Personality and Individual Differences (PERS INDIV DIFFER)

Publisher: International Society for the Study of Individual Differences, Elsevier

Journal description

Personality and Individual Differences is devoted to the publication of articles (experimental, theoretical, review) which aim to integrate as far as possible the major factors of personality with empirical paradigms from experimental, physiological, animal, clinical, educational, criminological or industrial psychology or to seek an explanation for the causes and major determinants of individual differences in concepts derived from these disciplines. The editors are concerned with both genetic and environmental causes, and they are particularly interested in possible interaction effects. Ultimately they believe that human beings are bio-social organisms and that work on individual differences can be most fruitfully pursued by paying attention to both these aspects of our nature. They believe that advances are more likely to be made by the use of the hypothetical-deductive method, though empirical data based on sound research and providing interesting new findings, would of course not be rejected simply because they might not have a good theoretical underpinning. All in all, the traditional type of work on traits, abilities, attitudes, types and other latent structures underlying consistencies in behavior has in recent years been receiving rather short shrift in traditional journals of personality; Personality and Individual Differences aims to reinstate it to its proper place in psychology, equal in importance with general experimental work, and interacting with it to make up a unitary science of psychology. The Second International Conference on Child & Adolescent Mental Health takes place in Kuala Lumpur, 6-10 June 2000. Topics include: Assessment, diagnosis, education and treatment of children and adolescents, Child and adolescent psychopathology/social and emotional development, Cross cultural differences, Mental health issues, Model service delivery programs, Educational practices.

Current impact factor: 1.86

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2009 Impact Factor 1.878

Additional details

5-year impact 2.31
Cited half-life 8.10
Immediacy index 0.26
Eigenfactor 0.02
Article influence 0.78
Website Personality and Individual Differences website
Other titles Personality and individual differences
ISSN 0191-8869
OCLC 4965018
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Elsevier

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print allowed on any website or open access repository
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on authors' personal website, arXiv.org or institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository, without embargo, where there is not a policy or mandate
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months .
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The field of personality psychology offers a wealth of robust empirical research and a successful descriptive taxonomy, but neither explains the origins of the structure of human personality nor elaborates a generative framework for predicting the specific conditions that evoke the development of distinct personality traits. Exploration of traditional personality constructs within an evolutionary adaptive individual differences framework may help fill this explanatory gap. Personality traits exhibit functional features and patterns of variation expected from psychological adaptations designed to solve survival- and reproduction-related challenges recurrently faced during our species’ evolutionary history. Condition- dependent evolutionary models of personality have been proposed for decades, but only recently have begun to see empirical investigation. These models posit that species-typical psychological mechanisms take as input cues from the individual’s phenotype that would have been ancestrally linked to differential cost–benefit tradeoffs of alternative personality strategies, and produce as output personality trait levels with the greatest probabilistic net benefit for the individual. This paper elaborates a more nuanced conceptual framework that builds on earlier conceptualizations of condition-dependent traits to yield new and untested hypotheses about personality trait variation and covariation. It then describes clear future research directions for empirically investigating these readily testable hypotheses.
    Personality and Individual Differences 12/2015; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886914005741. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2014.10.013
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    ABSTRACT: The current study tested the hypotheses that 1) psychological adaptations calibrate Openness to Experience to facilitate or deter pursuit of short-term mating, and 2) this calibration varies as a function of mating strategy, physical attractiveness, and sex—individual differences that shift the costs and benefits of alternative personality strategies. Participants completed a personality inventory before and after reading vignettes describing mating opportunities of different durations (short- and long-term) with individuals of differing levels of attractiveness. Among study findings, participants presented with short-term mating opportunities with individuals of average attractiveness exhibited down-regulated openness relative to those presented with highly attractive mates. Moreover, these effects varied as a function of the interaction between participants’ sex, mating strategy, and attractiveness. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that evolved psychological mechanisms adaptively calibrate Openness levels in response to short-term mating opportunities. More broadly, they highlight the heuristic value of an evolutionary framework for the study of personality and individual differences.
    Personality and Individual Differences 12/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The current study tested the hypotheses that (1) psychological adaptations calibrate Openness to Experience to facilitate or deter pursuit of short-term mating, and (2) this calibration varies as a function of mating strategy, physical attractiveness, and sex—individual differences that shift the costs and benefits of alternative personality strategies. Participants completed a personality inventory before and after reading vignettes describing mating opportunities of different durations (short- and long-term) with individuals of differing levels of attractiveness. Among study findings, participants presented with short-term mating opportunities with individuals of average attractiveness exhibited down-regulated Openness relative to those presented with highly attractive mates. Moreover, these effects varied as a function of the interaction between participants’ sex, mating strategy, and attractiveness. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that evolved psychological mechanisms adaptively calibrate Openness levels in response to short-term mating opportunities. More broadly, they highlight the heuristic value of an evolutionary framework for the study of personality and individual differences.
    Personality and Individual Differences 12/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2014.12.030
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    ABSTRACT: The intensity of distressing events predicts people’s disclosure of those events at between-person and within-person levels. Depression symptoms seem to attenuate the within-person relation, but past research has not taken a multidimensional view of depression as a moderator. The authors tested whether two constructs related to depression-general psychological well-being and life satisfaction-account for depression’s moderating effects. In a daily diary study, college students (N = 116) rated the intensity of the day’s most unpleasant event and their disclosure of the event each day for 14 days. Participants completed measures of disclosure tendencies, depression symptoms, well-being, and life satisfaction prior to the diary portion of the study. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed moderating effects of disclosure tendencies and depression on the within-person intensity–disclosure relation. However, when psychological well-being and life satisfaction were entered, depression was no longer a significant moderator, but well-being was. Psychological well-being therefore determines the expression of individual differences in the disclosure of daily emotional events.
    Personality and Individual Differences 09/2015; 83. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.04.027
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    ABSTRACT: A recent study (Dewhurst, Anderson, Cotter, Crust, & Clough, 2012) proposed that mental toughness – a personality construct from sports psychology that predicts many outcomes in sports and elsewhere – reflected ability at inhibitory control. Specifically, they found that mental toughness predicted directed forgetting, which measures peoples’ ability to forget things on purpose. We explored the relationships between the short form of the mental toughness scale (the MT-18), other personality traits (the Big Five and BIS/BAS), and directed forgetting. The correlation between mental toughness and directed forgetting replicated. Including a control group with no forget instruction ruled out sustained effort on memory tasks as an explanation; it was specific to directed forgetting. However, mental toughness was shown to correlate with many other personality characteristics, and its effects on directed forgetting were largely due to conscientiousness. We concluded that the basis of mental toughness was probably not inhibitory control as the original authors had proposed.
    Personality and Individual Differences 09/2015; 83. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.04.020
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the relationship between institutional trust and life satisfaction, and the mediating role of belief in a just world (BJW) among the elderly. The General Belief in a Just World Scale (GBJW) and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) were employed. A self-developed Institutional Trust questionnaire was used to measure participant’ levels of trust in eight institutions. The aggregate score for all eight items represented the level of institutional trust. The questionnaires were completed by 19,352 retirees ranging in age from 50 to 99 (M = 69.7, SD = 8.0). The results showed the following: (1) overall, the retirees tended to report high institutional trust and high life satisfaction; (2) institutional trust was positively associated with life satisfaction; and (3) more importantly, the relationships between institutional trust and life satisfaction were partially mediated by GBJW. This finding provides a new insight into the psychological mechanisms by which institutional trust relates to individual happiness. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings, as well as the study’s limitations, are discussed.
    Personality and Individual Differences 09/2015; 83. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.04.015
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    ABSTRACT: Although impulsivity has been repeatedly associated with aggression, specific associations between facets of impulsivity and reactive (RA) and proactive (PA) have yet to be fully elucidated. This may be due, in part, to overlapping variance among facets of impulsivity and between RA/PA. The current study systematically examined associations among these variables using both bivariate correlations as well as path analysis. In addition to raw aggression scores, we isolated the variance unique to both RA/PA by regressing RA onto PA (and vice versa), and saving these residual aggression scores. Participants included 384 racially-diverse undergraduates. Results indicated facets of impulsivity uniquely characterize RA/PA, particularly using residual aggression scores. RA was uniquely characterized by higher levels of Negative Urgency followed by low Perseverance, as well as high Premeditation and low Positive Urgency. In contrast, PA was uniquely characterized by higher levels of Positive Urgency, and to a lesser degree, high Premeditation. Results indicate facets of impulsivity represent potentially different underlying pathways to specific subtypes of aggression. As such, impulsivity, particularly in the context of affect, may be especially important to consider in relation to specific subtypes of aggression.
    Personality and Individual Differences 09/2015; 83. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.04.021
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    ABSTRACT: The present experiment set out to investigate the affective consequences of dispositional optimism and attribution in performance settings. Optimistic and pessimistic participants (N = 42 each) experienced failure at solving two cognitive tasks in an alleged team setting. The failure could either be attributed to themselves (internal condition) or a teammate (external condition). We found disordinal interactions of optimism and attribution on the feelings of success and feelings of failure. While the affective state of optimists deteriorated significantly if they attributed the failure internally compared to externally, pessimists were emotionally unaffected by the locus of attribution. Moreover, optimists experienced affective benefits compared to pessimists when they attributed the outcome externally. The reverse was true if they had attributed internally. Affective consequences of optimism and pessimism after failure therefore seem to differ depending on attributions. Furthermore, pessimists seemed to be unresponsive to the affective effects of attribution in our study. This insensitiveness implies differences in the cognitive processing of outcomes, a trait × cognition interaction that should be investigated further.
    Personality and Individual Differences 09/2015; 83. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.04.005
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    ABSTRACT: People use fiction and storytelling to learn about themselves and their social world. Fans of J.K. Rowling’s popular Harry Potter book series often identify with one of the four Hogwarts school communities or “houses”—Gryffindor, Hufflepuff, Ravenclaw, and Slytherin—that correspond to characters’ specific traits. Fans use a feature on Rowling’s “Pottermore” website that tests their personality and sorts them into the Hogwarts house that best fits them. But what does Pottermore’s sorting quiz measure? We asked fans from online Harry Potter groups into which Hogwarts house they had been sorted on Pottermore. Fans then completed personality measures, including the Big Five traits, need to belong, need for cognition, and the Dark Triad traits—narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. Planned contrasts found positive associations between need for cognition and placement in Ravenclaw (known for wit and learning), and between the Dark Triad traits and placement in Slytherin (known for using any means to achieve their ends). We expected—but did not find—that those in Gryffindor (known for bravery) would be higher in extraversion and openness, and that Hufflepuffs (known for loyalty) would be higher on need to belong. Our findings suggest that fiction can reflect real underlying personality dimensions.
    Personality and Individual Differences 09/2015; 83. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.04.016
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    ABSTRACT: We examined dysfunctional memory processing of facial expressions in relation to alexithymia. Individuals with high and low alexithymia, as measured by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), participated in a visual search task (Experiment 1A) and a change-detection task (Experiments 1B and 2), to assess differences in their visual short-term memory (VSTM). In the visual search task, the participants were asked to judge whether all facial expressions (angry and happy faces) in the search display were the same or different. In the change-detection task, they had to decide whether all facial expressions changed between successive two displays. We found individual differences only in the change-detection task. Individuals with high alexithymia showed lower sensitivity for the happy faces compared to the angry faces, while individuals with low alexithymia showed sufficient recognition for both facial expressions. Experiment 2 examined whether individual differences were observed during early storage or later retrieval stage of the VSTM process using a single-probe paradigm. We found no effect of single-probe, indicating that individual differences occurred at the storage stage. The present results provide new evidence that individuals with high alexithymia show specific impairment in VSTM processes (especially the storage stage) related to happy but not to angry faces.
    Personality and Individual Differences 09/2015; 83. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.04.010
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    ABSTRACT: Theoretically, the processes involved in approach motivation and action control should overlap. In both cases, a person must commit to a goal, identify a goal target, and seek to reduce discrepancies between the self and this goal target on a somewhat continuous basis. These ideas motivated three studies (total N = 253) in which personality differences in the behavioral approach system (BAS) and the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) were assessed as potential predictors of performance in an objective motor control task. People high in BAS Reward had markedly better motor control (i.e., smaller distances from targets) than people low in BAS Reward. This was true across a variety of affective priming conditions. The other components of BAS and BIS, by contrast, were inconsistent predictors. The results support both reward-based and functional perspectives of the BAS in the context of a cybernetic view of how self-regulation by approach operates.
    Personality and Individual Differences 09/2015; 83. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.04.019
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    ABSTRACT: Psychological researchers have long emphasized the need to identify dispositional aspects of coping (Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989). Over the years a substantial amount of research has been conducted on the relationship between coping and personality. However, limited dispositional research has been conducted on two alternative approaches to coping: proactive coping and preventative coping (Schwarzer, 2001). Proactive coping and preventative coping deviate from traditional conceptualizations of coping because both are active, future oriented approaches to coping with stressors. Preventative coping remains in line with the traditional view of coping as an effort to minimize risk, whereas proactive coping is defined as challenge-focused and stressors are viewed as an opportunity for growth. The goal of the present study was to analyze the role of the Five Factor Model (FFM) with proactive and preventative coping. Participants (n = 251) completed a battery of questionnaires that included measures of personality and coping. Results indicated that all five personality traits were significantly correlated with proactive and preventative coping. Additionally, Conscientiousness and Openness to Experience were predictive of both styles of coping, while Extraversion and Neuroticism were only predictive of proactive coping.
    Personality and Individual Differences 09/2015; 83. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.03.055
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to explore the mediating and moderating effect in the relationship between resilience, stress and burnout among civil servants of Beijing, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted among civil servants in Beijing. Totally 541 civil servants completed a self-report questionnaire including three scales measuring civil servants’ resilience, stress and burnout. The data were analyzed with correlation, multiple regression and structural equation modeling. The results revealed that work stress rather than life and health stress could significantly predict burnout. Resilience played a partial mediating role between work stress and burnout, that is, work stress had both a direct and an indirect, via resilience, impact on burnout. Work stress played a partial mediating role between resilience and burnout, thus, resilience could prevent the development of burnout by relieving work stress, in addition to directly relieving it. Moreover, resilience was a moderator between work stress and burnout, and it could serve as a buffer to mitigate the adverse effects of work stress. These results suggest that resilience could be a positive personality trait for alleviating or eliminating work stress and combating burnout of civil servants of Beijing.
    Personality and Individual Differences 09/2015; 83. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.03.048
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    ABSTRACT: Basic personality features have been found to be associated with a variety of romantic relationship outcomes including the strategies that individuals employ to retain their romantic partners. In the current studies, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality features were associated with mate retention behaviors. We examined the associations between the pathological personality features captured by the PID-5 and mate retention behaviors across two samples (i.e., an undergraduate sample and a community sample). Pathological personality features reflecting negative affect, detachment, and antagonism were associated with mate retention behaviors such that individuals who possessed these features were less likely to provide benefits to their partner and more likely to inflict costs on them. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can influence the tactics that individuals employ to maintain their romantic relationships.
    Personality and Individual Differences 09/2015; 83. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.03.054