Personality and Individual Differences (PERS INDIV DIFFER )

Publisher: International Society for the Study of Individual Differences, Elsevier


Personality and Individual Differences is devoted to the publication of articles (experimental, theoretical, review) which aim to integrate as far as possible the major factors of personality with empirical paradigms from experimental, physiological, animal, clinical, educational, criminological or industrial psychology or to seek an explanation for the causes and major determinants of individual differences in concepts derived from these disciplines. The editors are concerned with both genetic and environmental causes, and they are particularly interested in possible interaction effects. Ultimately they believe that human beings are bio-social organisms and that work on individual differences can be most fruitfully pursued by paying attention to both these aspects of our nature. They believe that advances are more likely to be made by the use of the hypothetical-deductive method, though empirical data based on sound research and providing interesting new findings, would of course not be rejected simply because they might not have a good theoretical underpinning. All in all, the traditional type of work on traits, abilities, attitudes, types and other latent structures underlying consistencies in behavior has in recent years been receiving rather short shrift in traditional journals of personality; Personality and Individual Differences aims to reinstate it to its proper place in psychology, equal in importance with general experimental work, and interacting with it to make up a unitary science of psychology. The Second International Conference on Child & Adolescent Mental Health takes place in Kuala Lumpur, 6-10 June 2000. Topics include: Assessment, diagnosis, education and treatment of children and adolescents, Child and adolescent psychopathology/social and emotional development, Cross cultural differences, Mental health issues, Model service delivery programs, Educational practices.

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    Personality and individual differences
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  • Document type
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    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The field of personality psychology offers a wealth of robust empirical research and a successful descriptive taxonomy, but neither explains the origins of the structure of human personality nor elaborates a generative framework for predicting the specific conditions that evoke the development of distinct personality traits. Exploration of traditional personality constructs within an evolutionary adaptive individual differences framework may help fill this explanatory gap. Personality traits exhibit functional features and patterns of variation expected from psychological adaptations designed to solve survival- and reproduction-related challenges recurrently faced during our species’ evolutionary history. Condition- dependent evolutionary models of personality have been proposed for decades, but only recently have begun to see empirical investigation. These models posit that species-typical psychological mechanisms take as input cues from the individual’s phenotype that would have been ancestrally linked to differential cost–benefit tradeoffs of alternative personality strategies, and produce as output personality trait levels with the greatest probabilistic net benefit for the individual. This paper elaborates a more nuanced conceptual framework that builds on earlier conceptualizations of condition-dependent traits to yield new and untested hypotheses about personality trait variation and covariation. It then describes clear future research directions for empirically investigating these readily testable hypotheses.
    Personality and Individual Differences 12/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The current study tested the hypotheses that 1) psychological adaptations calibrate Openness to Experience to facilitate or deter pursuit of short-term mating, and 2) this calibration varies as a function of mating strategy, physical attractiveness, and sex—individual differences that shift the costs and benefits of alternative personality strategies. Participants completed a personality inventory before and after reading vignettes describing mating opportunities of different durations (short- and long-term) with individuals of differing levels of attractiveness. Among study findings, participants presented with short-term mating opportunities with individuals of average attractiveness exhibited down-regulated openness relative to those presented with highly attractive mates. Moreover, these effects varied as a function of the interaction between participants’ sex, mating strategy, and attractiveness. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that evolved psychological mechanisms adaptively calibrate Openness levels in response to short-term mating opportunities. More broadly, they highlight the heuristic value of an evolutionary framework for the study of personality and individual differences.
    Personality and Individual Differences 12/2015;
  • Carla Hufschmidt, Bettina Weege, Susanne Röder, Katarzyna Pisanski, Nick Neave, Bernhard Fink
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    ABSTRACT: Here we show that gender identification of male (but not female) heterosexual, right-handed dancers correlates with physical strength (measured via handgrip strength) after controlling for the effect of body-mass-index on strength. Using optical motion capture technology, we collected the dance movements of men and women for subsequent animations of uniform shape- and texture-standardized virtual characters (avatars). Short video clips (15 s) of these movements were presented to male and female adults and children, who were asked to identify the gender of the avatar. Gender identification performance was significantly higher than chance for both adults and children. Among adults (but not among children) the avatars of male dancers who were physically stronger were perceived as males significantly more often than were the avatars of male dancers who were physically weaker. There was no relationship between strength and gender identification for female dancers. We conclude that physical strength affects gender identification from human dance movements at least for male dancers, and that pre-pubertal children might not be sensitive to strength cues in dance movements.
    Personality and Individual Differences 04/2015; 76.
  • Natalie Amos, Marita P. McCabe
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    ABSTRACT: There is no consistent conceptualization of sexual attractiveness in the literature. The present paper reviews previous literature on sexual attractiveness, examining the different terms used to refer to sexual attractiveness, as well as the measures designed to evaluate perceptions of sexual attractiveness. A new measure of self-perceptions of sexual attractiveness is proposed and psychometrically tested based on this material. The review of the literature demonstrates that there are multiple, often ambiguous, terms used in relation to sexual attractiveness, with few definitions provided. Additionally, there is no standardized measure of perceptions of sexual attractiveness. Single item measures are commonly used to assess an individual’s perceptions of their own or of another’s sexual attractiveness, and few studies provide a psychometric evaluation of the measures used. A clearer picture of sexual attractiveness is formed in this paper and, with this, a new scale measuring self-perceptions of sexual attractiveness is developed. The new scale is a valid and reliable measure of self-perceived sexual attractiveness that may be used among men and women who identify as heterosexual, gay, lesbian or bisexual. Furthermore, the findings suggest that sexual attractiveness may be conceptualized similarly across gender and sexual orientation.
    Personality and Individual Differences 04/2015; 76.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The current study explored whether high provocation sensitive individuals would declare less anger and therefore fewer physical aggressive acts if they are high in communal values. Three samples, students, prisoners and psychotherapy patients, were compared for differences in occurrence of aggressive reactions and preassembly communion- orientation. Data was tested using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Among students, communion- orientation itself and in interaction with sensitivity to provocation had a diminishing effect on anger. Among prisoners and patients, there was no support for the notion that communion-orientation had an effect on anger. Among patients, the relationship between sensitivity to provocations and physical aggression was fully mediated by anger, but among prisoners a provoking situation was enough to lead to physical aggression. Although based on data from self-reports, possibly biased by impression management, results suggest that communion-orientation should be considered in research on aggression. Key words: situational triggers of aggressive responses (STAR), sensitivity to provocation, anger, physical aggression, communion-orientation, prisoners, psychotherapy patients.
    Personality and Individual Differences 04/2015;
  • Rachel E. Avery, Luke D. Smillie, Chris R. Fife-Schaw
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    ABSTRACT: This paper examines the incremental value of achievement orientations (Mastery-Approach; Mastery-Avoid; Performance-Approach; Performance-Avoid), above Extraversion and Neuroticism, in predicting two different types of satisfaction outcomes; expectation-based-job-satisfaction (EX-JS) and satisfaction-with-one’s-own-job-performance (P-JS). Using structural equation modelling, data from 242 UK government body employees showed that only Extraversion shared a (positive) relationship with EX-JS. Whereas, the strongest relations with P-JS were found for Neuroticism and Mastery-Approach with both sharing positive relationships with this satisfaction outcome. Analyses indicated that Mastery-Approach accounted for unique variance in P-JS beyond Extraversion and Neuroticism. Findings show that there is scope for experiences of satisfaction at work to be traced to stable approach competence specific motivational tendencies.
    Personality and Individual Differences 04/2015; 76.
  • Mark W.G. Bosmans, Leontien M. van der Knaap, Peter G. van der Velden
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    ABSTRACT: Aim of the present three-wave study was to examine to what extent personality traits and general self-efficacy measured before exposure to a potentially traumatic event (PTE) prospectively predict coping self-efficacy (CSE) perceptions, and to test whether outcomes are biased by the timing of assessment of personality traits. The study was conducted within a large probability-based multi-wave representative internet panel in the Netherlands (Ntotal = 1154).
    Personality and Individual Differences 04/2015; 76.
  • Marie My Lien Rebetez, Lucien Rochat, Martial Van der Linden
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    ABSTRACT: Procrastination is a widespread phenomenon that has been associated with a host of cognitive, emotional, and motivational factors but about which a clear and integrated picture is still lacking. The aim of this study was to use primary established psychological procrastination-related factors in the literature to examine whether reliable subgroups of procrastinators can be identified through cluster analysis. To this end, 180 French-speaking students were asked to complete a measure of procrastination and four questionnaires assessing impulsivity, cognitive emotion regulation, self-esteem, and global motivation. Four clusters were identified: two with the lowest scores of procrastination (“High regulated” and “Regulated/low motivated”), one with higher scores of procrastination (“Emotional”), and another with even higher scores (“Unregulated”). The findings provide insights into the dynamic relationships between key procrastination-related factors and the mechanisms linked to the self-regulation difficulties that characterize trait procrastination.
    Personality and Individual Differences 04/2015; 76.
  • Estrella Romero, Paula Villar, Laura López-Romero
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    ABSTRACT: The recent popularity of the HEXACO model has led to the examination of different instruments based on this model in a variety of contexts and languages. This study examines the psychometric properties of the HEXACO-100 in the Spanish language. A sample of 876 Spanish adults were administered the HEXACO-100 as well as the NEO PI-R and self-reported measures of psychopathy, forgiveness, empathy and well-being. The results support the test–retest reliability of the scales of the HEXACO-100 and the alpha reliability of the domains. An analysis of factor structure, correlations between the domains and correlations with the NEO PI-R support the validity of the six factors. Relationships with psychopathy, forgiveness and empathy are in accordance with suppositions of the original model and highlight the difference between Honesty–Humility and Agreeableness. The results also indicate that the HEXACO-100 outperforms the NEO PI-R in terms of predicting specific dimensions of psychopathy, forgiveness and empathy; however there are no substantial advantages found in the prediction of well-being. Overall, results support the usefulness of the Spanish HEXACO-100 in capturing the original domains of the model and support its usefulness in the study of interpersonal criteria.
    Personality and Individual Differences 04/2015; 76.
  • John M. Houston, Paul B. Harris, Kristina Howansky, Sara M. Houston
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the relationship between trait competitiveness and occupational interests of under-graduates prior to entering the work force. The findings indicate that competitiveness is related to Investigative and Realistic types within Holland’s model of vocational choice and that competitive individuals are attracted to jobs involving competition and competitive pressure based on O*NET job characteristic ratings. Implications for future research are discussed.
    Personality and Individual Differences 04/2015; 76.
  • Akio Wakabayashi, Hiromi Kawashima
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the relationship between the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and Systemizing Quotient (SQ) and major personality domains (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Honesty–Humility) using two personality questionnaires: the NEO-FFI and the HEXACO-PI. Participants who responded were 1382 university students for the NEO-FFI, and 842 for the HEXACO-PI, with the EQ and SQ. The results showed almost no relationship between the EQ and SQ and the five-factor personality domains of the NEO-FFI. The regression analysis showed that the NEO-FFI explained only 2–3% of the variance of the EQ/SQ, while in the domains of the HEXACO-PI extraversion moderately correlated with the EQ (r = 0.32) and openness showed the highest correlation with the SQ (r = 0.44). The regression analysis showed that the HEXACO-PI explained 22% of the variance of the EQ and 28% of the variance of the SQ. The strong relationship between the EQ and agreeableness, which was reported as r = 0.75 by Nettle (2007), was hardly found in the results of the NEO-FFI (r = 0.16) and HEXACO-PI (r = 0.17). These results suggest that that empathizing and systemizing, as one-dimensional constructs, are not substantially related to personality, although some weak relationship might be observed between the EQ/SQ and some personality domains.
    Personality and Individual Differences 04/2015; 76.
  • Dayna L. Sherry, Simon B. Sherry, Paul L. Hewitt, Aislin Mushquash, Gordon L. Flett
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    ABSTRACT: Socially prescribed perfectionism (i.e., perceiving others are demanding perfection of oneself) is a putative vulnerability factor for depressive symptoms. However, there is still much to learn about when and why socially prescribed perfectionists get depressed. Drawing on the existential model of perfectionism and depressive symptoms (EMPDS), we proposed difficulty in accepting the past (i.e., viewing life experiences as coherent, acceptable, satisfying, and meaningful) clarifies when and why socially prescribed perfectionism is linked to depressive symptoms. In the present study of 269 undergraduates (141 men and 128 women), we tested if accepting the past predicts depressive symptoms beyond competing explanations (e.g., self-esteem). And we extended existing research by testing a novel moderated mediation model wherein the strength of the mediated effect of socially prescribed perfectionism on depressive symptoms through accepting the past is stronger at higher levels of socially prescribed perfectionism than at lower levels of socially prescribed perfectionism. We also tested if our results generalized across women and men. Hypotheses were largely supported. Consistent with the EMPDS, our results suggested people high in socially prescribed perfectionism get depressed because they struggle to consolidate their life experiences into a personally meaningful story.
    Personality and Individual Differences 04/2015; 76.
  • Matthew R. Pearson, Adrienne K. Lawless, David B. Brown, Adrian J. Bravo
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    ABSTRACT: In non-meditating samples, distinct facets of mindfulness are found to be negatively correlated, preventing the meaningful creation of a total mindfulness score. The present study used person-centered analyses to distinguish subgroups of college students based on their mindfulness scores, which allows the examination of individuals who are high (or low) on all facets of mindfulness. Using the Lo–Mendell–Rubin Adjusted LRT test, we settled on a 4-class solution that included a high mindfulness group (high on all 5 facets, N = 245), low mindfulness group (moderately low on all 5 facets, N = 563), judgmentally observing group (high on observing, but low on non-judging and acting with awareness, N = 63), and non-judgmentally aware group (low on observing, but high on non-judging and acting with awareness, N = 70). Consistent across all emotional outcomes including depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms (i.e., worry), affective instability, and distress intolerance, we found that the judgmentally observing group had the most maladaptive emotional outcomes followed by the low mindfulness group. Both the high mindfulness group and the non-judgmentally aware group had the most adaptive emotional outcomes. We discuss the implications of person-centered analyses to exploring mindfulness as it relates to important psychological health outcomes.
    Personality and Individual Differences 04/2015; 76.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although Moral Foundations Theory claims that the foundations of morality are universal, there are still few studies addressing it through non-English measures. In the current research, 540 persons filled out a Swedish translation of the Moral Foundations Questionnaire, and 332 of them filled out political attitude measures. Confirmatory factor analyses suggested that the fit of the five-factor model was better than alternative models but not optimal, replicating previous findings. Concerns with fairness and prevention of harm predicted political identity leftward, mediated mainly by preference for equality, and concerns with loyalty, authority, and sanctity predicted political identity rightward, mediated mainly by resistance to change and system justification, as hypothesized. Fairness and authority concerns were the best predictors of political ideology.
    Personality and Individual Differences 04/2015; 76:28-32.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is a putative indicator of development instability in humans and other species, and some literature supports a women’s preference for low degree of FA in opposite sex (e.g., symmetrical face). Also some personality traits associated to social status (e.g., dominance and assertiveness) are attractive to women due to direct and indirect benefits associated to high status. The aim of this work was to study the relationship between facial FA and dominant and assertive personalities. We found a negative correlation between facial FA and assertive personality but not between facial FA and dominant personality. Moreover, we found a positive correlation between assertive and dominant personality. Our results suggest that a low facial FA and assertive personality can be related to be advertising desirable traits and high status in men in order to be more attractive to women. This study supports the evidence shown by previous works which shows that a low facial FA is related with socially desirable and attractive aspects of personality.
    Personality and Individual Differences 03/2015; 75.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) is a growingly popular questionnaire designed to assess three components of well-being: emotional, social, and psychological. The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the structural validity of the MHC-SF and test the bifactor model of the MHC-SF, which includes one general factor and three specific factors of well-being. Sample 1 consisted of 1095 Serbian students (aged 18–26 years), while Sample 2 included 325 Serbian adults (aged 27–63 years). The bifactor model of the MHC-SF yielded the best fit to the data across the two samples. The results showed that the general factor of well-being accounted for substantially greater amount of variance of the MHC-SF than three specific factors of well-being. After controlling for the general factor, three specific factors explained a small portion of variance in well-being. In addition, the three subscales of the MHC-SF showed low reliability as estimated by omega-subscale coefficients, indicating that these subscales comprise too small amount of reliable variance to interpret. The present findings suggest that researchers should not calculate separate scores for three types of well-being when using the MHC-SF and that alternative measures of specific components of well-being should be considered.
    Personality and Individual Differences 03/2015; 75:154-159.