Personality and Individual Differences (PERS INDIV DIFFER )

Publisher: International Society for the Study of Individual Differences, Elsevier


Personality and Individual Differences is devoted to the publication of articles (experimental, theoretical, review) which aim to integrate as far as possible the major factors of personality with empirical paradigms from experimental, physiological, animal, clinical, educational, criminological or industrial psychology or to seek an explanation for the causes and major determinants of individual differences in concepts derived from these disciplines. The editors are concerned with both genetic and environmental causes, and they are particularly interested in possible interaction effects. Ultimately they believe that human beings are bio-social organisms and that work on individual differences can be most fruitfully pursued by paying attention to both these aspects of our nature. They believe that advances are more likely to be made by the use of the hypothetical-deductive method, though empirical data based on sound research and providing interesting new findings, would of course not be rejected simply because they might not have a good theoretical underpinning. All in all, the traditional type of work on traits, abilities, attitudes, types and other latent structures underlying consistencies in behavior has in recent years been receiving rather short shrift in traditional journals of personality; Personality and Individual Differences aims to reinstate it to its proper place in psychology, equal in importance with general experimental work, and interacting with it to make up a unitary science of psychology. The Second International Conference on Child & Adolescent Mental Health takes place in Kuala Lumpur, 6-10 June 2000. Topics include: Assessment, diagnosis, education and treatment of children and adolescents, Child and adolescent psychopathology/social and emotional development, Cross cultural differences, Mental health issues, Model service delivery programs, Educational practices.

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  • Website
    Personality and Individual Differences website
  • Other titles
    Personality and individual differences
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    Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
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    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PMC after 12 months
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    • Pre-print can not be deposited for The Lancet
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The various milestones and transitions of emerging adulthood have led previous researchers to investigate continuity and change in personality traits during this life period. In the current study, we build on that research by investigating continuity and change during emerging adulthood in mate preferences and mating orientations. Following past research, we hypothesized that mate preferences and mating orientations would demonstrate weak-to-moderate rank-order stability over 3 years of emerging adulthood. We also hypothesized that emerging adults would display mean-level changes that reflect increasing maturity, such as an increased emphasis on long-term committed relationships and partners’ internal attributes and a decreased emphasis on short-term sexual relationships and partners’ physical attractiveness. We followed 200 young adults from their first year to their fourth year in college. Analyses revealed weak-to-moderate rank-order stability but very little mean-level change in mate preferences and mating orientations. We discuss limitations of this study and directions for future research.
    Personality and Individual Differences 01/2015; 72:90–95.
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    ABSTRACT: The State Self-Esteem Scale (SSES) measures transient feelings of self-worth. The SSES has been hypothesized to possess a number of latent structures, ranging from one to three factors. The present study compared these putative structures along with a newly hypothesized bifactor structure (i.e., one global factor, three subfactors). Results offered greatest support for the bifactor model. A secondary goal was to further assess the nomological network surrounding state self-esteem by examining correlations involving an expanded measure of basic personality (i.e., the HEXACO), Dark Triad traits, and sexual attitudes and behaviors. In general, these correlations were consistent with the theoretical portrait of state self-esteem and were also consistent with correlations involving trait-level self-esteem. Most notably, however, scores on the SSES consistently correlated negatively with measures of the Dark Triad traits, suggesting a possible theoretical distinction between state- and trait-level self-esteem.
    Personality and Individual Differences 01/2015; 72:1–6.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study is the location of gelotophobia (fear of being laughed at), gelotophilia (the joy of being laughed at) and katagelasticism (joy of laughing at others) in the five-factor personality model. In the sample of 425 Slovak adults, gelotophobes can be described as introverted neurotics with lower inclination to openness. Personality factors explained 46.7% of the variance in gelotophobia. Gelotophilia is related to extraversion, low neuroticism and low conscientiousness. The personality predictors accounted for 21.3% of the variance in gelotophilia. Katagelasticists could be described by extraversion and low agreeableness and conscientiousness. The explained proportion of the variance in katagelasticism is 37.3%. The explained variance of gelotophobia and gelotophilia is comparable to previous German and Taiwanese findings. However, there is a higher explained variance in katagelasticism in Slovakia than in the samples of Germans and samples of Taiwanese. Suggestions for future research are given.
    Personality and Individual Differences 01/2015; 72:177–181.
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    ABSTRACT: How does mere social presence affect cognitive processes? The extant literature has focused on the impact of social presence on cognitive resources. The present study extends this work by focusing on the positivity of cognitive appraisal. Building on recent findings it was predicted that the traits neuroticism and impression management will differentially moderate the effect, such that neuroticism will be associated with a negative shift in appraisal, and impression management with a positive shift. In an experiment, participants (N = 158) formed evaluations of life events either alone or in social presence. The results supported the predictions. The findings advance the knowledge about the effect of social presence on cognition, and about the role of personality in moderating responses in public social contexts.
    Personality and Individual Differences 01/2015; 73:39–43.
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    ABSTRACT: Based on self-determination theory, this study investigated whether individual differences in autonomy or control causality orientation and positive competence-enhancing feedback have additive or interactive effects on intrinsic motivation. Autonomy- or control-oriented participants provided solutions to an interesting puzzle under conditions of positive competence-enhancing feedback or no feedback. Time spent solving the puzzle during a subsequent free-choice period constituted the dependent measure of intrinsic motivation. Autonomy-oriented individuals spent significantly longer on the puzzle than control-oriented participants regardless of feedback condition. Analogously, positive feedback increased time spent on the puzzle compared to no feedback regardless of causality orientation. Findings indicate that dispositional motivational orientations and feedback provided by social agents can enhance intrinsic motivation but the effects are additive rather than interactive.
    Personality and Individual Differences 01/2015; 72:107–111.
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    ABSTRACT: Academic dishonesty is widespread within secondary and higher education. It can include unethical academic behaviors such as cheating, plagiarism, or unauthorized help. Researchers have investigated a number of individual and contextual factors in an effort to understand the phenomenon. In the last decade, there has been increasing interest in the role personality plays in explaining unethical academic behaviors. We used meta-analysis to estimate the relationship between each of the Big Five personality factors and academic dishonesty. Previous reviews have highlighted the role of neuroticism and extraversion as potential predictors of cheating behavior. However, our results indicate that conscientiousness and agreeableness are the strongest Big Five predictors, with both factors negatively related to academic dishonesty. We discuss the implications of our findings for both research and practice.
    Personality and Individual Differences 01/2015; 72:59–67.
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    ABSTRACT: Photographs from the FEEST/Ekman and Friesen 60 faces set were cropped to show only the eye region and presented to participants in each of two experiments. In the first, 60 participants were required to choose which one of the six basic emotions was represented in each pair of eyes. In the second experiment, the stimuli were presented to 40 different participants who were asked to rate the intensity of expression in each pair of eyes. In both experiments participants completed the Baron-Cohen and Wheelwright (2004) empathy questionnaire. In Experiment 1 there was no relation between empathy scores and accuracy of recognition. In Experiment 2 participants mean ratings of intensity across emotions correlated significantly with their empathy scores. There was no relationship between accuracy of recognition for different emotions in Experiment 1 and the mean intensity ratings given to the same stimuli in Experiment 2. Future research should explore different aspects and measures of empathy in relation to different emotions and experimental tasks.
    Personality and Individual Differences 01/2015; 72:150–154.
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    ABSTRACT: Whether personality determines physical activity or its outcomes is relevant for theory and public health but has been understudied. We estimated the population correlations between Big-Five personality factors and physical activity and examined whether they varied according to sample characteristics and study features. Database searches were conducted according to PRISMA guidelines, for articles published in the English language prior to November 1st, 2013. Sixty-four studies including a total of 88,400 participants yielded effects (k) for Extraversion (88), Neuroticism (82), Conscientiousness (69), Openness (51) and Agreeableness (52). Significant mean r was found for Extraversion (r = .1076), Neuroticism (r = −.0710), Conscientiousness (r = .1037) and Openness (r = .0344), but not Agreeableness (r = .0020). Effects were moderately heterogeneous (I2 range = 44–65%) and varied by sample characteristics (e.g., age, gender, or clinical status) and/or study features (e.g., measure quality or item format). This analysis expands results of previous reviews and provides new support for a relationship between physical activity and Openness. Future studies should use better measures of physical activity and prospective designs, adjust for statistical artifacts, and consider advances in the conceptualization of personality.
    Personality and Individual Differences 01/2015; 72:230–242.
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    ABSTRACT: Life history (LH) theory applied to humans states that individual differences exist in reproductive strategies. A slow LH strategy implies that one invests relatively much into parental care but less so in mating effort. A fast LH strategy implies a reversed pattern (i.e., high mating effort, lower parental investment). It has been hypothesized that due to higher demands of social complexity, slow LH strategist may have higher levels of emotional intelligence (EI). In a sample of N = 201, mainly high-school students, the present study is the first to use well-known ability and trait measures of EI in order to test this hypothesis. Ability and trait measures of EI, as well as a general EI factor, all were significantly related to a slow life history strategy. Findings provide further insight into the characteristics of fast versus slow life history strategies.
    Personality and Individual Differences 01/2015; 73:84–87.
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    ABSTRACT: External shame arises from the perception of negative judgements about the self in the mind of others and is currently measured by Other As Shamer Scale (OAS). This scale has been used in numerous studies. This study sought to develop a valid and reliable shorter form of the scale, called OAS2, in an adult sample of 690 participants, using experts’ item ratings and Confirmatory Factor Analysis. The OAS2 consisted of 8 items, which replicated the unidimensional structure of the OAS (Matos et al., 2011) and revealed a good fit. The OAS2 had good internal consistency (.82), similar to the longer version. The OAS2 has good concurrent and divergent validity, being highly correlated with the OAS (r = .91). The OAS and OAS2 have very similar significant correlations with measures of internal shame, psychopathology and anger, with no significant difference between them. Our results, suggest that the OAS2 is an economic, valid and reliable measure of external shame.
    Personality and Individual Differences 01/2015; 74:6–11.
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the relationship between information processing style and information seeking, and its moderation by anxiety and information utility. Information about Salmonella, a potentially commonplace disease, was presented to 2960 adults. Two types of information processing were examined: preferences for analytical or heuristic processing, and preferences for immediate or delayed processing. Information seeking was captured by measuring the number of additional pieces of information sought by participants. Preferences for analytical information processing were associated positively and directly with information seeking. Heuristic information processing was associated negatively and directly with information seeking. The positive relationship between preferences for delayed decision making and information seeking was moderated by anxiety and by information utility. Anxiety reduced the tendency to seek additional information. Information utility increased the likelihood of information seeking. The findings indicate that low levels of anxiety could prompt information seeking. However, information seeking occurred even when information was perceived as useful and sufficient, suggesting that it can be a form of procrastination rather than a useful contribution to effective decision making.
    Personality and Individual Differences 01/2015; 72:72–78.
  • Paige E. Naylor, Kaileigh A. Byrne, Harry M. Wallace
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research has indicated that individuals respond differently to difficult tasks, depending on whether the situational factors surrounding the task make the individual perceive it as a challenge or a threat. Distinct response patterns between these two stress responses have been identified and vary based on an individual’s personality traits. In keeping with this research, the current study examined how performance pressure-induced threat impacts the relationship between trait approach motivation and prefrontal cortex activation utilizing a simple line bisection task. Participants completed line bisection tasks before and after performing a difficult motor skill task under pressure intended to provoke a threat-based response. As expected, individuals with high levels of trait approach motivation showed a rightward line bisection bias at pretest absent in participants with low levels of trait approach motivation. However, in contrast to previous studies utilizing more challenge-based tasks that report consistent rightward line bisection bias in high approach motivation populations, the current study identified a shift towards a leftward line bisection bias after the study task. The results suggest that the inability to succeed under pressure caused high trait approach participants to temporarily lose their approach orientation due to threat response.
    Personality and Individual Differences 01/2015; 74:1–5.
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    ABSTRACT: This study retested the greater male variability hypothesis in creative thinking with Chinese samples from both urban and rural areas in mainland China. The test for creative thinking–drawing production (TCT–DP) was used as the measure of students’ creativity. The samples consisted of 630 primary students from an urban area and 515 primary students from a rural area. Although the results of the study supported the greater male variability hypothesis in urban and rural samples, the male superiority pattern was supported only in the urban sample. The results of the means analysis further supported that the pattern of male superiority was only present in urban populations. Therefore, the greater male variability hypothesis in creativity has received consistent support in studies of Chinese samples, while the male superiority pattern varied across the samples. Plausible explanations and implications of the findings are discussed.
    Personality and Individual Differences 01/2015; 72:85–89.
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    ABSTRACT: Jealousy is an intense emotion that is experienced in the context of romantic relationships. Previous research reported gender differences in ratings of jealousy over a sexual versus emotional infidelity. This study explored culture and gender differences in jealousy using a mixed methods survey design. One hundred and forty-five undergraduates from the University of Hawai‘i at Hilo participated. The Horizontal and Vertical Individualism and Collectivism Scale, Self-Report Jealousy Scale, and a modified Emotional and Sexual Jealousy Scale were used for analyses. Two hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that gender was a better predictor than culture in jealousy ratings involving an emotional infidelity; but culture was a better predictor for jealousy ratings involving a sexual infidelity. t-Tests also revealed that those who experienced an infidelity in the past reported significantly higher jealousy ratings and that women reported significantly higher jealousy ratings in emotional but not in sexual infidelity than men. The qualitative results revealed four dominant themes related to participant’s causal attributions of jealousy: Infidelity, Expectations of Time and Commitment, Social Media and Self-Esteem. The authors suggest that future research focus on intersexual and intrasexual differences in jealousy, as well the role social media may play in relationship expectations.
    Personality and Individual Differences 01/2015; 72:122–127.
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    ABSTRACT: The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is the primary measure of grandiose narcissism (GN) despite possessing numerous limitations. Here we present a new 33-item measure of GN called the Grandiose Narcissism Scale (GNS) that exhibits a reproducible seven-factor structure that maps on to Raskin and Terry’s (1988) seven factor model. GNS subscales exhibit high reliability, with several being substantially more reliable than their NPI counterparts. As a full-scale, the GNS correlates with other variables in a way that is consistent with the theoretical portrait of GN. Additionally, two of the GNS subscales (entitlement, exploitativeness) are shown to uniquely predict independent measures of entitlement and exploitativeness, suggesting good subscale validity. Cumulatively, the GNS represents a viable complement or alternative to the NPI.
    Personality and Individual Differences 01/2015; 73:12–16.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to investigate the dyadic associations between subclinical primary and secondary psychopathic traits and romantic attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) in a sample of 140 couples from the community. Both partners completed self-report measures of psychopathic traits and romantic attachment. Actor–partner interdependence model analyses showed an actor effect of primary psychopathic traits on attachment anxiety and avoidance, but only for men. Results also showed an actor effect of secondary psychopathic traits on attachment anxiety and avoidance for women and men. A partner effect was observed between secondary psychopathic traits in women and their male partners’ attachment anxiety. Partner effects of primary and secondary psychopathic traits in men on their female partners’ attachment avoidance were also found. Findings shed new light on theoretical and clinical implications of psychopathic traits within romantic relationships using a dyadic approach.
    Personality and Individual Differences 01/2015; 72:128–134.