by communion that is referred to as unmitigated agency, it reduces subjective well-being due to dissatisfaction with relationships. Therefore, we hypothesized that power would enhance subjective well-being via greater agency and reduced unmitigated agency. Three surveys completed by 202 Chinese participants showed consistent evidence that power, both dispositional and role-specific, was positively related to subjective well-being and role satisfaction via agency and unmitigated agency. Both agency and unmitigated agency mediated the effects of power on subjective well-being. These results elucidate the complex psychological mechanisms underlying the influence of power on subjective well-being from the perspective of personality and provide a basis for future research.
    Personality and Individual Differences 04/2015; 77.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous research suggests that inconsistencies between self-esteem and social feedback reduce feelings of coherence. The current research tested effects of discrepancies between people’s self-esteem and feedback they received in the form of chronic early family experiences. In two studies, participants completed measures of global self-esteem, perceived early family experiences, and self-clarity. Early family experiences that were inconsistent with participants’ current self-views (i.e., negative experiences for high self-esteem, positive experiences for low self-esteem) were associated with lower self-clarity; in contrast, consistent experiences were associated with higher self-clarity. These findings have implications for understanding the development of self-clarity and suggest novel consequences of early family experiences.
    Personality and Individual Differences 04/2015; 77.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the present study we measured three dimensions of mood (energetic arousal, tense arousal, and hedonic tone) using a student sample in six academic situations. The first three measurements took place during neutral lectures, the fourth and fifth before and after an exam, respectively, and the last during the two weeks after the exam when students’ grades were announced. Moreover, we also measured students’ personality traits according to the five factor model. The study revealed a few significant results. First, each mood dimension had different dynamics during the semester. Second, the most consistent personality predictors of mood were neuroticism (positive relationship with tense arousal and negative with hedonic tone) and conscientiousness (positive association with energetic arousal). Moreover, the results showed different relationships between tense and energetic arousals across situations, with the weakest association being before an exam.
    Personality and Individual Differences 04/2015; 77.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Maladaptive cognitive responses to stressful life events represent well-replicated risk factors for depression. Research indicates that stressful life events that are dependent on the individual to occur or are interpersonal may generate more maladaptive cognitive responses than those that are independent and/or non-interpersonal. The current study examined the roles of sex and life event domains in eliciting depressogenic cognitive responses. Participants were 212 (71% female) undergraduate students who completed seven weekly questionnaires on participant-identified most negative and most positive life events over the previous 7 days. Additionally, participants reported levels of brooding and cognitive style in response to the most negative event and levels of positive rumination and dampening in response to the most positive event. Data were analyzed using mixed ANOVAs. Results indicated that females engaged in greater brooding regardless of event dependency. In addition, dependent and interpersonal life events generated greater brooding while dependent and non-interpersonal negative events generated greater negative cognitive style. An interaction between sex and domain was observed for dampening positive life events, such that males did not differ between interpersonal and non-interpersonal life events while females were more likely to dampen following interpersonal life events than non-interpersonal events.
    Personality and Individual Differences 04/2015; 76.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper examines the incremental value of achievement orientations (Mastery-Approach; Mastery-Avoid; Performance-Approach; Performance-Avoid), above Extraversion and Neuroticism, in predicting two different types of satisfaction outcomes; expectation-based-job-satisfaction (EX-JS) and satisfaction-with-one’s-own-job-performance (P-JS). Using structural equation modelling, data from 242 UK government body employees showed that only Extraversion shared a (positive) relationship with EX-JS. Whereas, the strongest relations with P-JS were found for Neuroticism and Mastery-Approach with both sharing positive relationships with this satisfaction outcome. Analyses indicated that Mastery-Approach accounted for unique variance in P-JS beyond Extraversion and Neuroticism. Findings show that there is scope for experiences of satisfaction at work to be traced to stable approach competence specific motivational tendencies.
    Personality and Individual Differences 04/2015; 76.